archive-com.com » COM » B » BRITANNICA.COM

Total: 1375

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Chinese Literature | Britannica.com
    or Hou Later Han dynasty and one of China s most noteworthy historians His Han shu translated as The History of the Former Han Dynasty became the model most frequently used by later Chinese historians Ban Zhao renowned Chinese scholar and historian of the Dong Eastern Han dynasty The daughter of a prominent family Ban Zhao married at age 14 but her husband died while she was still young She never remarried devoting herself instead to literature and Baren Chinese prose writer and critic who was the first Chinese literary theorist to promote the Marxist point of view After graduating from primary school Wang entered the Fourth Normal School in Ningpo In 1920 Wang completed his studies and began his Bei Dao Chinese poet and writer of fiction who was commonly considered the most influential poet in China during the 1980s he went into exile in 1989 The eruption of the Cultural Revolution in 1966 interrupted Zhao Zhenkai s formal education A member of the Bian Zhilin Chinese poet and translator especially noted for his highly evocative poetry Bian left home to attend the university in Beijing in the early 1930s There he met Western educated poets Xu Zhimo and Wen Yiduo and became familiar with such poets as T S Bianzong lun Chinese Discussions of Essentials treatise by Xie Lingyun an early Chinese Buddhist intellectual and renowned poet valued chiefly as one of the few sources of information about the author s eminent teacher Daosheng 434 ce According to Daosheng Bingxin Chinese Pure in Heart Chinese writer of gentle melancholy poems stories and essays that enjoyed great popularity Bingxin studied the Chinese classics and began writing traditional Chinese stories as a child but her conversion to Christianity and Cao Yu Chinese playwright who was a pioneer in huaju word drama a genre influenced by Western theatre rather than traditional Chinese drama which is usually sung Wan Jiabao was educated at Nankai University in Tianjin and Qinghua University in Beijing Cao Zhan author of Hongloumeng Dream of the Red Chamber generally considered China s greatest novel A partly autobiographical work it is written in the vernacular and describes in lingering detail the decline of the powerful Jia family and the ill fated Cao Zhi one of China s greatest lyric poets and the son of the famous general Cao Cao Cao Zhi was born at the time his father was assuming command over the northern third of China later known as the Wei kingdom In a family of poets the verses of Cao Cao and Cen Shen one of the celebrated poets of the Tang dynasty 618 907 of China Because of the decline of his aristocratic family Cen had to rely upon his literary skill to secure government appointment through the examination system During the 750s he held several Chinese literature the body of works written in Chinese including lyric poetry historical and didactic writing drama and various forms of fiction Chinese literature is one of the major literary

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Chinese-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • East Asian Literatures | Britannica.com
    1919 A Certain Woman and for his strong humanitarian views Arishima was the son of a talented and aristocratic family his younger brothers included the painter Arishima Ikuma and the novelist Satomi Ariyoshi Sawako Japanese novelist short story writer and playwright who reached a popular audience with serialized novels of social realism that chronicled domestic life in Japan Ariyoshi studied literature and theatre at the Tokyo Women s Christian College from Aying Chinese critic and historian of modern Chinese literature A member of the Communist Party and of the standing committee of the League of Left Wing Writers he began c 1930 to gather and study materials on the literature of modern times and of the Ming Ba Jin Chinese anarchist writer whose novels and short stories achieved widespread popularity in the 1930s and 40s Having been born to a wealthy gentry family Li Yaotang received a traditional Confucian education as well as training in modern foreign languages Bai Juyi Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty 618 907 who used his elegantly simple verse to protest the social evils of his day including corruption and militarism Bai Juyi began composing poetry at age five Because of his father s death in 794 and straitened Bamboo Annals set of Chinese court records written on bamboo slips from the state of Wei one of the many small states into which China was divided during the Dong Eastern Zhou dynasty 770 256 bce The state records were hidden in a tomb uncovered some 6 miles Ban Gu Chinese scholar official of the Dong Eastern or Hou Later Han dynasty and one of China s most noteworthy historians His Han shu translated as The History of the Former Han Dynasty became the model most frequently used by later Chinese historians Ban Zhao renowned Chinese scholar and historian of the Dong Eastern Han dynasty The daughter of a prominent family Ban Zhao married at age 14 but her husband died while she was still young She never remarried devoting herself instead to literature and Baren Chinese prose writer and critic who was the first Chinese literary theorist to promote the Marxist point of view After graduating from primary school Wang entered the Fourth Normal School in Ningpo In 1920 Wang completed his studies and began his Bashō the supreme Japanese haiku poet who greatly enriched the 17 syllable haiku form and made it an accepted medium of artistic expression Interested in haiku from an early age Bashō at first put his literary interests aside and entered the service of Before the Dawn historical novel by Shimazaki Tōson published serially as Yoake mae in the journal Chūō koron Central Review from 1929 to 1935 and printed in book form in 1935 It details the effects of Westernization on a rural Japanese community in the second Bei Dao Chinese poet and writer of fiction who was commonly considered the most influential poet in China during the 1980s he went into exile in 1989 The eruption of the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/East-Asian-Literatures (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • English Literature | Britannica.com
    the mock science fiction series known collectively as The Hitchhiker s Guide Adams Richard English author known for redefining anthropomorphic fiction most notably with Watership Down 1972 film 1978 a novel that naturalistically depicts the travails of a group of wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus seeking a new home Adams Adamson Joy conservationist who pioneered the movement to preserve African wildlife Following an education in Vienna she relocated to Kenya 1939 where she married George Adamson 1944 a British game warden who had worked in Kenya as a gold prospector goat Adcock Fleur New Zealand born British poet known for her tranquil domestic lyrics intercut with flashes of irony and glimpses of the fantastic and the macabre Adcock s family moved to England in 1939 but returned to New Zealand in 1947 After earning degrees at Addison Joseph English essayist poet and dramatist who with Richard Steele was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator His writing skill led to his holding important posts in government while the Whigs were Adichie Chimamanda Ngozi Nigerian author whose work drew extensively on the Biafran war in Nigeria during the late 1960s Early in life Adichie the fifth of six children moved with her parents to Nsukka Nigeria A voracious reader from a young age she found Things Fall Apart AE poet artist and mystic a leading figure in the Irish literary renaissance of the late 19th and early 20th centuries Russell took his pseudonym from a proofreader s query about his earlier pseudonym AEon After attending the Metropolitan School Aidoo Ama Ata Ghanaian writer whose work written in English emphasized the paradoxical position of the modern African woman Aidoo began to write seriously while an honours student at the University of Ghana B A 1964 She won early recognition with a problem Aiken Joan prolific British author of fantasy adventure horror and suspense tales for both juvenile and adult readers Perhaps best known as the inventor of a genre called the unhistorical romance Aiken wrote tales that combine humour and action with traditional Ainsworth William Harrison English author of popular historical romances Ainsworth initially studied law but left it for literature publishing his first novel anonymously in 1826 His first success came with the novel Rookwood 1834 featuring the highwayman Dick Turpin which Akenside Mark poet and physician best known for his poem The Pleasures of Imagination an eclectic philosophical essay that takes as its starting point papers on the same subject written by Joseph Addison for The Spectator Written in blank verse derived from Milton s Alcock John architect bishop and statesman who founded Jesus College Cambridge and who was regarded as one of the most eminent pre Reformation English divines Educated at Cambridge Alcock was made dean of Westminster 1461 and thereafter his promotion was Aldington Richard poet novelist critic and biographer who wrote searingly and sometimes irascibly of what he considered to be hypocrisy in modern industrialized civilization Educated at Dover

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/English-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • French Literature | Britannica.com
    at Leuven after his patron s death in 1261 his fortunes wavered owing Adolphe novel by Benjamin Constant published in 1816 Written in a lucid classical style Adolphe describes in minute analytical detail a young man s passion for a woman older than himself A forerunner of the modern psychological novel it is a thinly disguised Against the Grain novel by Joris Karl Huysmans published in French as À rebours in 1884 It was also translated into English as Against Nature In both its style and its subject the work epitomizes the decadence of late 19th century French elite culture The protagonist Aicard Jean French poet novelist and dramatist best known for his poems of the Provence region As a young man Aicard studied law but abandoned it to devote himself to literature His first book of poetry Jeunes croyances 1867 Beliefs of a Youth showed Aimard Gustave French popular novelist who wrote adventure stories about life on the American frontier and in Mexico He was the main 19th century French practitioner of the western novel At the age of 12 Aimard went to sea as a ship s boy and subsequently witnessed Alain Fournier French writer whose only completed novel Le Grand Meaulnes 1913 The Wanderer or The Lost Domain is a modern classic Based on his happy childhood in a remote village in central France Alain Fournier s novel reflects his longing for a lost world Albertine fictional character the mistress of Marcel narrator of À la recherche du temps perdu 1913 27 Remembrance of Things Past or In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust She appears in several volumes of the seven part novel notably À l ombre des jeunes Alceste title character of Molière s comedy Le Misanthrope first performed 1666 Alceste s disgust with the superficialities and deceits of his fellows culminating in his withdrawal from society provides the play s mild dramatic conflict Alembert Jean Le Rond d French mathematician philosopher and writer who achieved fame as a mathematician and scientist before acquiring a considerable reputation as a contributor to and editor of the famous Encyclopédie Early life The illegitimate son of a famous hostess Almaviva Count character in two plays Le Barbier de Séville 1775 The Barber of Seville and Le Mariage de Figaro 1784 The Marriage of Figaro by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais Almaviva is introduced in The Barber of Seville as a young count in love with Ambrose d Évreux Norman poet and chronicler who accompanied Richard I of England as a minstrel on the Third Crusade Nothing more is known of him than that he was probably a native of Évreux and was a noncombatant making the pilgrimage to Jerusalem His account of the Amiot Jean Joseph Marie Jesuit missionary whose writings made accessible to Europeans the thought and life of East Asia Amiot entered the Society of Jesus in 1737 and was sent as a missionary to China in 1750 While in China he helped verify certain

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/French-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • German Literature | Britannica.com
    by Franz Kafka written between 1912 and 1914 and prepared for publication by Max Brod in 1927 three years after the author s death The manuscript was entitled Der Verschollene The Lost One Kafka had published the first chapter Angelus Silesius religious poet remembered primarily as the author of Der Cherubinischer Wanders mann 1674 The Cherubic Wanderer a major work of Roman Catholic mysticism The son of a Lutheran Polish nobleman Scheffler was court physician to the Duke of Oels in Anzengruber Ludwig Austrian playwright and novelist who won acclaim for his realistic plays of peasant life After working for a time as an actor Anzengruber published an anti clerical drama Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld 1870 The Pastor of Kirchfeld which was a great Arndt Ernst Moritz prose writer poet and patriot who expressed the national awakening in his country in the Napoleonic era Arndt was educated at Stralsund Greifswald and Jena and qualified for the Lutheran ministry At the age of 28 he rejected his clerical career Arnim Achim von folklorist dramatist poet and story writer whose collection of folk poetry was a major contribution to German Romanticism While a student at the University of Heidelberg Arnim published jointly with Clemens Brentano a remarkable collection of folk Arnim Bettina von one of the outstanding figures of German Romanticism memorable not only for her books but also for the personality they reflect All of her writings whatever their ostensible themes are essentially self portraits Von Arnim was unconventional to the Aschenbach Gustave von fictional character in Thomas Mann s novel Death in Venice 1912 Aschenbach is a well respected middle aged German writer whose life is as disciplined and coldly intellectual as his writing While on holiday in Venice he falls in love with Tadzio Auerbach Berthold German novelist noted chiefly for his tales of village life Auerbach prepared for the rabbinate but estranged from Jewish orthodoxy by the study of the 17th century Dutch philosopher Benedict de Spinoza he turned instead to literature Spinoza s Auto da Fé novel by Elias Canetti published in 1935 in German as Die Blendung The Deception It was also published in English as The Tower of Babel Originally planned as the first in a series of eight novels examining mad visionaries the book deals with Ayrer Jakob dramatist who incorporated elements of Elizabethan plays e g spectacular stage effects violent action histrionic bombast the stock figure of the clown into his own plays particularly his Fastnachtsspiele the farces performed at Shrovetide the Bachmann Ingeborg Austrian author whose sombre surreal writings often deal with women in failed love relationships the nature of art and humanity and the inadequacy of language Bachmann grew up in Kärnten during World War II and was educated at the Universities of Bahr Hermann Austrian author and playwright who championed successively naturalism Romanticism and Symbolism After studying at Austrian and German universities he settled in Vienna where he worked on a number of newspapers His early critical works Zur Kritik

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/German-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Greek Literature | Britannica.com
    first victory at the festival of the Great Dionysia in which plays were presented and judged was gained in 416 bc The event is made by Plato the occasion for his dialogue Symposium and the banquet which is the setting Alcaeus Greek lyric poet whose work was highly esteemed in the ancient world He lived at the same time and in the same city as the poet Sappho A collection of Alcaeus s surviving poems in 10 books now lost was made by scholars in Alexandria Egypt in the Alcidamas prominent Sophist and rhetorician who taught in Athens He was a pupil of Gorgias and a rival of Isocrates His only extant work Peri sōphiston Concerning Sophists stresses the superiority of extempore though prepared speeches over written ones Alciphron rhetorician who wrote a collection of fictitious letters a form of literature popular in his day About 120 letters have survived The background of them all is Athens in the 4th century bc and the imaginary writers are farmers fishermen parasites Alcman Greek poet who wrote choral lyrics in a type of Doric related to the Laconian vernacular used in the region that included Sparta Alcman s work was divided by the editors of Hellenistic Alexandria 3rd and 2nd centuries bc into six books or papyrus Alexander Aetolus Greek poet and scholar of Pleuron in Aetolia He was appointed by Ptolemy II Philadelphus Macedonian king of Egypt to work on the tragedies in the library at Alexandria Nothing remains of his own tragic writing except the title of one play Astragalistae Alexis one of the foremost writers of Middle and New Comedy at Athens a low form of comedy that succeeded the Old Comedy of Aristophanes Alexis came from Thurii but apparently lived most of his long life in Athens he was said to have been Menander s uncle Amyot Jacques French bishop and classical scholar famous for his translation of Plutarch s Lives Les Vies des hommes illustres Grecs et Romains 1559 which became a major influence in shaping the Renaissance concept of the tragic hero Amyot was educated at the Anacreon ancient Greek lyric poet who wrote in the Ionic dialect Only fragments of his verse have survived The edition of Anacreon s poetry known to later generations was probably prepared in Alexandria by Aristarchus in the 2nd century bce and divided into Andrew of Crete Saint archbishop of Gortyna Crete regarded by the Greek Church as one of its greatest hymn writers From his monastery in Jerusalem he was sent to Constantinople modern Istanbul where he became deacon of the Hagia Sophia During the reign of the Byzantine Antimachus of Colophon Greek poet and scholar author of an epic in 24 books entitled Thebais about the expedition of the Seven Against Thebes This work enjoyed little popular success at first but it was greatly admired in antiquity beginning with Plato Antimachus s other Antiphanes prolific and influential Greek writer of Middle Comedy which succeeded Old Comedy known from

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Greek-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Indian Literature | Britannica.com
    novel The son of a coppersmith Ashvaghosha philosopher and poet who is considered India s greatest poet before Kalidasa 5th century and the father of Sanskrit drama he popularized the style of Sanskrit poetry known as kavya Ashvaghosha was born a Brahman Legend obscures the man but it is Aṣṭchāp Sanskrit Eight Seals group of 16th century Hindi poets four of whom were disciples of the Vaishnava leader Vallabha and four of his son and successor Viṭṭhala The greatest of the group was Sūrdās a blind singer whose descriptions of the exploits Aurobindo Shri seer poet and Indian nationalist who propounded the philosophy of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution Aurobindo s education began in a Christian convent school in Darjeeling Darjiling While still a boy he was sent to England for further Bahinābāī Bahini poet saint sant remembered as a composer of devotional songs abhanga s in Marathi to the Hindu deity Viṭṭhal Her work is preserved through oral performance kīrtan old handwritten manuscripts and modern printed collections Bahinābāī in her Bana one of the greatest masters of Sanskrit prose famed principally for his chronicle Harshacharita c 640 The Life of Harsha depicting the court and times of the Buddhist emperor Harsha reigned c 606 647 of northern India Bana gives some autobiographical Bengali literature the body of writings in the Bengali language of the Indian subcontinent Its earliest extant work is a pre 12th century collection of lyrics that reflect the beliefs and practices of the Sahajiyā religious sect The dispersal of the poets of the Muslim Bharati Subrahmanya C outstanding Indian writer of the nationalist period who is regarded as the father of the modern Tamil style The son of a learned Brahman Bharati became a Tamil scholar at an early age He received little formal education however and in 1904 moved Bharavi Sanskrit poet who was the author of Kiratarjuniya Arjuna and the Mountain Man one of the classical Sanskrit epics classified as a mahakavya great poem His poetry characterized by its lofty expression and intricate style may have influenced Bhartrihari Hindu philosopher and poet grammarian author of the Vakyapadiya Words in a Sentence on the philosophy of language according to the shabdadvaita word nondualism school of Indian philosophy Of noble birth Bhartrihari was attached for a time Bhāsa the earliest known Sanskrit dramatist many of whose complete plays have been found In 1912 an Indian scholar discovered and published the texts of 13 of Bhāsa s dramas previously known only by the allusions of ancient Sanskrit dramatists His best Bhatti Sanskrit poet and grammarian author of the influential Bhattikavya which is a mahakavya great poem or classical epic composed of a variable number of comparatively short cantos He is often confused with the writers Bhartrihari and Vatsabhatti Bhavabhuti Indian dramatist and poet whose dramas written in Sanskrit and noted for their suspense and vivid characterization rival the outstanding plays of the better known playwright Kalidasa A Brahman of Vidarbha the part of central India later called

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Indian-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Irish Literature | Britannica.com
    for reform of prison conditions It was inspired by the two years Wilde spent in the jail in Reading Eng after being convicted of sodomy Banville John Irish novelist and journalist whose fiction is known for being referential paradoxical and complex Common themes throughout his work include loss obsession destructive love and the pain that accompanies freedom Banville attended St Peter s College Beach Sylvia bookshop operator who became important in the literary life of Paris particularly in the 1920s when her shop was a gathering place for expatriate writers and a centre where French authors could pursue their newfound interest in American literature Behan Brendan Irish author noted for his earthy satire and powerful political commentary Reared in a family active in revolutionary and left wing causes against the British Behan at the age of eight began what became a lifelong battle with alcoholism After leaving Bickerstaffe Isaac Irish playwright whose farces and comic operas were popular in the late 18th century There is no apparent connection between his name and the pseudonym earlier adopted by Jonathan Swift and also used by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele for The Tatler Binchy Maeve Irish journalist and author of best selling novels and short stories about small town Irish life Noted as a superb storyteller Binchy examined her characters and their relationships with wit and great understanding Educated at University College Blackwood Caroline Irish journalist and novelist whose psychological fiction examines physical and emotional deformity She was married at different times to the British artist Lucian Freud and the American poet Robert Lowell Blackwood a descendant of the 18th century Bloom Leopold fictional character the Odysseus figure whose wanderings through Dublin during one 24 hour period on June 16 1904 form the central action of James Joyce s Ulysses 1922 Bloom is curious decent pacific and somewhat timid Though he never leaves Bloom Molly one of the three central characters in the novel Ulysses 1922 by James Joyce The unfaithful wife of Leopold Bloom Molly makes a derisively mocking parallel to Penelope the faithful wife of Odysseus Ulysses in Homer s Odyssey In Episode 18 the Boland Eavan Irish poet and literary critic whose expressive verse explored familiar domestic themes and examined both the isolation and the beauty of being a woman wife and mother Boland was educated in Dublin London and New York City moving as a result of Borstal Boy autobiographical work by Irish writer Brendan Behan published in 1958 The book portrays the author s early rebelliousness his involvement with the Irish Republican cause and his subsequent incarceration for two years in an English Borstal or reformatory Boucicault Dion Irish American playwright and actor a major influence on the form and content of American drama Educated in England Boucicault began acting in 1837 and in 1840 submitted his first play to Mme Vestris at Covent Garden it was rejected His second play Bowen Elizabeth British novelist and short story writer who employed a finely wrought prose style in

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Irish-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive



  •