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  • Molecular Biology | Britannica.com
    RNA ribonucleic acid Cech attended Grinnell College in Grinnell Iowa B A 1970 and the University Frey Wyssling Albert F Swiss botanist and pioneer of submicroscopic morphology who helped to initiate the study later known as molecular biology Frey Wyssling was educated at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich ETH Zürich the University of Jena and the Sorbonne Gilbert Walter American molecular biologist who was awarded a share with Paul Berg and Frederick Sanger of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1980 for his development of a method for determining the sequence of nucleotide links in the chainlike molecules of nucleic Greider Carol W American molecular biologist who was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine along with American molecular biologist and biochemist Elizabeth H Blackburn and American biochemist and geneticist Jack W Szostak for her research into Huxley Hugh Esmor English molecular biologist whose study with Jean Hanson of muscle ultrastructure using the techniques of X ray diffraction and electron microscopy led him to propose the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction An explanation for the conversion Lindquist Susan L American molecular biologist who made key discoveries concerning protein folding and who was among the first to discover that in yeast inherited traits can be passed to offspring via misfolded proteins known as prions Lindquist received a bachelor s Meselson Matthew Stanley American molecular biologist notable for his experimental confirmation of the Watson Crick theory of the structure and method of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Meselson obtained a Ph D at the California Institute of Technology Caltech molecular biology field of science concerned with studying the chemical structures and processes of biological phenomena that involve the basic units of life molecules Of growing importance since the 1940s molecular biology developed out of the related fields

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Molecular-Biology (2016-02-13)
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  • Morphology | Britannica.com
    Darwin s principles of organic evolution earned him distinction as the founder of modern paleobotany Brooks William Keith American zoologist known for his research on the anatomy and embryology of marine animals especially the tunicates crustaceans e g crayfish and mollusks notably the oyster In his acceptance of evolution he remained in the tradition of 19th century Brown Robert Scottish botanist best known for his descriptions of cell nuclei and of the continuous motion of minute particles in solution which came to be called Brownian motion In addition he recognized the fundamental distinction between gymnosperms conifers Chamberlain Charles Joseph U S botanist whose research into the morphology and life cycles of the cycads a primitive gymnosperm family possessing structural features found in both ferns and conifers enabled him to postulate a course of evolutionary development for the spermatophyte de Beer Sir Gavin English zoologist and morphologist known for his contributions to experimental embryology anatomy and evolution Concerned with analyzing developmental processes de Beer published Introduction to Experimental Embryology 1926 in which he noted that Geneva City Conservatory and Botanical Gardens major botanical research centre in Geneva Switz specializing in such areas as floristics biosystematics and morphology Founded in 1817 the 19 hectare 47 acre municipal garden cultivates about 15 000 species of plants it has important collections Goebel Karl Immanuel Eberhard von German botanist whose Organographie der Pflanzen 1898 1901 Organography of Plants 1900 05 clarified the principles of the science of plant morphology in relation to form and structure After receiving his Ph D in 1877 Goebel held a number of teaching Hofmeister Wilhelm German botanist whose investigations of plant structure made him a pioneer in the science of comparative plant morphology Hofmeister entered his father s publishing business at the age of 17 Although he was completely self

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Morphology (2016-02-13)
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  • Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine | Britannica.com
    to be the first effective treatment for diabetes a disease in which glucose accumulates in abnormally Bárány Robert Austrian otologist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1914 for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular balancing apparatus of the inner ear Bárány graduated in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1900 After Barré Sinoussi Franƈoise French virologist who was a corecipient with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine She and Montagnier shared half the prize for their work in identifying the human immunodeficiency virus HIV the Beadle George Wells American geneticist who helped found biochemical genetics when he showed that genes affect heredity by determining enzyme structure He shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Edward Tatum and Joshua Lederberg After earning his doctorate Behring Emil von German bacteriologist who was one of the founders of immunology In 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on serum therapy particularly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria Behring received his medical Békésy Georg von American physicist and physiologist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the physical means by which sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea a portion of the inner ear As director of the Hungarian Benacerraf Baruj Venezuelan born American pathologist and immunologist who shared with George Snell and Jean Dausset the 1980 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of genes that regulate immune responses and of the role that some of these genes play Bergström Sune K Swedish biochemist corecipient with fellow Swede Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson and Englishman John Robert Vane of the 1982 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine All three were honoured for their isolation identification and analysis of prostaglandins Bethe Hans German born American theoretical physicist who helped shape quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei He received the Beutler Bruce A American immunologist and corecipient with French immunologist Jules A Hoffmann and Canadian immunologist and cell biologist Ralph M Steinman of the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning the activation of the Bishop J Michael American virologist and co winner with Harold Varmus of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1989 for achievements in clarifying the origins of cancer Bishop graduated from Gettysburg College Pennsylvania in 1957 and from Harvard Medical Black Sir James Scottish pharmacologist who along with George H Hitchings and Gertrude B Elion received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for his development of two important drugs propranolol and cimetidine Black earned a medical degree from Blackburn Elizabeth H Australian born American molecular biologist and biochemist who was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine along with American molecular biologist

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Nobel-Prize-in-Physiology-or-Medicine (2016-02-13)
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  • Paleontology | Britannica.com
    Louis Stoffels van Beneden studied medicine at the University of Louvain In 1835 he was appointed professor Boule Marcellin French geologist paleontologist and physical anthropologist who made extensive studies of human fossils from Europe North Africa and the Middle East and reconstructed the first complete Neanderthal skeleton 1908 from La Chapelle aux Saints France Bowerbank James Scott British naturalist and paleontologist best known for his studies of British sponges Bowerbank devoted much time to the study of natural history while running a family business Bowerbank and Company distillers in which he was an active partner until Brongniart Adolphe Théodore French botanist whose classification of fossil plants which drew surprisingly accurate relations between extinct and existing forms prior to Charles Darwin s principles of organic evolution earned him distinction as the founder of modern paleobotany Conybeare William Daniel English geologist and paleontologist known for his classic work on the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous 280 000 000 to 345 000 000 years ago System in England and Wales Conybeare was vicar of Axminster from 1836 until 1844 when he became dean of Cope Edward Drinker paleontologist who discovered approximately a thousand species of extinct vertebrates in the United States and led a revival of Lamarckian evolutionary theory based largely on paleontological views After a brief period at Haverford College Pennsylvania Cushman Joseph Augustine U S paleontologist known for his work on paleoecology as shown by Foraminifera marine protozoans Cushman was a member of the U S Geological Survey and museum director for the Boston Society of Natural History from 1913 until 1923 when he founded Cuvier Georges French zoologist and statesman who established the sciences of comparative anatomy and paleontology Cuvier was born in Montbéliard a town attached to the German duchy of Württemberg until the 1790s when it passed to France In 1784 88 Cuvier attended Daubenton Louis Jean Marie French naturalist who was a pioneer in the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology Daubenton was studying medicine when in 1742 the renowned naturalist Georges Buffon asked him to prepare anatomical descriptions for an ambitious work on natural Davidson Thomas Scottish naturalist and paleontologist who became known as an authority on lamp shells a phylum of bottom dwelling marine invertebrates Brachiopoda whose fossils are among the oldest found Davidson studied at the University of Edinburgh 1835 36 Davis Margaret Bryan American paleoecologist best known for her pioneering work in the science of palynology the study of plant pollen and spores Her most influential work involved the use of pollen recovered from lake sediment and soil to reconstruct ancient plant communities Dawson Sir John William Canadian geologist who made numerous contributions to paleobotany and extended the knowledge of Canadian geology During his term as superintendent of education for Nova Scotia 1850 53 Dawson studied the geology of all parts of the province making Ehrenberg Christian Gottfried German biologist microscopist scientific explorer and a founder of micropaleontology the study of fossil microorganisms Ehrenberg studied at the University of Berlin M D 1818 and

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Paleontology (2016-02-13)
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  • Pharmacology | Britannica.com
    plants described it also classified Dioscorides Pedanius Greek physician and pharmacologist whose work De materia medica was the foremost classical source of modern botanical terminology and the leading pharmacological text for 16 centuries Dioscorides travels as a surgeon with the armies of the Roman emperor Elion Gertrude B American pharmacologist who along with George H Hitchings and Sir James W Black received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for their development of drugs used to treat several major diseases Elion was the daughter of immigrants Furchgott Robert F American pharmacologist who along with Louis J Ignarro and Ferid Murad was co awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that nitric oxide NO acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system Their combined Gilman Alfred G American pharmacologist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with American biochemist Martin Rodbell for their separate research in discovering molecules called G proteins which are intermediaries in the multistep pathway cells Hitchings George Herbert American pharmacologist who along with Gertrude B Elion and Sir James W Black received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for their development of drugs that became essential in the treatment of several major diseases Hitchings received Ignarro Louis J American pharmacologist who along with Robert F Furchgott and Ferid Murad was co awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that nitric oxide NO acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system This work uncovered Loewi Otto German born American physician and pharmacologist who with Sir Henry Dale received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1936 for their discoveries relating to the chemical transmission of nerve impulses After Loewi graduated in medicine 1896 Murad Ferid American pharmacologist

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Pharmacology (2016-02-13)
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  • Physiology | Britannica.com
    Euler was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1970 Axelrod s contribution was his identification Bain Alexander Scottish philosopher who advanced the study of psychology with his work on mental processes and who strove to improve education in Scotland Soon after college graduation in 1840 Bain began to contribute to The Westminster Review thus becoming acquainted Baltimore David American virologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1975 with Howard M Temin and Renato Dulbecco Working independently Baltimore and Temin discovered reverse transcriptase an enzyme that synthesizes DNA from RNA Baltimore Banting Sir Frederick Grant Canadian physician who with Charles H Best was one of the first to extract 1921 the hormone insulin from the pancreas Injections of insulin proved to be the first effective treatment for diabetes a disease in which glucose accumulates in abnormally Bárány Robert Austrian otologist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1914 for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular balancing apparatus of the inner ear Bárány graduated in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1900 After Barré Sinoussi Franƈoise French virologist who was a corecipient with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine She and Montagnier shared half the prize for their work in identifying the human immunodeficiency virus HIV the Bayliss Sir William Maddock British physiologist co discoverer with the British physiologist Ernest Starling of hormones he conducted pioneer research in major areas of physiology biochemistry and physical chemistry Bayliss studied at University College London and Wadham Beadle George Wells American geneticist who helped found biochemical genetics when he showed that genes affect heredity by determining enzyme structure He shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Edward Tatum and Joshua Lederberg After earning his doctorate Behring Emil von German bacteriologist who was one of the founders of immunology In 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on serum therapy particularly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria Behring received his medical Békésy Georg von American physicist and physiologist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the physical means by which sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea a portion of the inner ear As director of the Hungarian Bekhterev Vladimir Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who studied the formations of the brain and investigated conditioned reflexes Bekhterev received a doctorate from the Medical Surgical Academy of St Petersburg in 1881 and then studied abroad for four years Benacerraf Baruj Venezuelan born American pathologist and immunologist who shared with George Snell and Jean Dausset the 1980 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of genes that regulate immune responses and of the role that some of these genes play Bergström Sune K Swedish biochemist corecipient with fellow Swede Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson and Englishman John Robert Vane of the 1982 Nobel Prize for

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Physiology (2016-02-13)
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  • Taxonomy | Britannica.com
    primary author of Bergey s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology an invaluable taxonomic reference work Bergey taught in the schools of Montgomery county Pa until he began studies at the University of Pennsylvania In 1884 Bessey Charles E botanist who introduced to the United States the systematic study of plant morphology and the experimental laboratory for botanical instruction on the college level His arrangement of angiosperm flowering plant taxa emphasizing the evolutionary divergence Blumenbach Johann Friedrich German anthropologist physiologist and comparative anatomist frequently called the father of physical anthropology who proposed one of the earliest classifications of the races of mankind He joined the faculty of the University of Göttingen in 1776 Bock Hieronymus German priest physician and botanist who helped lead the transition from the philological scholasticism of medieval botany to the modern science based on observation and description from nature Little is known of Bock s life and career He worked Brongniart Adolphe Théodore French botanist whose classification of fossil plants which drew surprisingly accurate relations between extinct and existing forms prior to Charles Darwin s principles of organic evolution earned him distinction as the founder of modern paleobotany Brown Robert Scottish botanist best known for his descriptions of cell nuclei and of the continuous motion of minute particles in solution which came to be called Brownian motion In addition he recognized the fundamental distinction between gymnosperms conifers Candolle Augustin Pyrame de Swiss botanist who established scientific structural criteria for determining natural relations among plant genera After Charles Darwin s introduction of the principles of organic evolution Candolle s criteria provided the empirical foundation for Cesalpino Andrea Italian physician philosopher and botanist who sought a philosophical and theoretical approach to plant classification based on unified and coherent principles rather than on alphabetical sequence or medicinal properties He helped establish botany chemotaxy method of biological classification based on similarities in the structures of certain compounds among the organisms being classified Proponents of this taxonomic method argue that proteins being more closely controlled by the genes and less directly Clements Frederic Edward American botanist taxonomist and ecologist who influenced the early study of plant communities particularly the process of plant succession Clements was educated at the University of Nebraska where he studied under the influential American botanist Cohn Ferdinand German naturalist and botanist known for his studies of algae bacteria and fungi He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant His father spared no effort Comstock John Henry pioneering American educator and researcher in entomology his studies of scale insects and butterflies and moths provided the basis for systematic classification of these insects Comstock was educated at Cornell University Ithaca N Y and at Yale Coues Elliott American ornithologist who advanced the study and classification of North American birds An army physician 1864 81 Coues served also as a naturalist for the U S Northern Boundary Commission 1873 76 and for the U

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Taxonomy (2016-02-13)
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  • Zoology | Britannica.com
    New York and during 1882 86 she was a student Baird Spencer Fullerton American naturalist vertebrate zoologist and in his time the leading authority on North American birds and mammals A meeting in 1838 with John J Audubon who gave Baird part of his own collection of birds turned the young naturalist s interest to Balfour Francis Maitland British zoologist younger brother of the statesman Arthur James Balfour and a founder of modern embryology His interest in the subject was aroused by the lectures of the British physiologist Michael Foster and after graduation from Cambridge in Bates H W naturalist and explorer whose demonstration of the operation of natural selection in animal mimicry the imitation by a species of other life forms or inanimate objects published in 1861 gave firm support to Charles Darwin s theory of evolution In Bates Marston American zoologist whose studies of mosquitoes in the 1930s and 40s contributed greatly to the epidemiology of yellow fever in northern South America After several years of fieldwork Bates received his Ph D at Harvard University in 1934 From 1937 Berg Lev Simonovich geographer and zoologist who established the foundations of limnology in Russia with his systematic studies on the physical chemical and biological conditions of fresh waters particularly of lakes Important too was his work in ichthyology which Bonaparte Charles Lucien principe di Canimo e di Muignano scientist eldest son of Napoleon I s second surviving brother Lucien His publication of American Ornithology 4 vol 1825 33 established his scientific reputation In 1848 49 when he took part in the political agitation for Italian independence Brooks William Keith American zoologist known for his research on the anatomy and embryology of marine animals especially the tunicates crustaceans e g crayfish and mollusks notably the oyster In his acceptance of evolution he remained in the tradition of 19th century Chapman Frank M American ornithologist famous for his extensive and detailed studies of the life histories geographic distribution and systematic relationships of North and South American birds A self taught ornithologist Chapman was appointed assistant curator Child Charles Manning American zoologist who developed the axial gradient theory of regeneration and development a physiological explanation of the ordered re creation of animal parts following an injury While at the University of Chicago where he spent his academic life Clapp Cornelia Maria American zoologist and educator whose influence as a teacher was great and enduring in a period when the world of science was just opening to women Clapp graduated from Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1871 and after a year of teaching elsewhere she Clark Eugenie American ichthyologist noted for her research on poisonous fishes of the tropical seas and on the behaviour of sharks She was also an avid marine conservationist Clark was born to an American father and a Japanese mother Her father died when she was Comstock Anna Botsford American illustrator writer and educator remembered for her work in nature study Anna Botsford entered Cornell University in Ithaca New

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Biological-Sciences/Zoology (2016-02-13)
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