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  • slave narrative | American literature | Britannica.com
    traditions in American literature shaping the form and themes of some of the most celebrated and controversial writing both in fiction and in autobiography in the history of the United States The vast majority of American slave narratives were authored by African Americans but African born Muslims who wrote in Arabic the Cuban poet Juan Francisco Manzano and a handful of white American sailors taken captive 100 of 1 384

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  • Dred Scott decision | law case | Britannica.com
    in the Missouri Compromise because it had no power to forbid or abolish slavery in the territories The Missouri Compromise which had served as the accepted constitutional settlement for nearly four decades thus fell Even the doctrine of popular sovereignty as articulated in the Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 whereby the people of each federal territory would have the power to decide whether the territory would enter the Union as a free or a slave state lacked constitutional legitimacy according to Taney He thus voided the principles of free soil opposition to slavery in the territories and in newly admitted states territorial sovereignty and indeed every aspect of antislavery constitutional thought Regarding the question of Scott s freedom Taney held that Scott could not claim to be free on the basis of his residence in Illinois or Wisconsin Whatever status Scott might have had while in a free state or territory he argued once he had returned to Missouri his status depended entirely on local law notwithstanding the doctrine of once free always free Taney would have been on reasonably strong ground had he limited himself to upholding the district court s decision based on the idea that status was to be determined by the states Alternatively he could have held that Scott was not entitled to sue Sanford in federal court on the basis of diversity of jurisdiction because Missouri did not allow even free African Americans to be citizens But Taney outraged much of the North by asserting that African Americans could never be citizens of the United States The framers in his view did not regard African Americans as being among the people for whose benefit and protection the new government was founded notwithstanding the perfectly general language of the Declaration of Independence and of the preamble to the Constitution Two justices John McLean of Ohio and Benjamin R Curtis of Massachusetts wrote devastating critiques of Taney s opinion Curtis in particular undercut most of Taney s historical arguments showing that African Americans had voted in a number of states at the founding At the time of the ratification of the Articles of Confederation he wrote All free native born inhabitants of the States of New Hampshire Massachusetts New York New Jersey and North Carolina though descended from African slaves were not only citizens of those States but such of them as had the other necessary qualifications possessed the franchise of electors on equal terms with other citizens Thus Curtis argued they were members of the nation and could not now be denied the right to claim citizenship Reception and significance The Southern opinion upon the subject of Southern slavery trumpeted one Georgia newspaper is now the supreme law of the land and opposition to it is morally treason against the Government The view that Southern ideologues such as John C Calhoun had promoted for more than a decade that the federal government had a positive indeed a constitutional obligation to defend slavery had apparently triumphed Not surprisingly

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  • Emancipation Proclamation | Encyclopedia Britannica
    1863 The Granger Collection New York MEDIA FOR American civil rights movement Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when sending the

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  • white supremacy | Britannica.com
    White supremacist groups often have relied on violence to achieve their goals From the 19th to the mid 20th century the doctrine of white supremacy was largely taken for granted by political leaders and social scientists in Europe and the United States For example in the four volume Essai sur l inégalité des races humaines 1853 55 Essay on the Inequality of Human Races the 100 of 805 words About

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  • Freedom Rides | American civil rights movement | Britannica.com
    firebombed and the Freedom Riders were beaten Arriving in Birmingham the second bus was similarly attacked and the passengers beaten In both cases law enforcement was suspiciously late in responding and there were suspicions of collusion in that late response Although the original Riders were unable to find a bus line to carry them farther a second group of 10 originating in Nashville and partly organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC renewed the effort Undeterred by being arrested in Birmingham and transported back to Tennessee the new Freedom Riders returned to Birmingham and at the behest of U S Attorney General Robert F Kennedy secured a bus and protection from the State Highway Patrol as they traveled to Montgomery where when local police failed to protect them they were again beaten Thereafter National Guard support was provided when 27 Freedom Riders continued on to Jackson Miss only to be arrested and jailed On May 29 Kennedy ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce even stricter guidelines banning segregation in interstate travel Still Freedom Riders continued to travel by public transportation in the South until that dictate took effect in September Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 3 30 2015 You may also be interested in American civil rights movement Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP March on Washington Congress of Racial Equality CORE black nationalism John Lewis civil rights James Farmer Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC Congress of Racial Equality CORE Keep exploring USA Facts All American History Quiz American History and Politics Cruel and Unusual Punishments 15 Types of Torture Editor Picks 8 Best Books Over 900 Pages What made you want to look up Freedom Rides To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Freedom Rides Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Freedom Rides APA style Freedom Rides 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Freedom Rides Harvard style Freedom Rides 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Freedom Rides Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Freedom Rides accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Freedom Rides While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and

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  • United States History Quiz | Britannica.com
    you answer the higher your score When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score All American History Quiz vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score All American History Quiz 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results All American History Quiz vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score History Famous People in History Geography Bridge Quiz Pop Culture Superheroes Quiz Science Small Step Giant Leap Fact or Fiction Animals Mammals Fact or Fiction Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect Your Correct Answer Back to

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  • Web sites: Great Depression | economy | Britannica.com
    Great Depression Public Broadcasting Service The Great Depression Texas State Historical Association The Handbook of Texas Online Great Depression The Canadian Encyclopedia Great Depression U S Department of State Office of the Historian The Great Depression and U S Foreign Policy United States History The Great Depression World History International The Great Depression Britannica Web sites Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students Great Depression Children s Encyclopedia Ages 8 11 During the 1930s much of the world faced harsh economic conditions Many people were out of work hungry or homeless This period is called the Great Depression It started in the United States but it quickly spread throughout the world Great Depression Student Encyclopedia Ages 11 and up United States President Franklin D Roosevelt in his first inaugural address made some attempt to assess the enormous damage The withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side farmers find no markets for their produce the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone More important a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence and an equally great number toil with little return Submit a Web site Name URL Description I agree

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  • Bibliography: Great Depression | economy | Britannica.com
    Role of the Periphery in World Crisis 1984 Recovery Lester V Chandler America s Greatest Depression 1929 1941 1970 provides a detailed description of the many programs implemented to deal with the Depression in the United States Barry Eichengreen and Jeffrey Sachs Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s Journal of Economic History 45 4 925 946 December 1985 discusses how devaluation and monetary expansion contributed to economic recovery from the Depression in many countries Two studies that examine the role of policy in ending the American Depression are E Cary Brown Fiscal Policy in the Thirties A Reappraisal American Economic Review 46 5 857 879 December 1956 and Christina D Romer What Ended the Great Depression Journal of Economic History 52 4 757 784 December 1992 Impact Michael D Bordo Claudia Goldin and Eugene N White eds The Defining Moment The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century 1998 includes a series of papers by distinguished scholars on the long run impact of the Great Depression in the United States John Maynard Keynes The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money 1936 reissued 1997 is the pathbreaking work of economic theory that was inspired by the Great Depression and led to the rise of stabilization policy in the postwar era 5847 Culture and society in the Great Depression T H Watkins The Hungry Years A Narrative History of the Great Depression in America 1999 is a comprehensive political and social history of the Great Depression in the United States while Piers Brendon The Dark Valley A Panorama of the 1930s 2000 takes a more international approach comparing the effects of the Depression in the United States Britain Germany France the Soviet Union China and Japan Other works that deal with cultural issues both in the

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