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  • Overview | Auditor General of British Columbia
    for Sustainable Transportation CST began operation as a federally chartered non profit membership organization CST drew participants from government industry and academia who sought to understand the implications of climate and energy shifts for the transportation sector and to prepare for such changes With start up funds from Environment Canada and Transport Canada CST provided leadership in pursuing sustainable transportation first by defining what the concept meant and envisioning what such a future would look like The CST proposed a definition of sustainable transportation in 1997 updated in 2000 to the following A sustainable transportation system is one that allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health and with equity within and between generations is affordable operates efficiently offers choice of transport mode and supports a vibrant economy limits emissions and waste within the planet s ability to absorb them minimizes consumption of non renewable resources limits consumption of renewable resources to the sustainable yield level reuses and recycles its components and minimizes the use of land and the production of noise Canada s leadership in defining sustainable transportation has been widely recognised beyond our borders and has been adapted for use by other jurisdictions including the European Union and California The inclusion of the questions to consider DOES NOT imply that the stakeholders are not aware of these issues or that we have judged there to be problems in these areas The questions are offered to help maintain focus on important issues many of which are already being addressed by the respective parties In this early phase of the transformative plan the questions we offer are broad and focused on policy level decisions As these questions are addressed the focus can shift to operational

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/815 (2016-02-12)
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  • Introduction
    said to cover 90 percent of its operating budget with fare revenues This Buehler and Pucher state makes Freiburgâ s transit system one of the most financially sustainable in Germany  While we have not audited these claims Freiburgâ s transit success could provide valuable pointers for future plans in British Columbia Some of the most significant success factors are summarized below With respect to launching a new direction for public transportation the Provincial Transit Plan represents an initial stage of the transformation that could occur if British Columbia were to attain results similar to those in Freiburg Germany  Freiburgâ s success has been reported to be the result of various aspects of their approach and the actions they took to implement their vision These include  1 Implementation of Controversial Policies in Stages Freiburg implemented most of its policies in stages often choosing projects everybody agreed upon first  2 Plans are Flexible and Adaptable over Time to Changing Conditions Freiburg phased and adjusted its policies and goals gradually over time For example the initial decision to reverse the plan to abandon the trolley system was made in the late 1960s In the early 1970s the city council approved the extension of the light rail systemâ which finally opened in 1983  3 Policies are Multi Modal and Include Both Incentives and Disincentives Freiburg has simultaneously made public transport cycling and walking viable alternatives to the automobile while increasing the cost of car travel Improving quality and level of service of alternative modes of transport made car restrictive measures politically acceptable  4 Fully Integrated Transport and Land Use Planning Policies promoting public transport cycling and walking rely on a settlement structure that keeps trip distances short and residences and workplaces within reach of public transport  5 Citizen Involvement is an Integral Part of Policy Development and Implementation Citizen involvement and public discourse kept the environment and sustainability of the transport system in the news in Freiburg for decades  6 Support from Higher Levels of Government to Make Local Policies Work Starting in the 1970s the German federal government reduced funding for highways and provided more flexible funds for improvements in local transport infrastructureâ including public transport walking and cycling  7 Sustainable Transport Policies are Long Term with Policies Sustained Over Time for Lasting Impact Changes in the transport system and travel behavior take time Freiburg started its journey towards more sustainable transport almost 40 years ago For example the initial expansion of the light rail system took over a decade  Source Buehler Ralph and Pucher John 2011 â Sustainable Transport in Freiburg Lessons from Germanyâ s Environmental Capital â International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Vol 5 43 70 Why we produced this report During the planning and conducting of our separate Audit of BC Transit s Ridership Growth Since the Launch of the 2008 Transit Plan  released in 2012  the Office of the Auditor General gathered information that was not included

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/book/export/html/813 (2016-02-12)
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  • Auditor General Comments | Auditor General of British Columbia
    and increased service levels Five years later it is a good time to reflect upon what has been achieved what lies ahead and how expectations align with the current transit landscape In 2012 my Office released the results of our audit of BC Transit s ridership growth As part of this work we gathered valuable information from a variety of sources that for many reasons was not included in the report I felt it important to share this valuable information so I am pleased to release Shaping Transit s Future in British Columbia an interactive and informative web based resource As with some of our other informational resources e g January 2013 s Health Funding Explained which are not audits we produce such work where information may not be publicly available or available in a single and or easily accessible location I have also prepared a pdf summary of this report which is available here Because BC Transit has multiple stakeholders across the province and numerous overlapping but not always cohesive guiding documents we determined that this work would be valuable to legislators transit planners and British Columbians to understand the challenges involved in achieving sustainable public transit In addition to my Office s 2012 audit of BC Transit two other independent reports with recommendations for improvement were also published that year The BC Transit Independent Review Panel s Modernizing the Partnership and my Office s Crown Agency Board Governance BC Transit As government develops plans to address these recommendations the information in this resource and the questions for consideration posed throughout should help to maintain focus on key issues It should also assist municipal governments and other stakeholders as they plan for the future of their transit systems Not least the resource will help British Columbians to understand how

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/842 (2016-02-12)
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  • BC Transit's objectives | Auditor General of British Columbia
    period Establishes targets Encapsulates goals from BC Transit s strategic plan as well as Government s Letter of Expectations Official Community Plans ongoing Local governments regional districts Purpose Sets longer term vision for the community Statement of objectives and policies to guide decisions on planning and land use management All bylaws and works undertaken by a Council or Board must be consistent with the plan Address transportation as well as set targets policies and actions for the reduction of GHG emissions Local governments set their own targets they are expected to have at least one emissions reduction target Goals An Official Community Plan should work towards the purpose and goals referred to in section 849 regional growth strategy goals which include the following goals relevant to transit Avoid urban sprawl Minimize automobile use and encourage walking cycling and efficient public transit Move goods and people efficiently making effective use of transportation and utility corridors Transit Future Plans 2009 onwards BC Transit with local governments Purpose Transit future plans envision what a community s transit network should look like in 25 years It describes and prioritizes infrastructure and investment needed to get there Analyzes the existing transit system to see how it could be improved Plans have been approved as of May 2013 for Campbell River Cowichan Valley Kamloops Victoria Abbotsford and Mission Chilliwack Central Okanagan Planning underway as of May 2013 for Nanaimo North Okanagan Prince George Saltspring Sunshine Coast Indicates planning towards a Transit Future plan Other areas have a variety of public consultation processes regarding transit improvements Transportation Plans Local governments voluntary Influence whether people walk cycle and take transit or drive their car and associated emissions implications Many communities have developed comprehensive transportation plans integrated with their OCP E g City of Kelowna has developed a plan focused on managing transportation demand Institutional sustainability plans Post secondary institutions regional health authorities within BC Transit s service areas An example of sustainability plans that include a transit component is the University of Victoria s Sustainability Action Plan 2009 2014 It includes a goal to increase bus use cycling and carpooling to 70 percent of campus modal split by 2014 throguh better transit infrastructure Actions to achieve this goal include working with BC Transit and the CRD to enhance transit service that could include a Light Rapid Transit or equivalent line to campus Source OAG based on information from BC Transit and Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure 2012 13 To consider How should all of the various plans that relate to transit fit together There is general agreement among stakeholders that increasing transit ridership is an important goal along with reducing single occupant vehicle use There is also widespread support for the ultimate goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and traffic congestion At the same time stakeholders hold social environmental and economic goals for transit Multiple and often conflicting objectives cannot be resourced equally so they must be prioritized Text box D Transit system goals click to read Public

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/818 (2016-02-12)
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  • Decision-making on transit policy | Auditor General of British Columbia
    with a neighbourhood where these shops and facilities exist together with housing Regional accessibility The location of development relative to a regional urban centre This reduces per capity vehicle mileage The further a resident or employee is from the centre the more they tend to drive Connections between walkways and roads The degree to which walkways and roads are connected Increased roadway connectivity can reduce vehicle travel and improved walkway connectivity increases non motorized travel Lack of connectivity in suburban streets cul de sac development typically designed to reduce through traffic makes these developments impossible to serve efficiently by public transit Parking supply and management Number of parking spaces per building unit or acre and how parking is managed and priced Putting an end to free parking tends to reduce vehicle ownership and use and increase use of alternative modes Site design Oriented for auto or multi modal accessibility More multi modal site design can reduce automobile trips E g a building with a main entrance directly accessible from a sidewalk and or bus stop encourages walking or transit more than a building whose main entrance is accessible through a parking lot Text box G Transit oriented development click to read Transit Oriented Development TOD refers to residential and commercial areas designed to maximize transit access and use Studies indicate that people who live and work in TODs tend to own fewer vehicles drive less and rely more on alternative modes of transportation than they would in more automobile dependent locations The concept of location efficiency looks at the combined household spending on housing and transportation With rising energy costs the higher land cost of living in a transit friendly neighbourhood can actually make for a more affordable cost of living by reducing the cost of transportation Not needing a second vehicle or even a first vehicle can greatly increase the affordability of urban living even in moderately sized communities To consider How can transit and land use planning processes effectively be integrated Transportation Broader transportation policies such as the location and size of highways and bridges parking fees or road regulations also affect transit s financial and environmental success Transit services often cross jurisdictional boundaries and therefore require collaboration between different jurisdictions and levels of government to run smoothly and consistently For example the proposed rapid transit project for Victoria would run through five municipalities and on a highway that is under provincial jurisdiction To consider How are transit goals integrated into the overall vision for the overall vision for transportation in B C Economic Government economic policies and other decisions beyond the transportation arena can also influence the success and financial viability of transit services for example tax policies such as a carbon tax or tax deductions for a bus pass or regional development policies Energy policy also has a direct influence on transit when consumers feel gas prices are low they may maintain or increase single occupancy vehicle use rather than choosing more energy efficient transportation such

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/819 (2016-02-12)
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  • Organizational structure | Auditor General of British Columbia
    structure Organizational structure Doubling ridership and substantially increasing mode share is likely to require transformational shifts in transit operations Experience in other jurisdictions suggests that such a shift may require significant change in organizational structure knowledge and approach for the main stakeholders involved In British Columbia the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure created a Transit Branch subsequent to the launch of the Provincial Transit Plan to focus on this aspect of transportation To consider What capacity does each partner require people skills knowledge and resources to deliver their required contributions and what organizational structure is most appropriate Decision making on transit policy up Policy and Governance Questions for key stakeholders to consider Printer friendly version Shaping Transit s Future in British Columbia Auditor General Comments Response from BC Transit and Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure Introduction Shaping the Future Policy and Governance Multiple stakeholders BC Transit s objectives Decision making on transit policy Organizational structure Policy and Governance Questions for key stakeholders to consider Shaping the Future Funding Shaping the Future Design of Public Transit Services Looking Ahead Questions for Key Stakeholders to Consider Subscribe to alerts Notify me of new reports Notify me of new job postings I agree

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/820 (2016-02-12)
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  • Policy and Governance: Questions for key stakeholders to consider | Auditor General of British Columbia
    for transit be reflected in legislation 3 How should all of the various plans that relate to transit fit together 4 When different transit objectives cannot be pursued simultaneously how should they be prioritized 5 Where does B C stand in relation to the evolving development of public transit in the Pacific Northwest in Canada and worldwide 6 What collaboration is required from each partner to ensure effective implementation of transit plans 7 How can transit and land use planning processes effectively be integrated 8 How are transit goals integrated into the overall vision for transportation in B C 9 What are the potential impacts of other government initiatives and activities on the achievement of transit objectives If these may have a negative impact how can conflicting priorities be reconciled 10 What capacity does each partner require people skills knowledge and resources to deliver their required contributions and what organizational structure is most appropriate Organizational structure up Shaping the Future Funding Printer friendly version Shaping Transit s Future in British Columbia Auditor General Comments Response from BC Transit and Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure Introduction Shaping the Future Policy and Governance Multiple stakeholders BC Transit s objectives Decision making on

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/online/pubs/812/831 (2016-02-12)
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  • Shaping the Future: Policy and Governance
    into three categories environmental economic and social goals   Environmental goals for public transit can include reducing greenhouse gas emissions reducing air pollution decreasing resource consumption and protecting natural spaces by reducing the need for road expansion   Economic goals include improving access to employment opportunities by moving people efficiently to work reducing travel time and congestion delays for businesses and employees enhancing regional development opportunities reducing need for costly road expansion and creating local employment in the transit industry Social goals include improving mobility for people without access to other transportation options such as seniors people with disabilities youth people on low incomes connecting people to health social services and recreational facilities to improve quality of life and enhancing community livability by creating synergies with active transportation modes such as walking and cycling Public transit is generally the safest mode of travel Injuries and deaths aboard transit vehicles are a small fraction of those sustained in private motor vehicles or while cycling or walking There are both economic and social benefits to reducing the number of accidents in passenger transportation and having people use public transit is one way to do this Different communities have different transit goals BC Transit partners with local governments to run a wide range of transit systems from small systems where just one or two bus routes operate to medium and larger systems with high frequency service for commuters Some of the smaller systems are focused primarily on social goals while larger systems are often more focused on economic and environmental goals To consider  When different transit objectives cannot be pursued simultaneously how should they be prioritized  Decision making on transit policy Key policy decisions that affect the likely success of transit are made by a variety of stakeholders at different levels To consider  What collaboration is required from each partner to ensure effective implementation of transit plans For example Land Use Land use policy and planning is a crucial tool for transforming transit usage in a financially sustainable way conversely if land use planning does not consider transit it can make it more difficult for transit to be financially viable Local governments in British Columbia currently make many of the key decisions in land use planning Provincial government decisions also influence land use and development Text box F  Transit and land use click to read Various land use factors can affect travel behaviour These factors include population density regional accessibility mix of land use types and the connections between walkways and roads see table below This information can be used for planning land use development and transportation decisions as well as achieving objectives such as reducing greenhouse gases improving community livability and reducing travel costs i Generally residents of urban neighbourhoods tend to walk and take public transit more than residents of sprawled locations ii  Increased vehicle congestion or parking fees may affect peopleâ s travel behavior by causing them to consolidate trips use local services

    Original URL path: http://www.bcauditor.com/book/export/html/816 (2016-02-12)
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