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  • Chemistry - 9 | Britannica.com
    uranium in the periodic table i e those with atomic numbers greater than 92 Twenty six of these elements have been discovered and named or are awaiting confirmation of their discovery Eleven of them triad in chemistry any of several sets of three chemically similar elements the atomic weight of one of which is approximately equal to the mean of the atomic weights of the other two Such triads including chlorine bromine iodine calcium strontium barium tritium T or 3 H the isotope of hydrogen with atomic weight of approximately 3 Its nucleus consisting of one proton and two neutrons has triple the mass of the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen Tritium is a radioactive species having a half life of 12 32 Tsien Roger Y American chemist who was a corecipient with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Chemistry Tsien attended Harvard University before receiving a Ph D in physiology from the University of Cambridge in 1977 He remained at tungsten W chemical element an exceptionally strong refractory metal of Group 6 VIb of the periodic table used in steels to increase hardness and strength and in lamp filaments Tungsten metal was first isolated 1783 by the Spanish chemists and mineralogists uranium U radioactive chemical element of the actinoid series of the periodic table atomic number 92 It is an important nuclear fuel Uranium constitutes about two parts per million of Earth s crust Some important uranium minerals are pitchblende impure Urey Harold C American scientist awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1934 for his discovery of the heavy form of hydrogen known as deuterium He was a key figure in the development of the atomic bomb and made fundamental contributions to a widely accepted theory van der Waals forces relatively weak electric forces that attract neutral molecules to one another in gases in liquefied and solidified gases and in almost all organic liquids and solids The forces are named for the Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals who in 1873 vanadium V chemical element silvery white soft metal of Group 5 Vb of the periodic table It is alloyed with steel and iron for high speed tool steel high strength low alloy steel and wear resistant cast iron Vanadium was discovered 1801 by the Spanish Vane Sir John Robert English biochemist who with Sune K Bergström and Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1982 for the isolation identification and analysis of prostaglandin s which are biochemical compounds that influence blood Vauquelin Nicolas Louis French chemist who discovered the elements chromium 1797 and beryllium 1798 A peasant s son Vauquelin went to work in an apothecary shop where he was befriended by Antoine François Fourcroy who made him his laboratory assistant 1783 91 Vauquelin Venter J Craig American geneticist biochemist and businessman who pioneered new techniques in genetics and genomics research and headed the private sector enterprise Celera Genomics in the Human Genome Project HGP Education and NIH research Soon after Venter Vieille Paul French scientist known for his invention of smokeless powder After studying with the chemist Marcellin Berthelot Vieille collaborated with him in researches that led to important discoveries of the physics of shock waves 1881 He then undertook vinyl compound any of various organic chemical compounds including acrylic compounds and styrene and its derivatives that are useful in making plastic film sheeting upholstery floor tile inflatable and solid toys buttons molded and extruded articles fibres Virtanen Artturi Ilmari Finnish biochemist whose investigations directed toward improving the production and storage of protein rich green fodder vitally important to regions characterized by long severe winters brought him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1945 As a chemistry vitamin any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as protein s carbohydrate s Wagner Carl German physical chemist and metallurgist who helped advance the understanding of the chemistry of solid state materials especially the effects of imperfections at the atomic level on the properties of compounds such as oxides and sulfides and of metals Waksman Selman Abraham Ukrainian born American biochemist who was one of the world s foremost authorities on soil microbiology After the discovery of penicillin he played a major role in initiating a calculated systematic search for antibiotics among microbes His screening Wald George American biochemist who received with Haldan K Hartline of the United States and Ragnar Granit of Sweden the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1967 for his work on the chemistry of vision While studying in Berlin as a National Research Council Walden Paul chemist who discovered the Walden inversion a reversal of stereochemical configuration that occurs in many reactions of covalent compounds Walden went to Germany after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and served as head of the chemistry department of Walker Sir John British chemist who was corecipient with Paul D Boyer of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1997 for their explanation of the enzymatic process that creates adenosine triphosphate ATP Walker and Boyer s findings offer insight into the way life forms Wallach Otto German chemist awarded the 1910 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for analyzing fragrant essential oils and identifying the compounds known as terpenes Wallach studied under Friedrich Wöhler at the University of Göttingen receiving his doctorate in 1869 He Warburg Otto German biochemist awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1931 for his research on cellular respiration After earning doctorates in chemistry at the University of Berlin 1906 and in medicine at Heidelberg 1911 Warburg became a prominent Weizmann Chaim first president of the new nation of Israel 1949 52 who was for decades the guiding spirit behind the World Zionist Organization Early life and education Chaim Azriel Weizmann was born of humble parents in November 1874 in Motol a backwater hamlet Welsbach Carl Auer Freiherr von

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  • Countries of Africa | Britannica.com
    Aziz sultan of Morocco from 1894 to 1908 whose reign was marked by an unsuccessful attempt to introduce European administrative methods in an atmosphere of increasing foreign influence Abd al Aziz was proclaimed sultan upon the death of his father Hassan Abd al Hafid sultan of Morocco 1908 12 the brother of Sultan Abd al Aziz against whom he revolted beginning in 1907 Appointed caliph of Marrakech by Abd al Aziz Abd al Hafid had no difficulty there in rousing the Muslim community against his brother s Western ʿAbd al Wādid dynasty dynasty of Zanātah Berbers 1236 1550 successors to the Almohad empire in northwestern Algeria In 1236 the Zanātahs loyal vassals to the Almohads gained the support of other Berber tribes and nomadic Arabs and set up a kingdom at Tilimsān Tlemcen ʿAbd Allāh political and religious leader who succeeded Muḥammad Aḥmad al Mahdī as head of a religious movement and state within the Sudan ʿAbd Allāh followed his family s vocation for religion In about 1880 he became a disciple of Muḥammad Aḥmad who announced Abd ar Rahman sultan of Morocco 1822 59 who was the 24th ruler of the ʿAlawī dynasty His reign was marked by both peaceful and hostile contacts with European powers particularly France Having succeeded to the throne without internal conflict Abd ar Rahman became Abd el Krim leader of the Berber forces during the Rif War 1921 26 against Spanish and French rule in North Africa and founder of the short lived Republic of the Rif 1923 26 A skilled tactician and a capable organizer he led a liberation movement that made Abdelkader amīr of Mascara from 1832 the military and religious leader who founded the Algerian state and led the Algerians in their 19th century struggle against French domination 1840 46 Early career His physical handsomeness and the qualities of his mind ʿAbduh Muḥammad religious scholar jurist and liberal reformer who led the late 19th century movement in Egypt and other Muslim countries to revitalize Islāmic teachings and institutions in the modern world As muftī Islāmic legal counsellor for Egypt from 1899 Abercromby Sir Ralph soldier whose command restored discipline and prestige to the British army after the disastrous campaigns in the Low Countries between 1793 and 1799 He prepared the way for the successful campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt Entering the army Abū al Ḥasan ʿAlī Marīnid sultan of Morocco reigned 1331 51 who increased the territories of his dynasty and for a brief time created a united North African empire In 1331 Abū al Ḥasan succeeded his father Abū Saʿīd to the throne With the goals of expelling the Abubakar Abdusalam Nigerian military leader who served as head of state 1998 99 Hailing from the middle belt of the country Abubakar joined the army in 1975 and received his formal military training in the United States He commanded Nigeria s contingent of United Achaemenes son of the Achaemenid king Darius I of Persia After the first rebellion of Egypt

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  • Countries of Asia | Britannica.com
    Malay politician who was prime minister of Malaysia 2003 09 In 1964 Abdullah graduated with a B A with honours in Islamic studies from the University of Malaya He then joined the Malayan civil service He served on the National Operation Council Abdullah II king of Jordan from 1999 and a member of the Hāshimite dynasty considered by pious Muslims to be direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad see Ahl al Bayt Abdullah the eldest son of King Ḥussein served as the crown prince until age three when Abdullah Sheikh Muhammad a prominent figure in India s struggle for independence from British rule who fought for the rights of the Kashmir region and won a semiautonomous status for Jammu and Kashmir state within independent India Abdullah was educated at the Prince of Wales Abe Isoo one of the founders of the Japanese socialist movement and titular head of the Social Mass Party Shakai Taishūtō from its inception in 1932 until 1940 He is also remembered for introducing the game of baseball to Japan Abe was attracted to socialism Abe Shinzo Japanese politician who twice was prime minister of Japan 2006 07 and 2012 Abe was a member of a prominent political family His grandfather Kishi Nobusuke served as Japan s prime minister from 1957 to 1960 and his great uncle Sato Eisaku held Adams William navigator merchant adventurer and the first Englishman to visit Japan At the age of 12 Adams was apprenticed to a shipbuilder in the merchant marine and in 1588 he was master of a supply ship for the British navy during the invasion of the Spanish Adıvar Halide Edib novelist and pioneer in the emancipation of women in Turkey Educated by private tutors and at the American College for Girls in Istanbul she became actively engaged in Turkish literary political and social movements She divorced her first husband Afghanistan landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south central Asia Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders and for millennia ʿAflaq Michel social and political leader who played a major role in the Arab nationalist movement during and after World War II ʿAflaq first saw nationalism as centring upon the issue of imperialism he especially resented the French who after World War I 1914 18 Aga Khan III only son of the Aga Khan II He succeeded his father as imam leader of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlī sect in 1885 Under the care of his mother who was born into the ruling house of Iran he was given an education that was not only Islamic and Oriental but Āghā Moḥammad Khān founder and first ruler of the Qājār dynasty of Iran Following the disintegration of the Ṣafavid empire in 1722 Qājār tribal chieftains became prominent in Iranian affairs At the age of six Āghā Moḥammad was castrated on the orders of ʿĀdil Shāh to Aguinaldo Emilio Filipino leader

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  • Countries of Europe | Britannica.com
    de Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal 1580 and notorious for his tyranny as governor general of the Netherlands 1567 73 In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles nicknamed the Council of Blood which Albania country in southern Europe located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea The capital city is Tirana Tiranë Albanians refer to themselves as shqiptarë often taken to mean Albuquerque Afonso de the Great Portuguese soldier conqueror of Goa 1510 in India and of Melaka 1511 on the Malay Peninsula His program to gain control of all the main maritime trade routes of the East and to build permanent fortresses with settled populations laid the foundations Alexander I emperor of Russia 1801 25 who alternately fought and befriended Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars but who ultimately 1813 15 helped form the coalition that defeated the emperor of the French He took part in the Congress of Vienna 1814 15 Alexander II emperor of Russia 1855 81 His liberal education and distress at the outcome of the Crimean War which had demonstrated Russia s backwardness inspired him toward a great program of domestic reforms the most important being the emancipation 1861 Alexander III emperor of Russia from 1881 to 1894 opponent of representative government and supporter of Russian nationalism He adopted programs based on the concepts of Orthodoxy autocracy and narodnost a belief in the Russian people that included the Russification Alexander Nevsky Saint prince of Novgorod 1236 52 and of Kiev 1246 52 and grand prince of Vladimir 1252 63 who halted the eastward drive of the Germans and Swedes but collaborated with the Mongols in imposing their rule on Russia By defeating a Swedish invasion force Alexis tsar of Russia from 1645 to 1676 The son of Michael the first Romanov monarch of Russia reigned 1613 45 Alexis received a superficial education from his tutor Boris Ivanovich Morozov before acceding to the throne at the age of 16 Morozov who was Alfonso XIII Spanish king 1902 31 who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic The posthumous son of Alfonso XII Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother María Alfred king of Wessex 871 899 a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy Compilation of the Anglo Saxon Chronicle began during his reign c 890 When he was born it must have Alia Ramiz president of Albania 1982 92 and head of the communist Party of Labour of Albania 1985 91 renamed the Socialist Party of Albania in 1991 Alia the son of Muslim parents from the Albanian speaking region of Kosovo in what was then Yugoslavia attended Andorra small independent European coprincipality situated among the southern peaks of the Pyrenees Mountains and bounded by France to the north and east

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  • Countries of North America | Britannica.com
    the returning Soviet Adams Abigail American first lady 1797 1801 the wife of John Adams second president of the United States and mother of John Quincy Adams sixth president of the United States She was a prolific letter writer whose correspondence gives an intimate and vivid portrayal Adams Charles Francis U S diplomat who played an important role in keeping Britain neutral during the U S Civil War 1861 65 and in promoting the arbitration of the important Alabama claims The son of Pres John Quincy Adams and the grandson of Pres John Adams Charles Adams family Massachusetts family with deep roots in American history whose members made major contributions to the nation s political and intellectual life for more than 150 years Established in America by Henry Adams who emigrated from England to Massachusetts Adams John early advocate of American independence from Great Britain major figure in the Continental Congress 1774 77 author of the Massachusetts constitution 1780 signer of the Treaty of Paris 1783 first American ambassador to the Court of St James Adams John Quincy eldest son of President John Adams and sixth president of the United States 1825 29 In his prepresidential years he was one of America s greatest diplomats formulating among other things what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine in his postpresidential Adams Samuel politician of the American Revolution leader of the Massachusetts radicals who was a delegate to the Continental Congress 1774 81 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence He was later lieutenant governor 1789 93 and governor 1794 97 Agassiz Louis Swiss born American naturalist geologist and teacher who made revolutionary contributions to the study of natural science with landmark work on glacier activity and extinct fishes He achieved lasting fame through his innovative teaching methods which Agnew Spiro T 39th vice president of the United States 1969 73 in the Republican administration of President Richard M Nixon He was the second person to resign the nation s second highest office John C Calhoun was the first in 1832 and the first to resign under Albert Carl American politician who served as a representative from Oklahoma 1947 77 in the U S House of Representatives and as speaker of the House 1971 76 Because of his short stature 5 feet 4 inches 1 62 metres and the area of Oklahoma he represented Albright Madeleine Czech born American public official who served as U S ambassador to the United Nations 1993 97 and who was the first woman to hold the cabinet post of U S secretary of state 1997 2001 Marie Jana Korbel was the daughter of a Czech diplomat After Almond Edward M American army officer who held important command positions during the Korean War Almond graduated from Virginia Military Institute VMI in 1915 and in November 1916 took a commission in the infantry He was promoted to captain in July 1917 and upon Alvarado Pedro de a conqueror of Mexico and Central America for Spain Alvarado

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  • Countries of Oceania | Britannica.com
    of Fiji He was sworn in officially as prime minister in September 2014 following his victory in the country s Ballance John prime minister of New Zealand 1891 93 who unified the Liberal Party which held power for 20 years he also played a major role in the enactment of social welfare legislation After working as an ironmonger in Birmingham Eng the self educated Ballance Barker Lady Mary Anne writer best known for her book Station Life in New Zealand 1870 a lively account of life in colonial New Zealand Stewart was educated in England and at age 21 she married George R Barker then a captain of the Royal Artillery He was knighted for Barton Sir Edmund statesman who guided the Australian federation movement to a successful conclusion and became the first prime minister of the resulting commonwealth in 1901 Barton in 1879 entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly where he served as speaker Bass George surgeon and sailor who was important in the early coastal survey of Australia Bass was apprenticed as a surgeon and in 1789 accepted in the Company of Surgeons He joined the Royal Navy where his proficiency in navigation and seamanship and interest Bell Sir Francis Henry Dillon New Zealand lawyer and statesman who had a leading role in the Cabinets of Prime Minister William Ferguson Massey 1912 25 He himself also served for a short time as prime minister of New Zealand 1925 Bell was initially a successful lawyer and Bishop Bronwyn Kathleen Australian Liberal Party politician who served in the federal Senate 1987 94 and House of Representatives 1994 she was speaker of the House from 2013 to 2015 Bishop was educated at the University of Sydney She was admitted to practice law in Bolger James Brendan New Zealand farmer and politician who served as prime minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997 Bolger was born to newly arrived Irish Roman Catholic immigrants who had taken up dairy farming in Taranaki province He left school at age 15 to help his Brabham Sir Jack Australian race car driver engineer and team owner who won the Formula One F1 Grand Prix world drivers championship three times 1959 1960 and 1966 and the automobile constructors championship twice 1966 and 1967 In 1966 he became the first Brown Bob Australian politician who served as a member of the Australian Senate 1996 2012 and as leader of the Australian Greens 2005 12 Brown was raised in rural New South Wales and he attended school in Sydney earning a medical degree from the University Bruce Stanley Melbourne statesman and diplomat who was prime minister of Australia from 1923 to 1929 He then became his country s leading emissary to Great Britain Bruce studied at the University of Cambridge and then practiced law in England After serving in the British Bryce Quentin Australian lawyer educator and politician who was the first woman to serve as governor general of Australia 2008 14 Strachan grew up in Ilfracombe

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  • Countries of South America | Britannica.com
    of Peru Following service in the Spanish navy Almagro arrived in South America in 1524 and with his intimate friend Francisco Pizarro led the expedition that conquered the Inca empire Alvear Marcelo T de statesman and political leader who served as president of Argentina from 1922 until 1928 Alvear belonged to a distinguished Argentine family He was educated at the University of Buenos Aires where he received a doctor of jurisprudence degree He was Amado Jorge novelist whose stories of life in the eastern Brazilian state of Bahia won international acclaim Amado grew up on a cacao plantation Auricídia and was educated at the Jesuit college in Salvador and studied law at Federal University in Rio de Janeiro Anchieta José de Portuguese Jesuit acclaimed as a poet dramatist and scholar He is considered one of the founders of the national literature of Brazil and is credited with converting more than a million Indians Anchieta came from a prominent Portuguese family and Andrada e Silva José Bonifácio de Brazilian statesman who played a key role in Brazil s attainment of independence from Portugal He is known to Brazilians as the Patriarch of Independence Andrada went to Portugal as a student and became a distinguished scholar there earning an international Arciniegas Angueyra Germán Colombian historian essayist diplomat and statesman whose long career in journalism and public service strongly influenced the cultural development of his country in the 20th century His contributions abroad as an educator and diplomat played an Argentina country of South America covering most of the southern portion of the continent The world s eighth largest country Argentina occupies an area more extensive than Mexico and the U S state of Texas combined It encompasses immense plains deserts Arron Henck politician who became prime minister of Suriname in 1973 and led that nation to independence in 1975 He was overthrown by a military coup in 1980 Arron worked in banks in the Netherlands and Dutch Guiana before entering politics in 1963 He was elected Arteaga Rosalía first female president of Ecuador Arteaga was one of three candidates who waged a legal battle for the Ecuadorian presidency in 1997 Arteaga studied journalism at the University of Cuenca She went on to become a lawyer and educator entering politics Artigas José Gervasio soldier and revolutionary leader who is regarded as the father of Uruguayan independence although that goal was not attained until several years after he had been forced into exile As a youth Artigas was a gaucho or cowboy in the interior of what Bachelet Michelle Chilean politician who served as president of Chile 2006 10 2014 She was the first female president of Chile and the first popularly elected South American president whose political career was established independently of her husband Bachelet s Balmaceda José Manuel liberal reformer and president of Chile 1886 91 whose conflict with his legislature precipitated a civil war in 1891 Balmaceda was elected to the Chilean congress from the Liberal Party in 1870 While serving

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  • Countries of the World - 3 | Britannica.com
    group in the Lesser Antilles it is located about 24 miles 39 kilometres south of Martinique and some 21 miles northeast of Saint Vincent Saint Lucia is 27 miles long and has a Saint Vincent and the Grenadines island country lying within the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea It consists of the island of Saint Vincent and the northern Grenadine Islands which stretch southward toward Grenada The island of Saint Vincent lies about 20 miles 32 Samoa country in the central South Pacific Ocean among the westernmost of the island nations of Polynesia According to legend Samoa is known as the Cradle of Polynesia because Savai i island is said to be Hawaiki the Polynesian homeland Samoan culture San Marino small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Emilia Romagna and Marche regions and surrounded on all sides by the Republic of Italy It is the smallest independent state in Europe after Vatican Sao Tome and Principe country of central Africa located on the Equator in the Gulf of Guinea It consists of two main islands São Tomé and Príncipe and several rocky islets including Rôlas south of São Tomé island and Caroço Pedras and Tinhosas south of Príncipe Land Saudi Arabia arid sparsely populated kingdom of the Middle East Extending across most of the northern and central Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia is a young country that is heir to a rich history In its western highlands along the Red Sea lies the Hejaz which Senegal country of sub Saharan West Africa Located at the westernmost point of the continent and served by multiple air and maritime travel routes Senegal is known as the Gateway to Africa The country lies at an ecological boundary where semiarid grassland Serbia country in the west central Balkans For most of the 20th century it was a part of Yugoslavia The capital of Serbia is Belgrade Beograd a cosmopolitan city at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers Stari Grad Belgrade s old town is dominated Seychelles island republic in the western Indian Ocean comprising about 115 islands The islands are home to lush tropical vegetation beautiful beaches and a wide variety of marine life Situated between latitudes 4 and 11 S and longitudes 46 and 56 E the Sierra Leone country of western Africa The country owes its name to the 15th century Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra the first European to sight and map Freetown harbour The original Portuguese name Serra Lyoa Lion Mountains referred to the range of Singapore city state located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula about 85 miles 137 kilometres north of the Equator It consists of the diamond shaped Singapore Island and some 60 small islets the main island occupies all but about 18 square miles of Slovakia landlocked country of central Europe It is roughly coextensive with the historic region of Slovakia the easternmost of the two territories that from 1918 to 1992 constituted Czechoslovakia The short history of independent Slovakia is one of a desire Slovenia country in central Europe that was part of Yugoslavia for most of the 20th century Slovenia is a small but topographically diverse country made up of portions of four major European geographic landscapes the European Alps the karstic Dinaric Alps Solomon Islands country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean It consists of a double chain of volcanic islands and coral atolls in Melanesia The country comprises most of the Solomons chain with the exception of Buka and Bougainville two islands at the northwestern Somalia easternmost country of Africa on the Horn of Africa It extends from just south of the Equator northward to the Gulf of Aden and occupies an important geopolitical position between sub Saharan Africa and the countries of Arabia and southwestern Asia South Africa the southernmost country on the African continent renowned for its varied topography great natural beauty and cultural diversity all of which have made the country a favoured destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid Afrikaans Spain country located in extreme southwestern Europe It occupies about 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula which it shares with its smaller neighbour Portugal Spain is a storied country of stone castles snowcapped mountains vast monuments and sophisticated Sri Lanka island country lying in the Indian Ocean and separated from peninsular India by the Palk Strait It is located between latitudes 5 55 and 9 51 N and longitudes 79 41 and 81 53 E and has a maximum length of 268 miles 432 km and a maximum width of Sudan country located in northeastern Africa The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al sūdān land of the blacks by which medieval Arab geographers referred to the settled African countries that began at the southern edge of the Sahara Sudan South country located in northeastern Africa Its rich biodiversity includes lush savannas swamplands and rainforests that are home to many species of wildlife Prior to 2011 South Sudan was part of Sudan its neighbour to the north South Sudan s population Suriname country located on the northern coast of South America Suriname is one of the smallest countries in South America yet its population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the region Its economy is dependent on its extensive supply of natural resources Swaziland landlocked country in the eastern flank of South Africa where it adjoins Mozambique It extends about 110 miles 175 kilometres from north to south and about 80 miles from west to east at its largest dimensions The name Swazi is the Anglicized name Sweden country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe The name Sweden was derived from the Svear or Suiones a people mentioned as early as 98 ce by the Roman author Tacitus The country s ancient name was Svithiod Stockholm has been the Switzerland federated country of central Europe Switzerland s administrative capital is Bern while Lausanne serves as

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