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  • Thomas Kilgore, Jr. | American religious leader | Britannica.com
    Thomas Kilgore Jr To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Book Report Fact or Fiction Foreign Language Club Famous People in History See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Thomas Kilgore Jr Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Kilgore Jr APA style Thomas Kilgore Jr 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Thomas Kilgore Jr Harvard style Thomas Kilgore Jr 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Thomas Kilgore Jr Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Thomas Kilgore Jr accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Kilgore Jr While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Kilgore-Jr (2016-02-13)
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  • Andrew Young | American politician | Britannica.com
    family attended segregated Southern schools and later entered Howard University Washington D C as a premed student But he turned to the ministry and graduated in 1955 from the Hartford Theological Seminary Hartford Conn with a divinity degree A pastor at several black churches in the South Young became active in the civil rights movement especially in voter registration drives His work brought him in contact with Dr Martin Luther

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Andrew-Young (2016-02-13)
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  • John Lewis | American civil rights leader and politician | Britannica.com
    20s had already become such a prominent figure that he was considered one of the civil rights movement s Big Six leaders along with King James Farmer A Phillip Randolph Roy Wilkins and Whitney Young In 1964 Lewis headed the SNCC s efforts to register African American voters and organize communities in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer project Lewis John witnessing the official signing into law of the Civil Rights History Project Act of 2009 Pete Souza Official White House Photo After leaving the SNCC Lewis who had made his home in Atlanta remained active in the civil rights movement most notably as the director of the Voter Education Project In 1977 fellow Georgian President Jimmy Carter put Lewis in charge of ACTION the umbrella federal volunteer agency that included the Peace Corps and Volunteers in Service to America VISTA Lewis entered elective office as an Atlanta city councilman in 1981 and in 1986 began representing a district that included Atlanta in the U S House of Representatives In addition to numerous other honours he received Lewis was awarded the Martin Luther King Jr Nonviolent Peace Prize in 1975 the John F Kennedy Profile in Courage Award in 2001 and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People s NAACP Spingarn Medal in 2002 In 2011 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom He coauthored the memoir Walking with the Wind 1998 Jeff Wallenfeldt Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 1 26 2016 You may also be interested in Martin Luther King Jr Adam Clayton Powell Jr Elbert Parr Tuttle Dwight D Eisenhower Thomas Kilgore Jr Salmon P Chase James Baldwin Stokely Carmichael Medgar Evers John Marshall Harlan Daniel Patrick Moynihan Edward Brooke Keep exploring USA Facts Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Countries of the World Editor Picks The 7 Best Techno Thriller Authors 5 of the World s Most Devastating Financial Crises What made you want to look up John Lewis To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style John Lewis Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography John Lewis American civil rights leader and politician APA style John Lewis 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography John Lewis American civil rights leader and politician Harvard style John Lewis 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography John Lewis American civil rights leader and politician Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v John Lewis accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography John Lewis American civil rights leader and politician

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Lewis-American-civil-rights-leader-and-politician (2016-02-13)
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  • Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. | American legislator | Britannica.com
    act antipoverty acts and bills supporting manpower training and federal aid to education about 50 major pieces of social legislation in all Powell s outspoken opposition to racism and his flamboyant lifestyle made him enemies however and in the early 1960s he became involved in a lawsuit with a woman who claimed he had wrongly accused her of collecting police graft He was cited for contempt of court in 1966 for refusing to pay damages and in 1967 the House voted to deprive him of his seat He was nevertheless reelected in his district in 1968 but was then deprived by his colleagues in the House of his committee chairmanship and his seniority In 1969 the U S Supreme Court decided that the action of the House in depriving him of his seat had been unconstitutional but by that time Powell s health was failing After his defeat in the Democratic primary election of 1970 he resigned as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in 1971 and retired to the island of Bimini in The Bahamas Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 11 3 2014 You may also be interested in Fiorello H La Guardia DeWitt Clinton Ed Koch William Magear Tweed Katharine Bement Davis William R Grace Abram Stevens Hewitt Robert F Wagner Fernando Wood John Vliet Lindsay David Dinkins Shaun Donovan Keep exploring USA Facts Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Countries of the World The Axial Age 5 Fast Facts Spies Like Us 10 Famous Names in the Espionage Game What made you want to look up Adam Clayton Powell Jr To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Adam Clayton Powell Jr Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Adam Clayton Powell Jr APA style Adam Clayton Powell Jr 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Adam Clayton Powell Jr Harvard style Adam Clayton Powell Jr 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Adam Clayton Powell Jr Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Adam Clayton Powell Jr accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Adam Clayton Powell Jr While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Adam-Clayton-Powell-Jr (2016-02-13)
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  • Salmon P. Chase | chief justice of United States | Britannica.com
    pledged to him to cast decisive votes for Lincoln on the third ballot As a reward Lincoln appointed him secretary of the Treasury in which position for the next three years he was responsible for financing the Union war efforts He held the Treasury post until June 1864 and in December of that year he was appointed chief justice to succeed Roger Brooke Taney who had died in October Chase Salmon P Library of Congress Washington D C neg no LC USZ62 17681 Temperamentally unsuited to judicial office Chase nonetheless enhanced the prestige of the Supreme Court by his caution in dealing with Reconstruction measures and by his fairness in presiding over the Senate s impeachment trial ending in acquittal of President Andrew Johnson in 1868 In Mississippi v Johnson 1867 and Georgia v Stanton 1867 Chase spoke for the court in refusing to prohibit Johnson and Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton from enforcing the Reconstruction Acts By disavowing the court s jurisdiction in Ex parte McCardle 1868 Chase sidestepped the question of whether a U S military commission in a former Confederate state could try a civilian for opposing those statutes He dissented when the court invalidated in Cummings v Missouri and Ex parte Garland both 1867 state and federal loyalty oaths prerequisite to the practice of learned professions In various cases in 1872 73 near the end of his life in a court whose majority narrowly construed the postwar Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution he tried to protect the rights of blacks from infringement by state action Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 20 2015 You may also be interested in John Parker Hale John Marshall Harlan Abraham Lincoln Dwight D Eisenhower Thurgood Marshall Charles Evans Hughes Robert F Kennedy Clarence Thomas Hugo Black William O Douglas Harry A Blackmun Arlen Specter Keep exploring USA Facts Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Human Geography Quiz 9 Nineties Babies with Britannica Bios Britannica Brush ups First Americans What made you want to look up Salmon P Chase To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Salmon P Chase Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Salmon P Chase APA style Salmon P Chase 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Salmon P Chase Harvard style Salmon P Chase 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Salmon P Chase Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Salmon P Chase accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Salmon

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Salmon-P-Chase (2016-02-13)
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  • James Baldwin | American author | Britannica.com
    for a man and his love for a woman Between the two novels came a collection of essays Notes of a Native Son 1955 In 1957 he returned to the United States and became an active participant in the civil rights struggle that swept the nation His book of essays Nobody Knows My Name 1961 explores black white relations in the United States This theme also was central to his novel Another Country 1962 which examines sexual as well as racial issues The New Yorker magazine gave over almost all of its November 17 1962 issue to a long article by Baldwin on the Black Muslim separatist movement and other aspects of the civil rights struggle The article became a best seller in book form as The Fire Next Time 1963 His bitter play about racist oppression Blues for Mister Charlie Mister Charlie being a black term for a white man played on Broadway to mixed reviews in 1964 Though Baldwin continued to write until his death publishing works including Going to Meet the Man 1965 a collection of short stories the novels Tell Me How Long the Train s Been Gone 1968 If Beale Street Could Talk 1974 and Just Above My Head 1979 and The Price of the Ticket 1985 a collection of autobiographical writings none of his later works achieved the popular and critical success of his early work Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 4 7 2015 You may also be interested in Richard Wright Clare Boothe Luce William Saroyan June Jordan Henry James Gertrude Stein Theodore Dreiser Zora Neale Hurston Sylvia Plath E L Doctorow Carson McCullers Gore Vidal Keep exploring USA Facts Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction Human Geography Quiz 10 Incredible Uses for Eggs 8 Funny Females of Saturday Night Live History What made you want to look up James Baldwin To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style James Baldwin Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography James Baldwin APA style James Baldwin 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography James Baldwin Harvard style James Baldwin 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography James Baldwin Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v James Baldwin accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography James Baldwin While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Baldwin (2016-02-13)
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  • Medgar Evers | American civil-rights activist | Britannica.com
    in Mississippi conditions were often at the breaking point On June 12 1963 a few hours after President John F Kennedy had made an extraordinary broadcast to the nation on the subject of civil rights Medgar Evers was shot and killed in an ambush in front of his home The murder made Evers until then a hardworking and effective but relatively obscure figure outside Mississippi a nationally known figure He was buried with full military honours in Arlington National Cemetery and awarded the 1963 Spingarn Medal of the NAACP Charles Evers immediately requested and was granted appointment by the NAACP to his brother s position in Mississippi and afterward he became a major political figure in the state Evers s widow Myrlie Evers Williams was the first woman to head the NAACP 1995 98 Byron de La Beckwith a white segregationist was charged with the murder He was set free in 1964 after two trials resulted in hung juries but was convicted in a third trial held in 1994 Beckwith was given a life sentence and in 2001 he died in prison Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 24 2014 You may also be interested in Martin Luther King Jr James Baldwin John Lewis James E Clyburn Shirley Chisholm Andrew Young Stanley Crouch Benjamin L Hooks Julian Bond Adam Clayton Powell Jr Aaron E Henry Barack Obama Keep exploring USA Facts Human Geography Quiz Countries of the World Spies Like Us 10 Famous Names in the Espionage Game 5 Fascinating Battles of the African Colonial Era What made you want to look up Medgar Evers To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Medgar Evers Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Medgar Evers APA style Medgar Evers 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Medgar Evers Harvard style Medgar Evers 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Medgar Evers Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Medgar Evers accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Medgar Evers While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Medgar-Evers (2016-02-13)
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  • Stanley Crouch | American journalist and critic | Britannica.com
    The New Yorker Esquire Harper s Magazine and JazzTimes In 1987 with Marsalis Crouch helped to establish a program of jazz concerts at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan The program was enshrined as an official department Jazz at Lincoln Center in 1991 Crouch was the author of the essay collections Notes of a Hanging Judge 1990 The All American Skin Game or The Decoy of Race The Long and Short of It 1990 1994 1995 Always in Pursuit Fresh American Perspectives 1995 1997 1998 and The Artificial White Man Essays on Authenticity 2004 Reconsidering The Souls of Black Folk Thoughts on the Groundbreaking Classic Work of W E B DuBois 2002 with Playthell Benjamin was written in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the publication of Du Bois s The Souls of Black Folk Crouch introduced the photography collection One Shot Harris The Photographs of Charles Teenie Harris 2002 which selected images from 40 years of Harris s work in Pittsburgh s African American neighbourhood the Hill Considering Genius 2006 drew on Crouch s lengthy catalogue of essays on jazz Don t the Moon Look Lonesome 2000 generally poorly reviewed was his first attempt at fiction it chronicled a love affair between a white jazz singer and her black jazz trumpeter boyfriend Better received was Kansas City Lightning The Rise and Times of Charlie Parker 2013 a wide ranging desultory biography of the jazz saxophone player Crouch appeared frequently on television as a commentator and was among the contributors to Ken Burns s documentary Jazz 2001 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 24 2014 You may also be interested in James Baldwin Carl Schurz Ishmael Reed Jeannette Leonard Gilder Marya Mannes Sonia Sanchez Joseph Alsop Dwight Macdonald Mark Twain Harriet Jane Hanson Robinson Benjamin Franklin Martin Luther King Jr Keep exploring USA Facts Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction Human Geography Quiz There s a Riot Goin On Riots in U S History Part Two 9 Noteworthy Bog Bodies and what they tell us What made you want to look up Stanley Crouch To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Stanley Crouch Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Stanley Crouch APA style Stanley Crouch 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Stanley Crouch Harvard style Stanley Crouch 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Stanley Crouch Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Stanley Crouch accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Stanley Crouch While

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