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  • Martin Luther King, Jr., Day | Britannica.com
    typically observed with events such as marches and rallies and speeches by politicians and civil rights leaders King was born on January 15 1929 He rose to the fore of the civil rights movement in 1955 with the Montgomery bus boycott that followed the arrest of Rosa Parks an African American woman who had violated the city s racial segregation ordinances when she refused to give her seat on a bus to a white passenger An advocate of Mahatma Gandhi s philosophy of using nonviolent resistance to effect social change King promoted the use of nonviolent means to bring an end to racial segregation in the United States In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts He was assassinated in 1968 Efforts to create a national holiday honoring King began soon after his assassination although legislation for a federal holiday was not passed until 1983 The first nationwide observance of the holiday occurred in 1986 Read More on This Topic 1 Find out more about the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr 2 How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday 3 Which other individuals have made significant contributions to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/martin-luther-king-jr.-day (2016-02-13)
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  • Ghoulish Secret Concealed in Victorian Painting | Britannica.com
    expect of Queen Elizabeth I s court astrologer The alteration of the painting embodies a disagreement over Dee that has raged for centuries Was he a scholar or a mystic Or perhaps both During his lifetime Dee collected the largest private library in England and he studied extensively with some of Europe s most prominent mathematicians His knowledge of navigation and cartography helped launch a number of England s voyages to the New World in the late 16th century and he was a passionate advocate for the widespread dissemination of scientific and mathematical knowledge Dee also believed that he conversed with angels and his interest in mathematics extended well into the realms of numerology Elizabeth trusted Dee s knowledge in this area and it was he who selected her coronation date January 15 1559 based on his mystical and astrological calculations Numerology figured into Dee s correspondence with Elizabeth as well he signed his letters to the queen 007 a detail that Ian Fleming would repurpose for another gentleman in her majesty s service Sorcerer or scholar Dee remains a source of fascination more than four centuries after his death Read More on This Topic 1 Who was John Dee

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/ghoulish-secret-concealed-in-victorian-painting (2016-02-13)
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  • Obama Declares State of Emergency in Flint | Britannica.com
    after the change Flint residents began complaining about the taste look and odor of their water but it was not until high levels of lead were reported in the blood of some of the city s children in September 2015 that the source of Flint s water was shifted back to the Detroit system Among its other dangerous consequences lead poisoning can cause impaired cognitive functioning in children as well as liver damage Although a direct causative link has yet to be established there also has been a spike in instances of Legionnaire disease in the Flint area since the city s water system was contaminated including 10 fatalities Michigan state officials including Gov Rick Snyder who first publicly acknowledged the crisis in September 2015 have been widely blamed for not responding sooner and more forcefully to the crisis in Flint the population of which is predominantly African American and includes a large percentage of people living below the poverty line A study by the office of Michigan s auditor general released in December 2015 placed primary blame for the Flint water crisis on the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality whose director promptly resigned Filmmaker and activist Michael Moore a

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/obama-declares-state-of-emergency-in-flint (2016-02-13)
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  • 25th Anniversary of Operation Desert Storm | Britannica.com
    advanced into Iraq and Kuwait from Saudi Arabia where they had been stationed since Iraq s invasion of Kuwait the previous year Many Iraqi army units fled and the rest were quickly routed Iraq accepted a cease fire on February 28 The U S president George H W Bush rejected some of his advisers calls to advance north to Baghdad and unseat the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein since doing so would have alienated other members of the coalition the Arab states in particular Although the coalition s lopsided victory established the United States as the dominant force in the Middle East it also created the conditions for future problems At the urging of U S officials a crippling sanctions regime remained in place against Iraq for more than a decade after the war causing massive deprivation and hundreds of thousands of deaths Meanwhile Saddam Hussein having held on to power in Iraq ruthlessly put down rebellions in the country while positioning himself as the foremost opponent of U S hegemony in the Middle East In the United States some influential figures continued to seek Saddam s ouster In 2003 the United States returned to Iraq leading an invasion that toppled

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/25th-anniversary-of-operation-desert-storm (2016-02-13)
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  • Anglicans Sanction U.S. Church over Gay Marriage | Britannica.com
    years forbid the ECUSA to represent the Anglican Communion on ecumenical and interfaith bodies and exclude it from decision making on any issues pertaining to doctrine or polity While some conservative primates complained that the sanctions did not go far enough because they did not demand repentance other Anglican leaders criticized the sanctions and the presiding bishop of the ECUSA warned that they would bring real pain Read More on

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/anglicans-sanction-u.s.-church-over-gay-marriage (2016-02-13)
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  • A Mammoth Surprise in the Arctic | Britannica.com
    published January 15 2016 in the journal Science provides evidence of a human presence in that region some 10 000 years earlier than previously thought The new evidence came in the form of a Siberian mammoth Mammuthus primigenius carcass recovered by a team of Russian scientists from the permafrost on the eastern shore of Yenisei Bay at 72 N latitude The scientists reported that the carcass which was dated to about 45 000 years ago bore puncture injuries consistent with those that could have been caused by sharp primitive weapons This discovery effectively places humans at that time and place Mammoths Mammuthus were widespread during Earth s Pleistocene Epoch 2 600 000 to 11 700 years ago and they were found on nearly every continent The most familiar mammoth species is the Siberian mammoth because several specimens have been recovered in the permafrost of Siberia and other locations in the far north Map Human Migration This world map shows human migration by gene type between 61 000 and 25 000 years ago Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Read More on This Topic 1 How have humans migrated across Earth 2 How widespread was the range of the mammoth 3 What is the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/a-mammoth-surprise-in-the-arctic (2016-02-13)
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  • Why Is Gas So Cheap? | Britannica.com
    tempered or in some cases triggered by OPEC Saudi Arabia holder of the world s largest proven reserves has historically taken a leading role in OPEC s response to such market shake ups However increasing production by non OPEC members such as Russia and more recently the United States has complicated matters In 2014 the U S was the world s largest oil producer thanks in large part to the shale oil boom and the excess production helped spark a 15 month slide that saw prices drop by 70 Instead of cutting production in an effort to shore up prices the Saudis sought to capture increased market share with the hope that the price drop would drive out smaller competitors That strategy appeared to be bearing some fruit as U S production was believed to have dropped throughout 2015 The price you see at the pump is not just a reflection of increased production however Slowdowns in developing countries like China and Brazil and continued economic doldrums in Europe have decreased global demand In addition increased renewable energy capacity has provided an alternative to fossil fuels Even with the projected decline in U S production the excess inventory already on

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/why-is-gas-so-cheap (2016-02-13)
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  • Alejandro Aravena Wins Pritzker Prize | Britannica.com
    large university buildings Some of Aravena s best known projects provide housing to underserved and vulnerable groups including low income families and natural disaster victims He has received praise for developing techniques and processes that allow such developments to be constructed quickly and inexpensively with extensive input from the community Read More on This Topic 1 Who else has won the Pritzker Prize 2 Learn more about Latin American architecture

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/alejandro-aravena-wins-pritzker-prize (2016-02-13)
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