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  • Heads of State | Britannica.com
    as head of state 1998 99 Hailing from the middle belt of the country Abubakar joined the army in 1975 and received his formal military training in the United States He commanded Nigeria s contingent of United Acheampong Ignatius Kutu Ghanaian army officer who after leading a military revolt that overthrew the government of Kofi Busia became Ghana s chief of state in 1972 In July 1978 he was forced to resign and the following June he and his successor Lieut Gen F W K Akuffo Adams John early advocate of American independence from Great Britain major figure in the Continental Congress 1774 77 author of the Massachusetts constitution 1780 signer of the Treaty of Paris 1783 first American ambassador to the Court of St James Adams John Quincy eldest son of President John Adams and sixth president of the United States 1825 29 In his prepresidential years he was one of America s greatest diplomats formulating among other things what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine in his postpresidential Afonso I ruler of Kongo historical kingdom in west central Africa and the first of a line of Portuguese vassal kings that lasted until the early 20th century He is sometimes called The Apostle of Kongo for his role in making Kongo a Christian kingdom Nothing Agesilaus II king of Sparta from 399 to 360 who commanded the Spartan army throughout most of the period of Spartan supremacy 404 371 in Greece An excellent military tactician he is usually cited as the embodiment of the aggressive Spartan spirit that sought Ahab seventh king of the northern kingdom of Israel reigned c 874 c 853 bc according to the Old Testament and son of King Omri Omri left to Ahab an empire that comprised not only territory east of the Jordan River in Gilead and probably Bashan but Ahidjo Ahmadou first president of the United Republic of Cameroon who served from 1960 to 1982 He presided over one of the few successful attempts at supraterritorial African unity the joining of the southern half of the former British Cameroons with the larger Ahmadinejad Mahmoud Iranian political leader who served as president of Iran 2005 13 Political beginnings Ahmadinejad the son of a blacksmith grew up in Tehrān where in 1976 he entered the Iran University of Science and Technology IUST to study civil engineering Ahtisaari Martti Finnish politician and noted mediator who was president of Finland 1994 2000 In 2008 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts to resolve international conflicts Born in Viipuri Finland Ahtisaari was displaced along with the rest Akbar the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent In order to preserve the unity of his empire Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non Muslim populations Akhenaton king 1353 36 bce of ancient Egypt of the 18th dynasty who established a new cult dedicated to

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  • International Relations | Britannica.com
    the traditions of Arab classicism Abū Rīshah attended the University of Damascus in Syria the American University in Beirut Lebanon and the University of Manchester England Adams Charles Francis U S diplomat who played an important role in keeping Britain neutral during the U S Civil War 1861 65 and in promoting the arbitration of the important Alabama claims The son of Pres John Quincy Adams and the grandson of Pres John Adams Charles Adams John early advocate of American independence from Great Britain major figure in the Continental Congress 1774 77 author of the Massachusetts constitution 1780 signer of the Treaty of Paris 1783 first American ambassador to the Court of St James Adams John Quincy eldest son of President John Adams and sixth president of the United States 1825 29 In his prepresidential years he was one of America s greatest diplomats formulating among other things what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine in his postpresidential Adelaer Norwegian born seaman and naval officer distinguished in both Venetian and Danish naval history He entered the Dutch navy in 1639 as an adelborst cadet and served under Martin van Tromp but in 1642 moved into Venetian service where he was known Aehrenthal Alois Graf Lexa von foreign minister 1906 12 of the Austro Hungarian Dual Monarchy whose direction of the latter s annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina 1908 provoked an international crisis See Bosnian crisis of 1908 Entering the imperial foreign service as attaché Aetius Flavius Roman general and statesman who was the dominating influence over Valentinian III emperor 425 455 The son of a magister equitum master of the cavalry Aetius in his youth spent some time as a hostage with the Visigothic leader Alaric and later Agricola Gnaeus Julius Roman general celebrated for his conquests in Britain His life is set forth by his son in law the historian Tacitus After serving as military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus governor in Britain 59 61 Agricola became successively quaestor in Ahmed II Ottoman sultan 1691 95 whose reign was marked by the continuing war with the Holy League Austria Poland Venice Soon after his accession to the throne Ahmed s forces were defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen Hung The able grand vizier chief Ahmed Vefik Paşa Ottoman statesman and scholar who presided over the first Ottoman Parliament 1877 and who is known for his contributions to Turkish studies Born into a family of diplomats Ahmed Vefik was appointed 1849 imperial commissioner in the Danubian principalities Ahtisaari Martti Finnish politician and noted mediator who was president of Finland 1994 2000 In 2008 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts to resolve international conflicts Born in Viipuri Finland Ahtisaari was displaced along with the rest air warfare the tactics of military operations conducted by airplanes helicopters or other manned craft that are propelled aloft Air warfare may be conducted against other aircraft against targets on the ground and against targets on the water or beneath it

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  • Law | Britannica.com
    of the innocence of the defendant or defendants Such a judgment may be made by a jury in a trial or by a judge who rules that there is insufficient evidence either for conviction or for further proceedings administrative law the legal framework within which public administration is carried out It derives from the need to create and develop a system of public administration under law a concept that may be compared with the much older notion of justice under law Since administration adversary procedure in law one of the two methods of exposing evidence in court the other being the inquisitorial procedure The adversary procedure requires the opposing sides to bring out pertinent information and to present and cross examine witnesses This procedure advisory opinion in law the opinion of a judge a court or a law official such as an attorney general upon a question of law raised by a public official or legislative body Advisory opinions adjudicate nothing and are not binding though courts sometimes cite them advocate in law a person who is professionally qualified to plead the cause of another in a court of law As a technical term advocate is used mainly in those legal systems that derived from the Roman law In Scotland the word refers particularly to a member Advocates Faculty of the members of the bar of Scotland Barristers are the comparable group in England The faculty grew out of the Scots Act of 1532 which established the Court of Session in Scotland The advocates had and still have the sole right of audience in the affidavit a written statement of fact made voluntarily confirmed by the oath or affirmation of the party making it and signed before a notary or other officer empowered to administer such oaths Affidavits generally name the place of execution and certify that affirmation in law a promise by a witness concerning testimony allowed in place of an oath to those who cannot because of conscience swear an oath For example members of the Society of Friends Quakers Jehovah s Witnesses and other persons who have objections affreightment contract for carriage of goods by water freight being the price paid for the service of carriage Such contracts are of immense importance to the world economy forming the legal structure of the arterial traffic of the oceans Essentially such a agency in law the relationship that exists when one person or party the principal engages another the agent to act for him e g to do his work to sell his goods to manage his business The law of agency thus governs the legal relationship in which agency theory financial in organizational economics a means of assessing the work being done for a principal i e an employer by an agent i e an employee While consistent with the concept of agency traditionally advanced by legal scholars and attorneys the economic aggression in international relations an act or policy of expansion carried out by one state at

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  • Military | Britannica.com
    is usually cited as the embodiment of the aggressive Spartan spirit that sought Agrippa Marcus Vipsanius powerful deputy of Augustus the first Roman emperor He was chiefly responsible for the victory over Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 bc and during Augustus reign he suppressed rebellions founded colonies and administered various parts Ahenobarbus Gnaeus Domitius Roman general who became one of the chief partisans of Mark Antony after Antony defeated the assassins of Julius Caesar With his father Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus he had been a member of the group that in 49 bc made an unsuccessful attempt to prevent Aḥmad Shah Durrānī founder of the state of Afghanistan and ruler of an empire that extended from the Amu Darya ancient Oxus River to the Indian Ocean and from Khorāsān into Kashmir the Punjab and Sindh Head of the central government with full control of all departments aide de camp French camp assistant an officer on the personal staff of a general admiral or other high ranking commander who acts as his confidential secretary in routine matters On Napoleon s staff such officers were frequently of high military qualifications air force military organization of a nation that is primarily responsible for the conduct of air warfare The air force has the missions of gaining control of the air supporting surface forces as by bombing and strafing and accomplishing strategic bombing Akbar the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent In order to preserve the unity of his empire Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non Muslim populations Alanbrooke Alan Francis Brooke 1st Viscount British field marshal and chief of the Imperial General Staff during World War II He was educated in France and at the Royal Military Academy Woolwich and served in the Royal Artillery during World War I Between the World Wars he distinguished himself Alaric chief of the Visigoths from 395 and leader of the army that sacked Rome in August 410 an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire A nobleman by birth Alaric served for a time as commander of Gothic troops in the Roman army but shortly Alba Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel 3 er duque de Spanish soldier and statesman famous for his conquest of Portugal 1580 and notorious for his tyranny as governor general of the Netherlands 1567 73 In the Netherlands he instituted the Council of Troubles nicknamed the Council of Blood which Alcibiades brilliant but unscrupulous Athenian politician and military commander who provoked the sharp political antagonisms at Athens that were the main causes of Athens defeat by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War 431 404 bc Well born and wealthy Alcibiades Alekseyev Mikhail Vasilyevich commander in chief of the Russian Army for two months in World War I and a military and political leader of the White anti Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War that

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  • Politics | Britannica.com
    twice was prime minister of Japan 2006 07 and 2012 Abe was a member of a prominent political family His grandfather Kishi Nobusuke served as Japan s prime minister from 1957 to 1960 and his great uncle Sato Eisaku held Aberdeen George Hamilton Gordon 4th earl of British foreign secretary and prime minister 1852 55 whose government involved Great Britain in the Crimean War against Russia 1853 56 Orphaned at age 11 George Gordon who added his deceased first wife s family name to his own surname in 1818 absolutism the political doctrine and practice of unlimited centralized authority and absolute sovereignty as vested especially in a monarch or dictator The essence of an absolutist system is that the ruling power is not subject to regularized challenge or check Acton Sir John Francis Edward 6th Baronet commander of the naval forces of Tuscany and then of Naples who as prime minister of Naples allied that kingdom with England and Austria in the period of the French Revolution Finding the French Navy unappreciative of his skills Acton the son of an Aczél György politician communist ideologist and the preeminent personality in the cultural policy of the János Kádár regime 1956 88 in Hungary Born to a lower middle class Jewish family Aczél joined the communist youth movement in 1935 After World War II Adams John early advocate of American independence from Great Britain major figure in the Continental Congress 1774 77 author of the Massachusetts constitution 1780 signer of the Treaty of Paris 1783 first American ambassador to the Court of St James Adams John Quincy eldest son of President John Adams and sixth president of the United States 1825 29 In his prepresidential years he was one of America s greatest diplomats formulating among other things what came to be called the Monroe Doctrine in his postpresidential administrative law the legal framework within which public administration is carried out It derives from the need to create and develop a system of public administration under law a concept that may be compared with the much older notion of justice under law Since administration Agaja third ruler of the West African kingdom of Dahomey 1708 40 who was able to extend his kingdom southward to the coast and who consolidated and centralized it through important administrative reforms The first part of Agaja s reign was by far the more Ahern Bertie taoiseach prime minister of Ireland from 1997 to 2008 Ahern was educated at St Aidan s Christian Brothers secondary school Rathmines College of Commerce University College in Dublin and the London School of Economics obtaining degrees in taxation Ahidjo Ahmadou first president of the United Republic of Cameroon who served from 1960 to 1982 He presided over one of the few successful attempts at supraterritorial African unity the joining of the southern half of the former British Cameroons with the larger Akbar the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over

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  • Public Administration | Britannica.com
    unity of his empire Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non Muslim populations Alberoni Giulio statesman who as de facto premier of Spain 1716 19 played a major role in the revival of that nation after the War of the Spanish Succession 1701 14 The son of a gardener Alberoni was educated by the Jesuits took holy orders and in 1698 was appointed Albert III Achilles elector of Brandenburg soldier and administrative innovator who established the principle by which the mark of Brandenburg was to pass intact to the eldest son The third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern elector of Brandenburg Albert received his Alfonso XI king of Castile and Leon from 1312 who succeeded his father Ferdinand IV when he was only a year old His minority was marked by violent strife between factions of nobles but when he came of age in 1325 he restored order with unprecedented vigour Ayub Khan Mohammad president of Pakistan from 1958 to 1969 whose rule marked a critical period in the modern development of his nation After studying at Alīgarh Muslim University in Uttar Pradesh India and at the British Royal Military College at Sandhurst Ayub Baybars I most eminent of the Mamlūk sultans of Egypt and Syria which he ruled from 1260 to 1277 He is noted both for his military campaigns against Mongols and crusaders and for his internal administrative reforms The Sirat Baybars a folk account purporting bureaucracy specific form of organization defined by complexity division of labour permanence professional management hierarchical coordination and control strict chain of command and legal authority It is distinguished from informal and collegial organizations Caboche Simon French demagogic agitator whose raising of riots promoted an abortive reform of the royal administration A skinner by trade and a leader of the malcontent merchant guilds from 1407 Caboche along with his followers was taken under the patronage of cachet lettre de French letter of the sign or signet a letter signed by the king and countersigned by a secretary of state and used primarily to authorize someone s imprisonment It was an important instrument of administration under the ancien régime in France Canning Charles John Canning Earl statesman and governor general of India during the Indian Mutiny of 1857 He became the first viceroy of India in 1858 and played an important part in the work of reconstruction in that colony The youngest son of George Canning he was a member of Parliament Canute IV martyr patron saint and king of Denmark from 1080 to 1086 The son of King Sweyn II Estrithson of Denmark Canute succeeded his brother Harold Hen as king of Denmark Canute opposed the aristocracy and kept a close association with the church in an Catherine II German born empress of Russia 1762 96 who led her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe carrying on the work begun by Peter the Great With her ministers she reorganized the administration and law of

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  • Rights | Britannica.com
    John American clergyman legislator and judge who was an early advocate of civil and religious liberty After graduating from the College of New Jersey later Princeton University in 1765 Bacon preached in Delaware In 1771 he was named minister of Old Baker Ella American community organizer and political activist who brought her skills and principles to bear in the major civil rights organizations of the mid 20th century Baker was reared in Littleton North Carolina In 1918 she began attending the high school Banerjee Mamata Indian politician legislator and bureaucrat who served as the first female chief minister head of government of West Bengal state India 2011 Banerjee grew up in a lower middle class part of south Calcutta now Kolkata and her father died when Barker Bob American game show host and animal rights activist who was best known for hosting The Price Is Right 1972 2007 During World War II Barker trained as a U S Navy fighter pilot After graduating from Drury College now Drury University B A 1947 Barry Marion American civil rights activist and politician who served four terms as mayor of Washington D C Barry received a bachelor s degree from LeMoyne College 1958 and a master s degree from Fisk University 1960 He was a founding member of the Student Belo Carlos Filipe Ximenes Roman Catholic bishop of Dili who with José Ramos Horta received the 1996 Nobel Prize for Peace for their efforts to bring peace to East Timor Timor Timur during the period that it was under Indonesian control 1975 99 Belo was ordained a bishop Bevel James Luther American minister and political activist who played a pivotal role in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s Although Bevel initially intended to pursue a recording career he felt called to Christian ministry He entered the American Baptist Black Hugo L lawyer politician and associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1937 71 Black s legacy as a Supreme Court justice derives from his support of the doctrine of total incorporation according to which the Fourteenth Amendment to the Blackmun Harry A associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1970 to 1994 Blackmun graduated in mathematics from Harvard University in 1929 and received his law degree from that institution in 1932 He joined a Minneapolis Minnesota law firm in 1934 Bradwell Myra Colby American lawyer and editor who was involved in several landmark cases concerning the legal rights of women Myra Colby grew up in Portage New York and from 1843 in Schaumburg township near Elgin Illinois She was educated in schools in Kenosha Wisconsin Brown Henry Billings associate justice of the United States Supreme Court 1890 1906 Brown was admitted to the bar in 1860 in Detroit and the following year appointed deputy U S marshal there Two years later he was named assistant U S attorney for the eastern district Bustillos García Edwin human rights activist and environmentalist who spent most of his life

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  • United States Presidency | Britannica.com
    who led his country s response to the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001 and initiated the Iraq War in 2003 Narrowly winning the electoral college vote in 2000 over Vice Pres Al Gore in one of the Carter Jimmy 39th president of the United States 1977 81 who served as the nation s chief executive during a time of serious problems at home and abroad His perceived inability to deal successfully with those problems led to an overwhelming defeat in his bid Cleveland Grover 22nd and 24th president of the United States 1885 89 and 1893 97 and the only president ever to serve two discontinuous terms Cleveland distinguished himself as one of the few truly honest and principled politicians of the Gilded Age His view of Clinton Bill 42nd president of the United States 1993 2001 who oversaw the country s longest peacetime economic expansion In 1998 he became the second U S president to be impeached he was acquitted by the Senate in 1999 For a discussion of the history and Coolidge Calvin 30th president of the United States 1923 29 Coolidge acceded to the presidency after the death in office of Warren G Harding just as the Harding scandals were coming to light He restored integrity to the executive branch of the federal government Eisenhower Dwight D 34th president of the United States 1953 61 who had been supreme commander of the Allied forces in western Europe during World War II For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency see presidency of the United States of America Fillmore Millard 13th president of the United States 1850 53 whose insistence on federal enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 alienated the North and led to the destruction of the Whig Party Elected vice president in 1848 he became chief executive on the Ford Gerald 38th president of the United States 1974 77 who as 40th vice president succeeded to the presidency on the resignation of President Richard M Nixon under the process decreed by the Twenty fifth Amendment to the Constitution and thereby became the Garfield James A 20th president of the United States March 4 September 19 1881 who had the second shortest tenure in presidential history When he was shot and incapacitated serious constitutional questions arose concerning who should properly perform the functions Grant Ulysses S U S general commander of the Union armies during the late years 1864 65 of the American Civil War and 18th president of the United States 1869 77 For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency see presidency of the United States Harding Warren G 29th president of the United States 1921 23 Pledging a nostalgic return to normalcy following World War I Harding won the presidency by the greatest popular vote margin to that time He died during his third year in office and was succeeded by Harrison Benjamin 23rd president of the United States 1889 93 a moderate Republican who

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