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  • Astronomy - 5 | Britannica.com
    well as in other spiral galaxies occurs in the form of relatively cold neutral hydrogen gas Hydrus Greek Water Snake constellation in the southern sky at about 2 hours right ascension and 70 south in declination Its brightest star is Beta Hydri with a magnitude of 2 8 This constellation was invented by Pieter Dircksz Keyser a navigator who Ibn al Haytham mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the principles of optics and the use of scientific experiments Life Conflicting stories are told about the life of Ibn al Haytham particularly concerning his scheme to regulate the ibn Tibbon Jacob ben Machir French Jewish physician translator and astronomer whose work was utilized by Copernicus and Dante He was highly regarded as a physician and served as regent of the faculty of medicine at the University of Montpellier He was the grandson of the renowned Indus Latin Indian constellation in the southern sky at about 21 hours right ascension and 50 south in declination Its brightest star is Alpha Indi with a magnitude of 3 1 This constellation was invented by Pieter Dircksz Keyser a navigator who joined Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS U S U K Netherlands satellite launched in 1983 that was the first space observatory to map the entire sky at infrared wavelengths After a series of brief studies by infrared instruments carried on sounding rockets had detected about 4 000 celestial infrared astronomy study of astronomical objects through observations of the infrared radiation that they emit Various types of celestial objects including the planets of the solar system stars nebulae and galaxies give off energy at wavelengths in the infrared region infrared source in astronomy any of various celestial objects that radiate measurable quantities of energy in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum Such objects include the Sun and the planets certain stars nebulae and galaxies A number of known infrared telescope instrument designed to detect and resolve infrared radiation from sources outside Earth s atmosphere such as nebulae young stars and gas and dust in other galaxies Infrared telescopes do not differ significantly from reflecting telescopes designed ingress in astronomy the apparent entrance of a smaller body upon the disk of a larger one as the smaller passes between the larger and the observer e g the entrance of a satellite or its shadow on the disk of a planet The term is also applied to the Moon s intergalactic medium material found between galaxies and that mostly consists of hot tenuous hydrogen gas At one time it was thought that large amounts of mass might exist in the form of gas clouds in the spaces between galaxies One by one however the forms that this International Astronomical Union IAU senior body governing international professional astronomical activities worldwide with headquarters in Paris It was established in 1919 as the first of a series of international unions for the advancement of specific branches of science Its professed International Space Station ISS space station assembled in low Earth orbit largely by the United States and Russia with assistance and components from a multinational consortium The project which began as an American effort was long delayed by funding and technical problems International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE astronomical research satellite built in the 1970s as a cooperative project of the U S National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA the Science and Engineering Research Council of the United Kingdom and the European Space Agency ESA interplanetary dust particle IDP a small grain generally less than a few hundred micrometres in size and composed of silicate minerals and glassy nodules but sometimes including sulfides metals other minerals and carbonaceous material in orbit around the Sun The existence interplanetary medium thinly scattered matter that exists between the planets and other bodies of the solar system as well as the forces e g magnetic and electric that pervade this region of space The material components of the interplanetary medium consist of neutral interstellar medium region between the stars that contains vast diffuse clouds of gases and minute solid particles Such tenuous matter in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way system in which the Earth is located accounts for about 5 percent of the Galaxy s total iron meteorite any meteorite consisting mainly of iron usually combined with small amounts of nickel When such meteorites often called irons fall through the atmosphere they may develop a thin black crust of iron oxide that quickly weathers to rust Though iron Jähn Sigmund East German cosmonaut who became the first German in space As a young man Jähn trained to become a printer but in 1955 he joined the East German air force where he became a pilot and a military scientist In 1966 he left East Germany to study at the Janssen Pierre French astronomer who in 1868 discovered the chemical element helium and how to observe solar prominences without an eclipse His work was independent of that of the Englishman Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer who made the same discoveries at about the same Jeans Sir James English physicist and mathematician who was the first to propose that matter is continuously created throughout the universe He made other innovations in astronomical theory but is perhaps best known as a writer of popular books about astronomy Jeans Jeffreys Sir Harold British astronomer and geophysicist noted for his wide variety of scientific contributions Jeffreys was educated at Armstrong College Newcastle upon Tyne D Sc 1917 and St John s College University of Cambridge M A 1917 and was a fellow Jemison Mae American physician and the first African American woman to become an astronaut In 1992 she spent more than a week orbiting Earth in the space shuttle Endeavour Jemison moved with her family to Chicago at the age of three There she was introduced to Jia Xian mathematician and astronomer active at the beginning of the greatest period of traditional Chinese mathematics Little is known about Jia s life except that he held a relatively

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  • Astronomy - 6 | Britannica.com
    discovered Mars Exploration Rover either of a pair of U S robotic vehicles that explored the surface of Mars beginning in January 2004 The mission of each rover was to study the chemical and physical composition of the surface at various locations in order to help determine whether Mars Global Surveyor robotic U S spacecraft launched to the planet Mars to carry out long term study from orbit of the entire surface the atmosphere and aspects of the interior High resolution images returned from the spacecraft indicated that liquid water may have existed Mars Pathfinder robotic U S spacecraft launched to Mars to demonstrate a new way to land a spacecraft on the planet s surface and the operation of an independent robotic rover Developed by NASA as part of a low cost approach to planetary exploration Pathfinder successfully Maskelyne Nevil British astronomer noted for his contribution to the science of navigation Maskelyne was ordained a minister in 1755 but his interest in astronomy had been aroused by the eclipse of July 25 1748 In 1758 he was admitted to the Royal Society of London Mathieu Claude Louis French astronomer and mathematician who worked particularly on the determination of the distances of the stars After a brief period as an engineer Mathieu became an astronomer at the Observatoire de Paris and at the Bureau des Longitudes in 1817 He matter material substance that constitutes the observable universe and together with energy forms the basis of all objective phenomena At the most fundamental level matter is composed of elementary particles known as quarks and leptons the class of elementary Mauna Kea Observatory astronomical observatory in Hawaii U S that has become one of the most important in the world because of its outstanding observational conditions The Mauna Kea Observatory is operated by the University of Hawaii and lies at an elevation of 4 205 Maupertuis Pierre Louis Moreau de French mathematician biologist and astronomer who helped popularize Newtonian mechanics Maupertuis became a member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris in 1731 and soon became the foremost French proponent of the Newtonian theory of gravitation In Mayer Johann Tobias German astronomer who developed lunar tables that greatly assisted navigators in determining longitude at sea Mayer also discovered the libration or apparent wobbling of the Moon A self taught mathematician Mayer had already published two original McAuliffe Christa Corrigan American teacher who was chosen to be the first private citizen in space The death of McAuliffe and her fellow crew members in the 1986 space shuttle Challenger disaster was deeply felt by the nation and had a strong effect on the U S space program McCandless Bruce American naval aviator and astronaut the first person to conduct an untethered free flight in space McCandless was the son of an admiral and the grandson of a commodore He received a B S from the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis Md in McDivitt James A U S astronaut and business executive McDivitt joined the U S Air Force in 1951 and flew 145 combat missions in Korea In 1959 he graduated first in his engineering class at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor He was an experimental test pilot at McNair Ronald American physicist and astronaut who was killed in the Challenger disaster McNair received a bachelor s degree in physics from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University Greensboro in 1971 and a doctoral degree in physics from the Méchain Pierre French astronomer and hydrographer who with Jean Delambre measured the meridian arc from Dunkirk Fr to Barcelona The measurement was made between 1792 and 1798 to establish a basis for the unit of length in the metric system called for by the French Mei Juecheng Chinese court official mathematician and astronomer Mei Juecheng learned mathematics from his grandfather Mei Wending 1633 1721 a renowned mathematician and astronomer In 1712 Mei Juecheng became a court mathematician and the following year joined Mei Wending Chinese writer on astronomy and mathematics whose work represented an association of Chinese and Western knowledge In 1645 China adopted a new controversial calendar that had been prepared under the direction of the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell Together Melvill Michael American test pilot the first commercial astronaut and the first person to travel into space aboard a privately funded spacecraft Melvill was raised in Durban S Af and attended but did not graduate from Hilton College a private boarding high school Mensa Latin Table constellation in the southern sky at about 6 hours right ascension and 80 south in declination Mensa is a particularly dim constellation its brightest star being Alpha Mensae which has a magnitude of 5 1 This constellation contains Merbold Ulf German physicist who was the first European Space Agency ESA astronaut to go into space as a payload specialist aboard the U S Spacelab 1 flight from Nov 28 to Dec 8 1983 He was also the first ESA astronaut to fly to the Russian space station Mercury any of the first series of manned spaceflights conducted by the United States 1961 63 The series began with a suborbital flight about three weeks after the Soviet cosmonaut Yury Gagarin became the first human in space see Vostok Alan B Shepard Messenger U S spacecraft that studied Mercury s surface and environment The name was selected in honour of ancient Greek observers who perceived Mercury in its 88 day orbit of the Sun and named it for the messenger of the gods Hermes known to the Romans as meteor respectively a glowing streak in the sky meteor and its cause which is a relatively small stony or metallic natural object from space meteoroid that enters Earth s atmosphere and heats to incandescence In modern usage the term meteoroid rather meteor shower temporary rise in the rate of meteor sightings caused by the entry into Earth s atmosphere of a number of meteoroids see meteor and meteoroid at approximately the same place in the sky and

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  • Astronomy - 7 | Britannica.com
    side Peuerbach Georg von Austrian mathematician and astronomer instrumental in the European revival of the technical understanding of the astronomical ideas of Ptolemy fl c ad 140 and the early use of sines in Europe Nothing is known of Peuerbach s life before 1446 when Phoenix constellation in the southern sky at about 1 hour right ascension and 50 south in declination Its brightest star is Alpha Phoenicis with a magnitude of 2 4 This constellation was invented by Pieter Dircksz Keyser a navigator who joined the first photosphere visible surface of the Sun from which is emitted most of the Sun s light that reaches Earth directly Since the Sun is so far away the edge of the photosphere appears sharp to the naked eye but in reality the Sun has no surface since it is too hot Picard Jean French astronomer who first accurately measured the length of a degree of a meridian longitude line and from that computed the size of the Earth Picard became professor of astronomy at the Collège de France Paris in 1655 His measurement of the Pickering William Henry U S astronomer who discovered Phoebe the ninth satellite of Saturn In 1891 Pickering joined his brother Edward in establishing the Boyden station of the Harvard Observatory at Arequipa Peru He returned to the United States in 1893 and the next year Pictor Latin Painter constellation in the southern sky at about 6 hours right ascension and 60 south in declination Its brightest star is Alpha Pictoris with a magnitude of 3 3 The second brighest star Beta Pictoris is notable for an encircling disk Pisces Latin Fishes in astronomy zodiacal constellation in the northern sky between Aries and Aquarius at about 1 hour right ascension and 15 north declination The vernal equinox the point where the Sun s annual apparent path takes it north of the celestial Piscis Austrinus Latin Southern Fish constellation in the southern sky at about 22 hours right ascension and 30 south in declination Its brightest star is Fomalhaut from the Arabic for the fish s mouth the 17th brightest star in the sky with a magnitude of planet planētes wanderers broadly any relatively large natural body that revolves in an orbit around the Sun or around some other star and that is not radiating energy from internal nuclear fusion reactions In addition to the above description some scientists planetarium theatre devoted to popular education and entertainment in astronomy and related fields especially space science and traditionally constructed with a hemispheric domed ceiling that is used as a screen onto which images of stars planets and other celestial planetesimal one of a class of bodies that are theorized to have coalesced to form Earth and the other planets after condensing from concentrations of diffuse matter early in the history of the solar system According to the nebular hypothesis part of an interstellar Plaskett John Stanley Canadian astronomer remembered for his expert design of instruments and his extensive spectroscopic observations Plaskett a skilled mechanic and photographer graduated from the University of Toronto in 1899 In 1903 he joined the staff of the Dominion Pleiades catalog number M45 open cluster of young stars in the zodiacal constellation Taurus about 430 light years from the solar system It contains a large amount of bright nebulous material and more than 1 000 stars of which six or seven can be seen by Pleione star in the Pleiades thought to be typical of the shell stars so called because in their rapid rotation they throw off shells of gas In 1938 sudden changes in the spectrum of Pleione were attributed to the ejection of a gaseous shell which by 1952 Pluto large distant member of the solar system that formerly was regarded as the outermost and smallest planet It also was considered the most recently discovered planet having been found in 1930 In August 2006 the International Astronomical Union IAU Poincaré Henri French mathematician one of the greatest mathematicians and mathematical physicists at the end of 19th century He made a series of profound innovations in geometry the theory of differential equations electromagnetism topology and the philosophy Poisson Siméon Denis French mathematician known for his work on definite integrals electromagnetic theory and probability Poisson s family had intended him for a medical career but he showed little interest or aptitude and in 1798 began studying mathematics at the École Polaris Earth s present northern polestar or North Star at the end of the handle of the so called Little Dipper in the constellation Ursa Minor Polaris is actually a triple star the brighter of two visual components being a spectroscopic binary with a polestar the brightest star that appears nearest to either celestial pole at any particular time Owing to the precession of the equinoxes the position of each pole describes a small circle in the sky over a period of 25 772 years Each of a succession of stars Pollux brightest star in the zodiacal constellation Gemini A reddish giant star it has an apparent visual magnitude of 1 15 The stars Castor and Pollux are named for the mythological twins Pollux is 33 7 light years from Earth In 2006 a planet Pollux Polyakov Valery Vladimirovich Russian cosmonaut who holds the record for the longest single spaceflight in history Polyakov had an early interest in spaceflight and in 1971 he joined the Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow the leading Soviet institution for space biomedicine Pond John sixth astronomer royal of England who organized the Royal Greenwich Observatory to an efficiency that made possible a degree of observational precision never before achieved Pond was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1807 and served from 1811 Pontes Marcos Brazilian pilot and astronaut the first Brazilian citizen in space Pontes graduated in 1984 as a military pilot with a B S in aeronautical technology from the Brazil Air Force Academy in Pirassununga For 14 years he investigated aeronautical accidents Popovich Pavel Soviet

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  • Astronomy - 8 | Britannica.com
    of Chinese spacecraft the fifth flight of which carried the first Chinese astronaut into space Shenzhou is similar in design to the Russian Soyuz spacecraft Like Soyuz Shenzhou consists of three modules a cylindrical Shepard Alan B Jr first U S astronaut to travel in space Shepard graduated from the U S Naval Academy Annapolis Maryland in 1944 and served in the Pacific during World War II onboard the destroyer Cogswell He earned his naval aviator wings in 1947 qualified as Shoemaker Carolyn American astronomer who became an expert at identifying comets With her husband Gene Shoemaker and David H Levy she discovered the Shoemaker Levy 9 comet in 1993 Spellman received bachelor s and master s degrees from Chico Calif State College Shoemaker Gene American astrogeologist who along with his wife Carolyn Shoemaker and David H Levy discovered the Shoemaker Levy 9 comet in 1993 Shoemaker received a bachelor s degree in geology from the California Institute of Technology and a doctorate from Princeton Short James British optician and astronomer who produced the first truly parabolic hence nearly distortionless mirrors for reflecting telescopes Short entered the University of Edinburgh as a candidate for the ministry but he was inspired to study optics instead Shripati Indian astronomer astrologer and mathematician whose astrological writings were particularly influential Shripati wrote various works in the first two of the three branches of astral science jyotihshastra namely mathematics including astronomy Shuttleworth Mark South African entrepreneur philanthropist and space tourist who became the first South African in space Shuttleworth was a student at the University of Cape Town in 1995 when he founded Thawte a consulting firm that became a world leader in Internet siderostat any of a class of astronomical instruments consisting of a flat mirror that is turned slowly by a motor to reflect a given region of the sky continuously into a fixed telescope In the traditional siderostat the mirror is rotated by a lever arm connected Sima Qian astronomer calendar expert and the first great Chinese historian He is most noted for his authorship of the Shiji Historical Records which is considered to be the most important history of China down to the end of the 2nd century Life Sima Qian Sirius brightest star in the night sky with apparent visual magnitude 1 44 It is a binary star in the constellation Canis Major The bright component of the binary is a blue white star 24 7 times as luminous as the Sun It has a radius 1 7 times that of Sitter Willem de Dutch mathematician astronomer and cosmologist who developed theoretical models of the universe based on Albert Einstein s general theory of relativity De Sitter studied mathematics at the State University of Groningen and then joined the astronomical Skylab first U S space station launched into Earth orbit on May 14 1973 Three successive crews of visiting astronauts carried out investigations of the human body s adaptation to the space environment studied the Sun in unprecedented detail and undertook Slayton Donald Kent American astronaut who was one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts in 1959 but did not make a space flight until 1975 Slayton joined the U S air force in 1942 and flew 56 combat missions during World War II After the war he earned a B S Slipher Vesto American astronomer whose systematic observations 1912 25 of the extraordinary radial velocities of spiral galaxies provided the first evidence supporting the expanding universe theory Born on an Indiana farm Vesto Slipher studied at Indiana University small body any natural solar system object other than the Sun and the major planets and dwarf planets and their satellites moons The small bodies populate the solar system in vast numbers and include the mostly rocky asteroids or minor planets the predominantly Snell Willebrord van Roijen astronomer and mathematician who discovered the law of refraction which relates the degree of the bending of light to the properties of the refractive material This law is basic to modern geometrical optics In 1613 he succeeded his father Rudolph Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOHO satellite managed jointly by the European Space Agency ESA and the U S National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA that is equipped with a battery of novel instruments to study the Sun SOHO was launched by NASA on an Atlas rocket on solar calendar any dating system based on the seasonal year of approximately 365 1 4 days the time it takes the Earth to revolve once around the Sun The Egyptians appear to have been the first to develop a solar calendar using as a fixed point the annual sunrise solar energy radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat causing chemical reactions or generating electricity The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source and sunlight is by far the largest source of energy received by the Earth but its intensity at the solar nebula gaseous cloud from which in the so called nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system the Sun and planets formed by condensation Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734 proposed that the planets formed out of a nebular crust that had solar neutrino problem long standing astrophysics problem in which the amount of observed neutrinos originating from the Sun was much less than expected In the Sun the process of energy generation results from the enormous pressure and density at its centre which makes solar radiation electromagnetic radiation including X rays ultraviolet and infrared radiation and radio emissions as well as visible light emanating from the Sun Of the 3 8 10 33 ergs emitted by the Sun every second about 1 part in 120 million is received by solar system assemblage consisting of the Sun an average star in the Milky Way Galaxy and those bodies orbiting around it 8 formerly 9 planets with about 170 known planetary satellites moons countless asteroid s some with their own satellites comet s and solar wind flux of particles chiefly protons and electrons

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  • Astronomy - 9 | Britannica.com
    of the universe Urey Harold C American scientist awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1934 for his discovery of the heavy form of hydrogen known as deuterium He was a key figure in the development of the atomic bomb and made fundamental contributions to a widely accepted theory Ursa Major Latin Greater Bear in astronomy a constellation of the northern sky at about 10 hours 40 minutes right ascension and 56 north declination It was referred to in the Old Testament Job 9 9 38 32 and mentioned by Homer in the Iliad xviii 487 Ursa Minor Latin Lesser Bear in astronomy a constellation of the northern sky at about 15 hours right ascension and 80 north declination and seven of whose stars outline the Little Dipper Polaris Alpha Ursae Minoris at the end of the Little Dipper s handle Väisälä Yrjö Finnish meteorologist and astronomer noted for developing meteorological measuring methods and instruments After receiving his Ph D in 1922 Väisälä joined the faculty of the Geodetic Institute of Turku University 1925 and worked as an astronomer Varahamihira Indian philosopher astronomer and mathematician author of the Pancha siddhantika Five Treatises a compendium of Greek Egyptian Roman and Indian astronomy Varahamihira s knowledge of Western astronomy was thorough In five sections his monumental variable star any star whose observed light varies notably in intensity The changes in brightness may be periodic semiregular or completely irregular A brief treatment of variable stars follows For full treatment see star Variable stars Variable stars may Vega brightest star in the northern constellation Lyra and fifth brightest in the night sky with a visual magnitude of 0 03 It is also one of the Sun s closer neighbours at a distance of about 25 light years Vega s spectral type is A white and its luminosity Vela Latin Sail constellation in the southern sky at about 10 hours right ascension and 50 south in declination Its brightest star is Gamma Velorum with a magnitude of 1 6 The largest known emission nebula the Gum Nebula is found here and in the neighbouring Velikovsky Immanuel American writer proponent of controversial theories of cosmogony and history Educated at the universities in Edinburgh Kharkov and Moscow M D 1921 he practiced medicine in Palestine and then studied psychology in Zürich and from 1933 Vienna Venera any of a series of unmanned Soviet planetary probes that were sent to Venus Radio contact was lost with the first probe Venera 1 launched Feb 12 1961 before it flew by Venus Venera 2 launched Nov 12 1965 ceased operation before it flew to Viehböck Franz Austrian electrical engineer and cosmonaut the first Austrian to go into space Viehböck graduated from the Vienna University of Technology with a master s degree in electrical and electronic engineering and later earned a doctorate in electronic engineering Virgo Latin Virgin in astronomy zodiacal constellation lying in the southern sky between Leo and Libra at about 13 hours right ascension and 2 south declination The constellation s brightest star Spica Latin for head of grain also called Alpha Virginis Vogel Hermann Karl German astronomer who discovered spectroscopic binaries double star systems that are too close for the individual stars to be discerned by any telescope but through the analysis of their light have been found to be two individual stars rapidly revolving Volans Latin Flying constellation in the southern sky at about 8 hours right ascension and 70 south in declination Its brightest star is Beta Volantis with a magnitude of 3 8 This constellation was invented by Pieter Dircksz Keyser a navigator who joined Volkov Aleksandr Russian pilot and cosmonaut the first cosmonaut whose son also went into space Volkov graduated from the Chuguyev Higher Air Force School in Kharkov province in Ukraine U S S R in 1970 After graduation from the air force school Volkov served as Volkov Sergey Russian military pilot and cosmonaut the first second generation cosmonaut following his father Aleksandr Volkov into space Volkov graduated from the Tambov Marina Raskova Air Force Academy for Pilots in Tambov Russia with a piloting and engineering Volkov Vladislav Nikolayevich Soviet cosmonaut participant in the Soyuz 7 and 11 missions of 1969 and 1971 the second of which resulted in the death of three cosmonauts Son of an aviation design engineer Volkov was educated at the Moscow Aviation Institute On the Soyuz 7 mission Voyager in space exploration either of a pair of robotic U S interplanetary probes launched to observe and to transmit information to Earth about the giant planets of the outer solar system and the farthest reaches of the Sun s sphere of influence Voyager Vulpecula Latin Little Fox constellation in the northern sky at about 20 hours right ascension and 25 north in declination It is a faint constellation its brightest star is Alpha Vulpeculae with a magnitude of 4 5 Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius invented White Edward H II first U S astronaut to walk in space White graduated from the U S Military Academy West Point N Y in 1952 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U S Air Force He took flight training and served in a fighter squadron in Germany In 1959 Whiting Sarah Frances American physicist and astronomer who advanced the scientific education of women in the 19th century Whiting was the daughter of Joel Whiting a teacher and Elizabeth Comstock In 1865 she graduated from Ingham University the first university for Whitney Mary Watson American astronomer who built Vassar College s research program in astronomy into one of the nation s finest Whitney graduated from public high school in 1863 and entered Vassar College Poughkeepsie New York with advanced standing in 1865 She immediately Whitson Peggy American biochemist and astronaut who was the first female commander of the International Space Station ISS and who set a record among American astronauts and among women for spending the most time in space Whitson received a B S in biology and Wide field

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  • Anatomy | Britannica.com
    usu renum 1662 Anatomical Exercise on the Structure and Function of the Kidney Belon Pierre French naturalist whose discussion of dolphin embryos and systematic comparisons of the skeletons of birds and humans mark the beginnings of modern embryology and comparative anatomy Belon studied botany at the University of Wittenberg 1540 and under Berengario da Carpi Giacomo Italian physician and anatomist who was the first to describe the heart valves He also was one of the first to illustrate medical works with drawings from nature Berengario was a professor at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527 While there Bichat Marie François Xavier French anatomist and physiologist whose systematic study of human tissues helped found the science of histology Bichat studied anatomy and surgery under Marc Antoine Petit chief surgeon at the Hôtel Dieu in Lyon In 1793 he became a pupil then assistant Bourne Geoffrey Australian born American anatomist whose studies of the mammalian adrenal gland made him a pioneer in the chemistry of cells and tissues histochemistry Bourne was educated at the University of Oxford D Sc 1935 Ph D 1943 where he was a demonstrator Brooks William Keith American zoologist known for his research on the anatomy and embryology of marine animals especially the tunicates crustaceans e g crayfish and mollusks notably the oyster In his acceptance of evolution he remained in the tradition of 19th century Cheselden William British surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery who wrote Anatomy of the Human Body 1713 and Osteographia or the Anatomy of the Bones 1733 The former was used as a text by anatomy students for nearly a century Cheselden was apprenticed to a Colombo Matteo Realdo Italian anatomist and surgeon who anticipated the English anatomist William Harvey the discoverer of general human blood circulation in clearly describing the pulmonary circulation or passage of blood between the heart and the lungs At the University comparative anatomy the comparative study of the body structures of different species of animals in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution from common ancestors The field is largely confined to the study of the vertebrate Cruveilhier Jean French pathologist anatomist and physician who wrote several important works on pathological anatomy Cruveilhier trained in medicine at the University of Montpellier and in 1825 became professor of anatomy at the University of Paris He became the Cuvier Georges French zoologist and statesman who established the sciences of comparative anatomy and paleontology Cuvier was born in Montbéliard a town attached to the German duchy of Württemberg until the 1790s when it passed to France In 1784 88 Cuvier attended Daubenton Louis Jean Marie French naturalist who was a pioneer in the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology Daubenton was studying medicine when in 1742 the renowned naturalist Georges Buffon asked him to prepare anatomical descriptions for an ambitious work on natural de Beer Sir Gavin English zoologist and morphologist known for his contributions to experimental embryology anatomy and evolution

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  • Behavioral Science | Britannica.com
    paleontologist anthropologist and geologist whose fossil discoveries on the Argentine Pampas rank with those made in the western United States during the late 19th century Ameghino s family immigrated to Argentina when he was a small child He began analytic psychology the psychoanalytic method of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung as he distinguished it from that of Sigmund Freud Jung attached less importance than did Freud to the role of sexuality in the neuroses and stressed the analysis of patients immediate conflicts Angell Robert Cooley American sociologist known for his studies of individuals interacting in social groups such as government units the church the family business enterprises clubs cooperatives and other associations He received his education at the University of anthropological linguistics study of the relationship between language and culture it usually refers to work on languages that have no written records In the United States a close relationship between anthropology and linguistics developed as a result of research by anthropologists anthropology the science of humanity which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species Because of the diverse anthropometry the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of the human body Now one of the principal techniques of physical anthropology the discipline originated in the 19th century when early studies of human biological and cultural evolution stimulated anthrozoology study of the interactions and relationships between human and nonhuman animals Anthrozoology spans the humanities and the social behavioral and biomedical sciences While the lives of humans and nonhuman animals have always been intertwined the ways applied psychology the use of methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behaviour and experience A more precise

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  • Biochemistry | Britannica.com
    Tatum and Joshua Lederberg After earning his doctorate Berg Paul American biochemist whose development of recombinant DNA techniques won him a share with Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1980 After graduating from Pennsylvania State College later renamed Pennsylvania State Bergström Sune K Swedish biochemist corecipient with fellow Swede Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson and Englishman John Robert Vane of the 1982 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine All three were honoured for their isolation identification and analysis of prostaglandins biochemistry study of the chemical substances and processes that occur in plants animals and microorganisms and of the changes they undergo during development and life It deals with the chemistry of life and as such it draws on the techniques of analytical organic Blackburn Elizabeth H Australian born American molecular biologist and biochemist who was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine along with American molecular biologist Carol W Greider and American biochemist and geneticist Jack W Szostak for her discoveries Bloch Konrad E German born American biochemist who shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Feodor Lynen for their discoveries concerning the natural synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids After receiving a chemical engineering degree in 1934 Boyer Paul D American biochemist who with John E Walker was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1997 for their explanation of the enzymatic process involved in the production of the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate ATP which fuels the metabolic Buchner Eduard German biochemist who was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating that the fermentation of carbohydrates results from the action of different enzymes contained in yeast and not the yeast cell itself He showed that an enzyme zymase Butenandt Adolf Friedrich Johann German biochemist who with Leopold Ruzicka was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on sex hormones Although forced by the Nazi government to refuse the prize he was able to accept the honour in 1949 Butenandt studied at the universities Calvin Melvin American biochemist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemical pathways of photosynthesis Calvin was the son of immigrant parents His father was from Kalvaria Lithuania so the Ellis Island immigration authorities Cech Thomas Robert American biochemist and molecular biologist who with Sidney Altman was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their discoveries concerning RNA ribonucleic acid Cech attended Grinnell College in Grinnell Iowa B A 1970 and the University Chain Sir Ernst Boris German born British biochemist who with pathologist Howard Walter Florey later Baron Florey isolated and purified penicillin which had been discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming and performed the first clinical trials of the antibiotic For Ciechanover Aaron J Israeli biochemist who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose for their joint discovery of the mechanism by which the cells of most living organisms cull unwanted proteins Ciechanover received an

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