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  • Bioengineering | Britannica.com
    the immediate potential Dreyfuss Henry U S industrial designer noted for the number and variety of his pioneering designs for modern products At age 17 Dreyfuss was designing sets for stage presentations at a Broadway motion picture theatre In 1927 a store commissioned him to study its emissions trading an environmental policy that seeks to reduce air pollution efficiently by putting a limit on emissions giving polluters a certain number of allowances consistent with those limits and then permitting the polluters to buy and sell the allowances The environmental engineering the development of processes and infrastructure for the supply of water the disposal of waste and the control of pollution of all kinds These endeavours protect public health by preventing disease transmission and they preserve the quality of the genetic engineering the artificial manipulation modification and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules in order to modify an organism or population of organisms The term genetic engineering initially referred to various techniques used for the modification hazardous waste management the collection treatment and disposal of waste material that when improperly handled can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment Hazardous wastes can take the form of solids liquids sludges or contained gases human factors engineering science dealing with the application of information on physical and psychological characteristics to the design of devices and systems for human use The term human factors engineering is used to designate equally a body of knowledge a process and Klint Kaare Danish architect and celebrated furniture designer who originated the highly influential modern Scandinavian style which notably enlarged the vocabulary of progressive design He was also a leading exponent of ergonomics an aspect of technology that pollution control in environmental engineering any of a variety of means employed to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Bioengineering (2016-02-13)
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  • Biology | Britannica.com
    results of unprecedented Albinus Bernard Siegfried German anatomist who was the first to show the connection of the vascular systems of the mother and the fetus From 1721 until his death Albinus occupied the chair of anatomy surgery and medicine at the University of Leiden He is best known for the Alcmaeon Greek philosopher and physiologist of the academy at Croton now Crotone southern Italy the first person recorded to have practiced dissection of human bodies for research purposes He may also have been the first to attempt vivisection Alcmaeon Aldrovandi Ulisse Renaissance naturalist and physician noted for his systematic and accurate observations of animals plants and minerals After studying mathematics Latin law and philosophy Aldrovandi went to Padua in about 1545 to continue his studies There he Alexander Hattie Elizabeth American pediatrician and microbiologist whose groundbreaking work on influenzal meningitis significantly reduced infant death rates and advanced the field of microbiological genetics Alexander received her bachelor s degree in 1923 from Goucher College Allee Warder Clyde zoologist and ecologist noted for his research on social behaviour aggregations and distribution of animals in both aquatic and terrestrial environments Allee became interested in the problems and patterns of the distribution of marine animals during Alpini Prospero physician and botanist who is credited with the introduction to Europe of coffee and bananas While a medical adviser to Giorgio Emo the Venetian consul in Cairo 1580 83 Alpini made an extensive study of Egyptian and Mediterranean flora He is reputed Altman Sidney Canadian American molecular biologist who with Thomas R Cech received the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their discoveries concerning the catalytic properties of RNA or ribonucleic acid Altman received a B S in physics in 1960 from the Massachusetts Ameghino Florentino paleontologist anthropologist and geologist whose fossil discoveries on the Argentine Pampas rank with those made in the western United States during the late 19th century Ameghino s family immigrated to Argentina when he was a small child He began American Philosophical Society oldest extant learned society in the United States founded under the impetus of Benjamin Franklin in 1743 At the beginning of the 21st century it had more than 850 members elected for their scholarly and scientific accomplishments in any of five anatomy a field in the biological sciences concerned with the identification and description of the body structures of living things Gross anatomy involves the study of major body structures by dissection and observation and in its narrowest sense is concerned Anderson Elda Emma American physicist who played a pivotal role in developing the field of health physics Anderson s affinity for numbers and her general intellectual gifts were apparent from girlhood After graduating from Ripon College B S 1922 in Ripon Wisconsin Andrews Roy Chapman naturalist explorer and author who led many important scientific expeditions for which he obtained financial support through his public lectures and books particularly on central Asia and eastern Asia After graduating from Beloit Wis College Anfinsen Christian B American biochemist who

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Biology (2016-02-13)
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  • Botany | Britannica.com
    known as rusts Graduated from what is now Iowa State University Ames in 1872 Arthur received his doctorate at Cornell University Ithaca N Y in 1886 In 1887 he became professor Avery Oswald Canadian born American bacteriologist whose research helped ascertain that DNA is the substance responsible for heredity thus laying the foundation for the new science of molecular genetics His work also contributed to the understanding of the chemistry Bachman John naturalist and Lutheran minister who helped write the text of works on North American birds and mammals by renowned naturalist and artist John James Audubon Ordained in 1814 Bachman obtained a parish in Charleston S C the following year Long a bacteriology branch of microbiology dealing with the study of bacteria The beginnings of bacteriology paralleled the development of the microscope The first person to see microorganisms was probably the Dutch naturalist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who in 1683 described Bailey Liberty Hyde botanist whose systematic study of cultivated plants transformed U S horticulture from a craft to an applied science and had a direct influence on the development of genetics plant pathology and agriculture He served as an assistant to the U S botanist Bartram John naturalist and explorer considered the father of American botany Largely self educated Bartram was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and an original member of the American Philosophical Society He was botanist for the American colonies to King George Bartram William American naturalist botanist and artist The son of naturalist John Bartram he described the abundant river swamps of the southeastern United States in their primeval condition in his Travels through North and South Carolina Georgia East and West Bary Heinrich Anton de German botanist whose researches into the roles of fungi and other agents in causing plant diseases earned him distinction as a founder of modern mycology and plant pathology A professor of botany at the universities of Freiburg im Breisgau 1855 66 Bassi Agostino pioneer Italian bacteriologist who anticipated the work of Louis Pasteur by 10 years in discovering that numerous diseases are caused by microorganisms In 1807 he began an investigation of the silkworm disease mal de segno commonly known as muscardine Bauhin Gaspard Swiss physician anatomist and botanist who introduced a scientific binomial system of classification to both anatomy and botany A student of the Italian anatomist Fabricius ab Aquapendente at the University of Padua Italy 1577 78 he spent most Behring Emil von German bacteriologist who was one of the founders of immunology In 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on serum therapy particularly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria Behring received his medical Bentham George British botanist whose classification of seed plants Spermatophyta based on an exhaustive study of all known species served as a foundation for modern systems of vascular plant taxonomy Impressed by the French naturalist Pyrame de Candolle s analytic Bergey David Hendricks American bacteriologist primary author of Bergey s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Botany (2016-02-13)
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  • Ecology | Britannica.com
    a writer Clements Frederic Edward American botanist taxonomist and ecologist who influenced the early study of plant communities particularly the process of plant succession Clements was educated at the University of Nebraska where he studied under the influential American botanist Commoner Barry American biologist and educator He studied at Harvard University and taught at Washington University and Queens College His warnings since the 1950s of the environmental threats posed by modern technology including nuclear weapons use of pesticides community ecology study of the organization and functioning of communities which are assemblages of interacting populations of the species living within a particular area or habitat As populations of species interact with one another they form biological communities Cowles Henry Chandler American botanist ecologist and educator who influenced the early study of plant communities particularly the process of plant succession which later became a fundamental tenet of modern ecology Cowles was born into a farming family and developed Dansereau Pierre French Canadian plant ecologist who was a pioneer in the study of the dynamics of forests and who attempted to extend ecological concepts to the modern human environment Dansereau attended St Mary s College affiliated with the University of Montreal Davis Margaret Bryan American paleoecologist best known for her pioneering work in the science of palynology the study of plant pollen and spores Her most influential work involved the use of pollen recovered from lake sediment and soil to reconstruct ancient plant communities ecology study of the relationships between organisms and their environment Some of the most pressing problems in human affairs expanding populations food scarcities environmental pollution including global warming extinctions of plant and animal species Elton Charles English biologist credited with framing the basic principles of modern animal ecology Early influences Elton was educated first at Liverpool College and then

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Ecology (2016-02-13)
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  • Embryology | Britannica.com
    Greek Haeckel Ernst German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings He declared that ontogeny the embryology and development of the individual briefly and sometimes necessarily Haller Albrecht von Swiss biologist the father of experimental physiology who made prolific contributions to physiology anatomy botany embryology poetry and scientific bibliography At the University of Göttingen 1736 53 where he served as professor of medicine Hertwig Oskar Wilhelm August German embryologist and cytologist who was the first to recognize that the fusion of the nuclei of the sperm and ovum was the essential event in fertilization After studying medicine and zoology at Jena Zürich and Bonn he obtained a lectureship in His Wilhelm Swiss born German anatomist embryologist who created the science of histogenesis or the study of the embryonic origins of different types of animal tissue His discovery 1886 that each nerve fibre stems from a single nerve cell was essential to the Huxley Sir Julian English biologist philosopher educator and author who greatly influenced the modern development of embryology systematics and studies of behaviour and evolution Julian a grandson of the prominent biologist T H Huxley a brother of novelist Aldous Kerr Sir John Graham English embryologist and pioneer in naval camouflage who greatly advanced knowledge of the evolution of vertebrates and in 1914 was among the first to advocate camouflage of ships by means of dazzle countershading and strongly contrasting patches Kölliker Rudolf Albert von Swiss embryologist and histologist one of the first to interpret tissue structure in terms of cellular elements Kölliker became professor of physiology and comparative anatomy at the University of Zürich in 1844 in 1847 he transferred to the University Kovalevsky Aleksandr Onufriyevich Russian founder of comparative embryology and experimental

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Embryology (2016-02-13)
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  • Genetics | Britannica.com
    1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Edward Tatum and Joshua Lederberg After earning his doctorate Bearn Alexander Gordon British born American physician and geneticist who discovered the hereditary nature of Wilson disease and established the basis for diagnostic tests and novel forms of treatment for the disease Bearn s work which provided an important model for the behaviour genetics the study of the influence of an organism s genetic composition on its behaviour and the interaction of heredity and environment insofar as they affect behaviour The question of the determinants of behavioral abilities and disabilities has commonly Blakeslee Albert Francis prominent American botanist and geneticist who achieved world renown for his research on plants The son of a Methodist minister Blakeslee was awarded a B A cum laude from Wesleyan University Middletown Conn 1896 After three years of teaching Bridges Calvin Blackman American geneticist who helped establish the chromosomal basis of heredity and sex The year after he entered Columbia University 1909 Bridges obtained a position there as laboratory assistant to the geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan He and Morgan designed Brown Michael S American molecular geneticist who along with Joseph L Goldstein was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of a key link in the metabolism of cholesterol in the human body Brown graduated from the University Burbank Luther American plant breeder whose prodigious production of useful varieties of fruits flowers vegetables and grasses encouraged the development of plant breeding into a modern science Reared on a farm Burbank received little more than a high school education Capecchi Mario R Italian born American scientist who shared with Sir Martin J Evans and Oliver Smithies the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on targeted gene modification During World War II Capecchi lived on the streets after his mother Caspersson Torbjörn Oskar Swedish cytologist and geneticist who initiated the use of the ultraviolet microscope to determine the nucleic acid content of cellular structures such as the nucleus and nucleolus In the early 1930s Caspersson attended the University of Stockholm Collins Francis American geneticist who discovered genes causing genetic diseases and led the U S National Institutes of Health NIH public research consortium in the Human Genome Project HGP In 2009 Pres Barack Obama nominated Collins to head the NIH a move complementation test in genetics test for determining whether two mutations associated with a specific phenotype represent two different forms of the same gene alleles or are variations of two different genes The complementation test is relevant for recessive traits Correns Carl Erich German botanist and geneticist who in 1900 independent of but simultaneously with the biologists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries rediscovered Gregor Mendel s historic paper outlining the principles of heredity In attempting to ascertain Crick Francis Harry Compton British biophysicist who with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their determination of the molecular structure of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Genetics (2016-02-13)
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  • Marine Biology | Britannica.com
    devoted much time to scientific research and the fishing industry He founded the Liverpool Marine International Council for the Exploration of the Sea ICES international organization that promotes marine research in the North Atlantic Ocean the Baltic Sea and the North Sea Established in 1902 the ICES originally included as members Denmark Finland Germany the Netherlands Norway Sweden Russia Kofoid Charles Atwood American zoologist whose collection and classification of many new species of marine protozoans helped establish marine biology on a systematic basis Kofoid graduated from Harvard University 1894 and in 1900 began a long affiliation with the University Loeb Jacques German born American biologist noted chiefly for his experimental work on artificial parthenogenesis reproduction without fertilization Having received an M D degree from the University of Strasbourg 1884 Loeb began work in biology at the University Marine Biological Laboratory independent international research and educational organization founded at Woods Hole Massachusetts U S in 1888 It was established by the Women s Educational Association of Boston the Boston Society of Natural History and other organizations and marine biology the science that deals with animals and plants that live in the sea It also deals with air borne and terrestrial organisms that depend directly upon bodies of salt water for food and other necessities of life In the broadest sense it attempts to describe Möbius Karl August German zoologist who is chiefly known for his contributions to marine biology Möbius was trained for elementary teaching at a private college in Eilenburg and from 1844 to 1849 he taught at Seesen in the Harz Mountains He went to the University of Parsons Timothy Canadian marine biologist who advocated a holistic approach to studying ocean environments Parsons attended McGill University Montreal where he earned a bachelor s degree in agriculture 1953 a master

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Marine-Biology (2016-02-13)
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  • Microbiology | Britannica.com
    Temin and Renato Dulbecco Working independently Baltimore and Temin discovered reverse transcriptase an enzyme that synthesizes DNA from RNA Baltimore Barré Sinoussi Franƈoise French virologist who was a corecipient with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine She and Montagnier shared half the prize for their work in identifying the human immunodeficiency virus HIV the Bassi Agostino pioneer Italian bacteriologist who anticipated the work of Louis Pasteur by 10 years in discovering that numerous diseases are caused by microorganisms In 1807 he began an investigation of the silkworm disease mal de segno commonly known as muscardine Behring Emil von German bacteriologist who was one of the founders of immunology In 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on serum therapy particularly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria Behring received his medical Bergey David Hendricks American bacteriologist primary author of Bergey s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology an invaluable taxonomic reference work Bergey taught in the schools of Montgomery county Pa until he began studies at the University of Pennsylvania In 1884 Bishop J Michael American virologist and co winner with Harold Varmus of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for achievements in clarifying the origins of cancer Bishop graduated from Gettysburg College Pennsylvania in 1957 and from Harvard Medical Bordet Jules Belgian physician bacteriologist and immunologist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1919 for his discovery of factors in blood serum that destroy bacteria this work was vital to the diagnosis and treatment of many dangerous Buchner Hans German bacteriologist who in the course of extensive immunological studies 1886 90 discovered a naturally occurring substance in the blood now known as complement that is capable of destroying bacteria He also devised methods of studying anaerobic Burnet Sir Macfarlane Australian physician immunologist and virologist who with Sir Peter Medawar was awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance the concept on which tissue transplantation is founded Calmette Albert French bacteriologist pupil of Louis Pasteur and codeveloper with Camille Guérin of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette Guérin BCG He also described a diagnostic test for tuberculosis known as Calmette s reaction Calmette graduated in medicine Cheyne Sir William Watson 1st Baronet surgeon and bacteriologist who was a pioneer of antiseptic surgical methods in Britain Cheyne studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh taking degrees in surgery and medicine there in 1875 In 1876 he became a house surgeon to Joseph Lister Cohn Ferdinand German naturalist and botanist known for his studies of algae bacteria and fungi He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant His father spared no effort Domagk Gerhard German bacteriologist and pathologist who was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery announced in 1932 of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Microbiology (2016-02-13)
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