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  • Age of Revolutions | Britannica.com
    of the French Revolution Finding the French Navy unappreciative of his skills Acton the son of an Adams Charles Francis U S diplomat who played an important role in keeping Britain neutral during the U S Civil War 1861 65 and in promoting the arbitration of the important Alabama claims The son of Pres John Quincy Adams and the grandson of Pres John Adams Charles Adams John early advocate of American independence from Great Britain major figure in the Continental Congress 1774 77 author of the Massachusetts constitution 1780 signer of the Treaty of Paris 1783 first American ambassador to the Court of St James Adams Samuel politician of the American Revolution leader of the Massachusetts radicals who was a delegate to the Continental Congress 1774 81 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence He was later lieutenant governor 1789 93 and governor 1794 97 Aehrenthal Alois Graf Lexa von foreign minister 1906 12 of the Austro Hungarian Dual Monarchy whose direction of the latter s annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina 1908 provoked an international crisis See Bosnian crisis of 1908 Entering the imperial foreign service as attaché Affre Denis Auguste prelate archbishop of Paris and opponent of King Louis Philippe remembered for his brave attempt to end the June 1848 riots in which he was accidentally slain Affre was ordained a priest in 1818 and became a Sulpician and a teacher of theology in Africa the second largest continent after Asia covering about one fifth of the total land surface of the Earth The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean on the north by the Mediterranean Sea on the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean African American one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States African Americans are mainly of African ancestry but many have nonblack ancestors as well African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves people who were brought from their Agaja third ruler of the West African kingdom of Dahomey 1708 40 who was able to extend his kingdom southward to the coast and who consolidated and centralized it through important administrative reforms The first part of Agaja s reign was by far the more Aix la Chapelle Treaty of Oct 18 1748 treaty negotiated largely by Britain and France with the other powers following their lead ending the War of the Austrian Succession 1740 48 The treaty was marked by the mutual restitution of conquests including the fortress of Alabama claims maritime grievances of the United States against Great Britain accumulated during and after the American Civil War 1861 65 The claims are significant in international law for furthering the use of arbitration to settle disputes peacefully and for Álava y Esquivel Miguel Ricardo de soldier in the Napoleonic Wars and statesman Álava was an aide de camp to the duke of Wellington and the Spanish commissary at the duke s headquarters during the Peninsular War On the restoration of Ferdinand VII

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  • Modern World | Britannica.com
    World War II A Christian Democrat and firmly anticommunist he supported the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO and worked to Afghanistan War international conflict in Afghanistan beginning in 2001 that was triggered by the September 11 attacks and consisted of three phases The first phase toppling the Taliban the ultraconservative political and religious faction that ruled Afghanistan and African Union AU intergovernmental organization established in 2002 to promote unity and solidarity of African states to spur economic development and to promote international cooperation The African Union AU replaced the Organization of African Unity OAU Aga Khan III only son of the Aga Khan II He succeeded his father as imam leader of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlī sect in 1885 Under the care of his mother who was born into the ruling house of Iran he was given an education that was not only Islamic and Oriental but Ahtisaari Martti Finnish politician and noted mediator who was president of Finland 1994 2000 In 2008 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts to resolve international conflicts Born in Viipuri Finland Ahtisaari was displaced along with the rest Akiyama Toyohiro Japanese journalist and television reporter the first Japanese citizen and the first journalist to travel into space Akiyama was also the first fare paying civilian passenger nonprofessional astronaut to participate in a spaceflight Akiyama earned Al Saud Sultan ibn Salman the first Saudi Arabian citizen the first Arab the first Muslim and the first member of a royal family to travel into space Educated in the United States Sultan received a degree in mass communications from the University of Denver Colorado and Alanbrooke Alan Francis Brooke 1st Viscount British field marshal and chief of the Imperial General Staff during World War II He was educated in France and at the Royal Military Academy Woolwich and served in the Royal Artillery during World War I Between the World Wars he distinguished himself Albert I king of the Belgians 1909 34 who led the Belgian army during World War I and guided his country s postwar recovery The younger son of Philip count of Flanders brother of King Leopold II Albert succeeded to the throne in 1909 Leopold s son and Albright Madeleine Czech born American public official who served as U S ambassador to the United Nations 1993 97 and who was the first woman to hold the cabinet post of U S secretary of state 1997 2001 Marie Jana Korbel was the daughter of a Czech diplomat After Aldrin Buzz American astronaut who was the second man to set foot on the Moon A graduate of the U S Military Academy West Point New York 1951 Aldrin became an air force pilot He flew 66 combat missions in Korea and later served in West Germany In 1963 he Alekseyev Mikhail Vasilyevich commander in chief of the Russian Army for two months in World War I and a military and political leader of the White anti Bolshevik forces in the Russian

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  • Historical Buildings and Landmarks | Britannica.com
    duke Academy of Venice Galleries of the museum of art in Venice housing an unrivaled collection of paintings from the Venetian masters of the 13th through the 18th century There are outstanding works by Giovanni Bellini Giorgione Titian Tintoretto Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto Adam Robert Scottish architect and designer who with his brother James 1730 94 transformed Palladian Neoclassicism in England into the airy light elegant style that bears their name His major architectural works include public buildings especially in London Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn Mosque of huge and majestic red brick building complex built in 876 by the Turkish governor of Egypt and Syria It was built on the site of present day Cairo and includes a mosque surrounded by three outer ziyādah s or courtyards Much of the decoration and design air conditioning the control of temperature humidity purity and motion of air in an enclosed space independent of outside conditions An early method of cooling air as practiced in India was to hang wet grass mats over windows where they cooled incoming air by evaporation Ajanta Caves Buddhist rock cut cave temples and monasteries located near Ajanta village north central Maharashtra state western India that are celebrated for their wall paintings The temples are hollowed out of granite cliffs on the inner side of a 70 foot 20 metre Alamo Spanish Cottonwood 18th century Franciscan mission in San Antonio Texas U S that was the site of a historic resistance effort by a small group of determined fighters for Texan independence 1836 from Mexico The building was originally the chapel Albert prince of Monaco 1889 1922 seaman amateur oceanographer and patron of the sciences whose contributions to the development of oceanography included innovations in oceanographic equipment and technique and the founding and endowment of institutions Alberti Leon Battista Italian humanist architect and principal initiator of Renaissance art theory In his personality works and breadth of learning he is considered the prototype of the Renaissance universal man Childhood and education The society and class into Albertinum museum in Dresden Ger displaying fine art and national treasures It is one of several institutions associated with the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden The Albertinum named for King Albert of Saxony was built on the foundations of a former armoury Albright Knox Art Gallery museum in Buffalo New York U S that is noted for its collections of contemporary painting and sculpture including American and European art of the 1950s 60s and 70s Schools such as Abstract Expressionism Pop and Op art and Minimalism are Alcatraz former maximum security prison located on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay off the coast of California Alcatraz originally envisioned as a naval defense fortification was designated a residence for military offenders in 1861 and it housed a alcove recess opening off a room or other space enclosed by walls or hedges In medieval architecture it was commonly used as a sleeping space off the main body of a drafty hall The separation of the alcove from

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  • Historical Disasters | Britannica.com
    miles 25 km west of Chimbote a fishing port in Andrea Doria Italian passenger liner that sank on July 25 26 1956 after colliding with the Stockholm off the coast of Nantucket in the Atlantic Ocean The maritime disaster resulted in the deaths of 51 people 46 from the Andrea Doria and 5 from the Stockholm The Andrew Hurricane tropical cyclone that ravaged The Bahamas southern Florida and south central Louisiana in late August 1992 At the time Hurricane Andrew was the most expensive Atlantic hurricane in U S history later surpassed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 Hurricane Australia bushfires of 2009 series of bushfires that killed 173 people injured 500 and destroyed numerous homes in the Australian state of Victoria on Feb 7 2009 a day later dubbed Black Saturday On February 7 Victorians were told to brace for a record heat wave with temperatures Australia floods of 2010 2011 natural disaster that principally affected the three eastern states of Australia and was one of the worst in the country s history Queensland in the north was hit hardest but the widespread flooding of a scale not seen since the mid 1970s that began Baillou Guillaume de physician founder of modern epidemiology who revived Hippocratic medical practice in Renaissance Europe Dean of the University of Paris medical faculty 1580 he compiled a clear account of epidemics between 1570 and 1579 the first comprehensive Bangladesh cyclone of 1991 April 22 30 1991 one of the deadliest tropical cyclones ever recorded The storm hit near the Chittagong region one of the most populated areas in Bangladesh An estimated 140 000 people were killed by the storm as many as 10 million people lost Bengal cyclone of 1876 deadly cyclone that struck Bangladesh then part of the province of Bengal in British India on Oct 31 1876 killing approximately 200 000 people The cyclone formed over the Bay of Bengal and made landfall at the Meghna River estuary A high tide Bhopal disaster chemical leak in 1984 in the city of Bhopal Madhya Pradesh state India At the time it was called the worst industrial accident in history On December 3 1984 about 45 tons of the dangerous gas methyl isocyanate escaped from an insecticide plant Bhuj earthquake of 2001 massive earthquake that occurred on Jan 26 2001 in the Indian state of Gujarat on the Pakistani border The earthquake struck near the town of Bhuj on the morning of India s annual Republic Day celebrating the creation of the Republic of India Big Blowup of 1910 devastating forest fire that torched 3 million acres 1 2 million hectares in western Montana and northern Idaho during Aug 20 23 1910 Of the fire s 85 victims 78 were firefighters After record low precipitation in April and May 1910 severe lightning Bihar train disaster train wreck that killed hundreds of people on June 6 1981 when a passenger train derailed on a bridge and plunged into the Baghmati River in the state of

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  • Historical Events | Britannica.com
    the Hejaz was educated in Istanbul in what was then the Ottoman Empire After the Young Turk Revolution of Abdullah Sheikh Muhammad a prominent figure in India s struggle for independence from British rule who fought for the rights of the Kashmir region and won a semiautonomous status for Jammu and Kashmir state within independent India Abdullah was educated at the Prince of Wales abolitionism c 1783 1888 in western Europe and the Americas the movement chiefly responsible for creating the emotional climate necessary for ending the transatlantic slave trade and chattel slavery With the decline of Roman slavery in the 5th century the Abruzzi Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco duca d Spanish mountaineer and explorer whose ventures ranged from Africa to the Arctic The son of King Amadeus of Spain who was also the Duke d Aosta in Italy Abruzzi was the first to ascend Mount St Elias in Alaska 1897 His 1899 Arctic expedition Abū Niḍāl Arabic Father of the Struggle militant leader of the Fatah Revolutionary Council more commonly known as the Abū Niḍāl Organization ANO or Abū Niḍāl Group a Palestinian organization that engaged in numerous acts of terrorism beginning in the mid 1970s Adelaer Norwegian born seaman and naval officer distinguished in both Venetian and Danish naval history He entered the Dutch navy in 1639 as an adelborst cadet and served under Martin van Tromp but in 1642 moved into Venetian service where he was known Aetius Flavius Roman general and statesman who was the dominating influence over Valentinian III emperor 425 455 The son of a magister equitum master of the cavalry Aetius in his youth spent some time as a hostage with the Visigothic leader Alaric and later Afonso V 10th king of Portugal 1438 81 known as the African from his campaigns in Morocco The son of King Edward Duarte and Queen Leonor daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon Afonso succeeded to the throne at the age of six In 1440 his mother was deprived Agricola Gnaeus Julius Roman general celebrated for his conquests in Britain His life is set forth by his son in law the historian Tacitus After serving as military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus governor in Britain 59 61 Agricola became successively quaestor in Aguinaldo Emilio Filipino leader and politician who fought first against Spain and later against the United States for the independence of the Philippines Aguinaldo was of Chinese and Tagalog parentage He completed his education at the University of Santo Tomás in Aguirre Lope de Spanish adventurer whose name practically became synonymous with cruelty and treachery in colonial Spanish America Nothing is known of Aguirre s life prior to 1544 when he arrived in Peru and took part in the Spanish suppression of Indian rebellions Ahmed II Ottoman sultan 1691 95 whose reign was marked by the continuing war with the Holy League Austria Poland Venice Soon after his accession to the throne Ahmed s forces were defeated by the Austrians at Slankamen Hung

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  • Historical Geography | Britannica.com
    city and one of the most important archaeological sites of ancient Egypt The site located in the low desert west of the Nile River near Al Balyanā was a necropolis for the earliest Egyptian royalty and later a pilgrimage centre for Acadia North American Atlantic seaboard possessions of France in the 17th and 18th centuries Centred in what are now New Brunswick Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island Acadia was probably intended to include parts of Maine U S and Quebec The first organized Adal historic Islāmic state of eastern Africa in the Danakil Somali region southwest of the Gulf of Aden with its capital at Harer now in Ethiopia Its rivalry with Christian Ethiopia began in the 14th century with minor border raids and skirmishes In ʿAdullam ancient city and modern development region in the upper part of Ha Shefela central Israel The mound of Tel ʿAdullam or H orbat Ruins of ʿAdullam Arabic Tall Ash Shaykh Madhkūr 22 5 miles 36 km southwest of Jerusalem is generally accepted Africa in ancient Roman history the first North African territory of Rome at times roughly corresponding to modern Tunisia It was acquired in 146 bc after the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War Initially the province comprised the Agenais former province of France of which Agen was the centre and to which the modern département of Lot et Garonne nearly corresponds In ancient Gaul Agenais was the country of the Nitiobriges then a Gallo Roman civitas whose limits became those of the Aggtelek Caves limestone cave system on the Hungarian Slovakian border about 30 miles 50 km northwest of Miskolc Hungary and 40 miles 65 km southwest of Košice Slovakia It is the largest stalactite cave system in Europe and its stalactite and stalagmite formations Ahhiyawā ancient kingdom lying to the west of the Hittite empire The exact location of Ahhiyawā is not definitely known but may have been western Anatolia or one of the islands in the Aegean Sea The most commonly held theory is that the people of Ahhiyawā were Ajanta Caves Buddhist rock cut cave temples and monasteries located near Ajanta village north central Maharashtra state western India that are celebrated for their wall paintings The temples are hollowed out of granite cliffs on the inner side of a 70 foot 20 metre ʿAjjul Tall al ancient site in southern Palestine located at the mouth of the Ghazzah Wadi just south of the town of Gaza modern Ghazzah The site often called ancient Gaza was excavated between 1930 and 1934 by British archaeologists under the direction of Akkad ancient region in what is now central Iraq Akkad was the northern or northwestern division of ancient Babylonian civilization The region was located roughly in the area where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers see Tigris Euphrates river system are Aksum ancient town in northern Ethiopia It lies at an elevation of about 7 000 feet 2 100 metres just west of Adwa Once the

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  • Historical Leaders and Rulers | Britannica.com
    National Operation Council Abe Shinzo Japanese politician who twice was prime minister of Japan 2006 07 and 2012 Abe was a member of a prominent political family His grandfather Kishi Nobusuke served as Japan s prime minister from 1957 to 1960 and his great uncle Sato Eisaku held Aberdeen George Hamilton Gordon 4th earl of British foreign secretary and prime minister 1852 55 whose government involved Great Britain in the Crimean War against Russia 1853 56 Orphaned at age 11 George Gordon who added his deceased first wife s family name to his own surname in 1818 Acton Sir John Francis Edward 6th Baronet commander of the naval forces of Tuscany and then of Naples who as prime minister of Naples allied that kingdom with England and Austria in the period of the French Revolution Finding the French Navy unappreciative of his skills Acton the son of an admiral the title and rank of a senior naval officer often referred to as a flag officer who commands a fleet or group of ships of a navy or who holds an important naval post on shore The term is sometimes also applied to the commander of a fleet of merchant adoption the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity In most ancient civilizations Ahern Bertie taoiseach prime minister of Ireland from 1997 to 2008 Ahern was educated at St Aidan s Christian Brothers secondary school Rathmines College of Commerce University College in Dublin and the London School of Economics obtaining degrees in taxation Akhenaton king 1353 36 bce of ancient Egypt of the 18th dynasty who established a new cult dedicated to the Aton the sun s disk hence his assumed name Akhenaton meaning beneficial to Aton Early reign Few scholars now agree with the contention that Amenhotep Alexander the Great king of Macedonia 336 323 bce who overthrew the Persian empire carried Macedonian arms to India and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms Already in his lifetime the subject of fabulous stories he later became Alfred king of Wessex 871 899 a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England He prevented England from falling to the Danes and promoted learning and literacy Compilation of the Anglo Saxon Chronicle began during his reign c 890 When he was born it must have ʿAllāwī Ayād Iraqi politician who was involved in the Iraqi National Accord a party opposed to Ṣaddām Ḥussein and who later served as prime minister 2004 05 of the interim government in Iraq In 2010 his coalition was victorious in Iraq s parliamentary election Andrada e Silva José Bonifácio de Brazilian statesman who played a key role in Brazil s attainment of independence from Portugal He is known to Brazilians as the Patriarch of Independence Andrada went to Portugal as a student and became

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  • World Heritage Sites | Britannica.com
    west of Adwa Once the seat of the kingdom of Aksum it is now a tourist town and religious centre best known for its antiquities Tall granite obelisks Aldabra Islands atoll one of the world s largest in the Indian Ocean about 600 miles 1 000 km southwest of the Seychelles group and part of the Republic of the Seychelles The Aldabras together with Farquhar and Desroches islands and the Chagos Archipelago formed Alhambra palace and fortress of the Moorish monarchs of Granada Spain The name Alhambra signifying in Arabic the red is probably derived from the colour of the sun dried tapia bricks made of fine gravel and clay of which the outer walls are built Constructed Altamira cave in northern Spain famous for its magnificent prehistoric paintings and engravings It is situated 19 miles 30 km west of the port city of Santander in Cantabria provincia Altamira was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985 The cave Amiens Cathedral Gothic cathedral located in the historic city of Amiens France in the Somme River valley north of Paris It is the largest of the three great Gothic cathedrals built in France during the 13th century and it remains the largest in France It has an Angkor archaeological site in what is now northwestern Cambodia lying 4 miles 6 km north of the modern town of Siĕmréab It was the capital of the Khmer Cambodian empire from the 9th to the 15th century a period that is considered the classical era of Aoraki Mount Cook National Park park west central South Island New Zealand Established in 1953 it has an area of 273 square miles 707 square km and has a common western boundary with Westland National Park The park extends for about 40 miles 65 km along the crest of the Southern Ashur ancient religious capital of Assyria located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern Iraq The first scientific excavations there were conducted by a German expedition 1903 13 led by Walter Andrae Ashur was a name applied to the city to Auschwitz Nazi Germany s largest concentration camp and extermination camp Located near the industrial town of Oświęcim in southern Poland in a portion of the country that was annexed by Germany at the beginning of World War II Auschwitz was actually three Avebury archaeological site in Kennet district administrative and historic county of Wiltshire England some 18 5 miles 30 km north of Stonehenge It is one of the largest and best known prehistoric sites in Europe encompassing 28 5 acres 11 5 hectares Ayutthaya town and former capital of the Tai state of Ayutthaya Siam located in central Thailand about 55 miles 89 km north of Bangkok The site of immense temples and other structures that are important both historically and architecturally Ayutthaya was Baalbeck large archaeological complex encompassing the ruins of an ancient Roman town in eastern Lebanon It is located in the broad Al Biqāʿ Bekaa Valley region at

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