archive-com.com » COM » B » BRITANNICA.COM

Total: 1375

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Portuguese Literature | Britannica.com
    and arcádia any of the 18th century Portuguese literary societies that attempted to revive poetry in that country by urging a return to classicism They were modeled after the Academy of Arcadia which had been established in Rome in 1690 as an arbiter of Italian Barbeitos Arlindo Angolan poet many of whose works written in Portuguese portray in a subtle manner the struggle of his people for independence as well as the essential harmony between man and nature From 1965 to 1969 Barbeitos studied in West Germany He returned Barbosa Jorge African poet who expressed in Portuguese the cultural isolation and the tragic nature of life on the drought stricken Cape Verdean islands In delicately phrased verse that became a model for later poets he often praised the stoic endurance of a people Bessa Luís Agustina novelist and short story writer whose fiction diverged from the predominantly neorealistic regionalism of mid 20th century Portuguese literature to incorporate elements of surrealism The best known of Bessa Luís s early novels is A Sibila 1954 The Bocage Manuel Maria Barbosa du Neoclassical Portuguese lyric poet who aspired to be a second Camões but who dissipated his energies in a stormy life The son of a lawyer Bocage left school at the age of 14 to join the army then transferred to the navy at 16 At the Royal Navy Academy Braga Teófilo poet critic and statesman who was the first to attempt a complete history of Portuguese literature Braga s family was Roman Catholic and monarchist by tradition but he himself soon became noted for his intransigent republicanism and anticlericalism Camões Luís de Portugal s great national poet author of the epic poem Os Lusíadas 1572 The Lusiads which describes Vasco da Gama s discovery of the sea route to India Camões had a permanent and unparalleled impact on Portuguese and Brazilian literature alike cancioneiro Portuguese songbook collection of Portuguese lyrics cantigas dating from the 12th century The earliest examples of Portuguese Galician poetry composed from the 12th to the 14th century were collected during the 14th and 15th centuries into Castelo Branco Camilo Portuguese novelist whose 58 novels range from Romantic melodramas to works of realism He is sometimes known as the Portuguese Balzac Born illegitimately into a family believed to have had a hereditary tendency to insanity Camilo was orphaned in childhood Castilho António Feliciano de poet and translator a central figure in the Portuguese Romantic movement Although blind from childhood he became a classical scholar and at the age of 16 published a series of poems translations and pedagogical works Castilho s literary life may Castro Eugénio de leading Portuguese Symbolist and Decadent poet Castro s best known collection of poetry Oaristos 1890 Intimate Chats launched Symbolism in Portugal His Symbolism maintains the essential doctrines of the French theorists of the movement in contrast Castro Rosalía de the most outstanding modern writer in the Galician language whose work is of both regional and universal significance In 1858 Castro married

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Portuguese-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Russian Literature | Britannica.com
    Russian novelist and short story writer one of the leading literary spokesmen for the generation of Soviets who reached maturity after World War II The son of parents who spent many years in Soviet prisons Aksyonov was raised in a state home and graduated Aldanov Mark Russian émigré writer best known for work bitterly critical of the Soviet system In 1919 Aldanov emigrated to France which he left for the United States in 1941 although six years later he returned to France He wrote an essay on Lenin 1921 Deux Aliger Margarita Iosifovna Russian poet journalist and Soviet propagandist Born into a poor family Aliger was a committed communist from an early age She studied writing in Moscow from 1934 to 1937 at what later became the Gorky Literary Institute In the late 1930s she wrote Alliluyeva Svetlana Russian born daughter of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin her defection to the United States in 1967 caused an international sensation She was Stalin s only daughter and a product of his second marriage with Nadezhda Alliluyeva who committed suicide in And Quiet Flows the Don first part of the novel Tikhy Don by Mikhail Sholokhov The Russian novel was published between 1928 and 1940 the English translation of the first part appeared in 1934 The Don Flows Home to the Sea part two of the original novel was published in Andreyev Leonid Nikolayevich novelist whose best work has a place in Russian literature for its evocation of a mood of despair and absolute pessimism At the age of 20 Andreyev entered St Petersburg University but lived restlessly for some time In 1894 after several attempts Anna Karenina novel by Leo Tolstoy published in installments between 1875 and 1877 and considered one of the pinnacles of world literature The narrative centres on the adulterous affair between Anna wife of Aleksey Karenin and Count Vronsky a young bachelor Artsybashev Mikhail Petrovich Russian prose writer whose works were noted for their extreme pessimism violence and eroticism Artsybashev began publishing short stories in 1895 but it was not until 1903 04 that he achieved an amount of fame His most famous work is the novel Sanin Arzamas society Russian literary circle that flourished in 1815 18 and was formed for the semiserious purpose of ridiculing the conservative Lovers of the Russian Word a group dominated by the philologist Aleksandr S Shishkov who wished to keep the modern Russian August 1914 historical novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn published as Avgust chetyrnadtsatogo in Paris in 1971 An enlarged version nearly double in size was published in 1983 The novel treats Germany s crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement Aytmatov Chingiz author translator journalist and diplomat best known as a major figure in Kyrgyz and Russian literature Aytmatov s father was a Communist Party official executed during the great purges directed by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in the late 1930s Baba Yaga in Russian folklore an ogress who steals cooks and eats her victims usually children A

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Russian-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Scandinavian Literature | Britannica.com
    Carl Jonas Love writer whose vast literary output ranging from bizarre romanticism to bold realism greatly influenced the development of Swedish literature Although his work is uneven he is a master of Swedish prose After studying at Uppsala Almqvist entered the Andersen Hans Christian unique master of the literary fairy tale whose stories are famous throughout the world he is also the author of plays novels poems travel books and several autobiographies While many of these works are almost unknown outside Denmark his fairy Andersen Nexø Martin writer who was the first Danish novelist to champion social revolution His works helped raise social consciousness in Denmark and throughout Europe Nexø came from an extremely poor family in the slums of Copenhagen but spent most of his childhood on Andersen Tryggve novelist and short story writer of the Neoromantic movement in Norway who depicted the conflict between the bureaucratic and peasant cultures and who helped revive Dano Norwegian literature Born on a farm Andersen attended the University of Kristiania Andersson Dan poet and prose writer an early practitioner of working class literature who became one of the few popular Swedish poets Born to a poor family headed by a devoutly religious father Andersson was a woodsman and charcoal burner before he became a temperance Anhava Tuomas Finnish poet and translator working within the modernist tradition of Ezra Pound and T S Eliot Anhava was a perfectionist in his poetry with a fanatical concern for le mot propre and a great theoretical interest in the aesthetics of modern poetry Arason Jón poet and last Roman Catholic bishop in Iceland remembered as a national as well as a religious hero The son of poor parents he rose quickly to eminence in the church and was consecrated bishop of Hólar the northern diocese of Iceland in 1522 He Ásgrímsson Eysteinn Icelandic monk author of Lilja The Lily the finest religious poem produced in Roman Catholic Iceland Records of Ásgrímsson s life are scant In 1343 he was imprisoned probably for thrashing his abbot and perhaps for a breach of chastity as well Aspenström Werner Swedish lyrical poet and essayist Aspenström s images are characterized by intensity and a rare lyrical quality In the cycle Snölegend 1949 Snow Legend Litania 1952 Litany and Hundarna 1954 The Dogs the poet treats his metaphysical Atterbom Per Daniel Amadeus leader in the Swedish Romantic movement a poet literary historian and professor of philosophy aesthetics and modern literature While a student at Uppsala he founded with some friends the society Musis Amici 1807 renamed Auroraförbundet 1808 Aukrust Olav regional poet whose verse contributed to the development of Nynorsk New Norwegian an amalgam of rural Norwegian dialects as a literary language Born in a narrow often sunless valley flanked by steep mountains Aukrust was raised by pietistic parents Baggesen Jens leading Danish literary figure in the transitional period between Neoclassicism and Romanticism In 1782 Baggesen went to Copenhagen to study theology Three years later at age 21 he had an

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Scandinavian-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • South Asian Literature | Britannica.com
    considered a founder of the English language Indian novel The son of a coppersmith Ashvaghosha philosopher and poet who is considered India s greatest poet before Kalidasa 5th century and the father of Sanskrit drama he popularized the style of Sanskrit poetry known as kavya Ashvaghosha was born a Brahman Legend obscures the man but it is Aṣṭachāp Hindi Eight Seals group of 16th century Hindi poets four of whom are claimed to have been disciples of Vallabha and four of his son and successor Viṭṭhalnāth The greatest of the group was Sūrdās who is remembered as a blind singer and whose descriptions Aṣṭchāp Sanskrit Eight Seals group of 16th century Hindi poets four of whom were disciples of the Vaishnava leader Vallabha and four of his son and successor Viṭṭhala The greatest of the group was Sūrdās a blind singer whose descriptions of the exploits Aurobindo Shri seer poet and Indian nationalist who propounded the philosophy of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution Aurobindo s education began in a Christian convent school in Darjeeling Darjiling While still a boy he was sent to England for further Bahinābāī Bahini poet saint sant remembered as a composer of devotional songs abhanga s in Marathi to the Hindu deity Viṭṭhal Her work is preserved through oral performance kīrtan old handwritten manuscripts and modern printed collections Bahinābāī in her Bana one of the greatest masters of Sanskrit prose famed principally for his chronicle Harshacharita c 640 The Life of Harsha depicting the court and times of the Buddhist emperor Harsha reigned c 606 647 of northern India Bana gives some autobiographical Bengali literature the body of writings in the Bengali language of the Indian subcontinent Its earliest extant work is a pre 12th century collection of lyrics that reflect the beliefs and practices of the Sahajiyā religious sect The dispersal of the poets of the Muslim Bharati Subrahmanya C outstanding Indian writer of the nationalist period who is regarded as the father of the modern Tamil style The son of a learned Brahman Bharati became a Tamil scholar at an early age He received little formal education however and in 1904 moved Bharavi Sanskrit poet who was the author of Kiratarjuniya Arjuna and the Mountain Man one of the classical Sanskrit epics classified as a mahakavya great poem His poetry characterized by its lofty expression and intricate style may have influenced Bhartrihari Hindu philosopher and poet grammarian author of the Vakyapadiya Words in a Sentence on the philosophy of language according to the shabdadvaita word nondualism school of Indian philosophy Of noble birth Bhartrihari was attached for a time Bhāsa the earliest known Sanskrit dramatist many of whose complete plays have been found In 1912 an Indian scholar discovered and published the texts of 13 of Bhāsa s dramas previously known only by the allusions of ancient Sanskrit dramatists His best Bhatti Sanskrit poet and grammarian author of the influential Bhattikavya which is a mahakavya great poem or classical epic composed of a variable

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/South-Asian-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Spanish Literature | Britannica.com
    Spanish writer of Italian Irish ancestry regarded as one of the major Spanish poets of the 20th century Alberti studied art in Madrid and enjoyed some success as a painter before 1923 when he began writing and publishing poems in magazines His first Aldecoa Ignacio Spanish novelist whose work is noted for its local colour and careful composition Aldecoa studied at the University of Madrid became a newspaper writer and from 1947 to 1956 was a broadcaster for the radio station Voice of the Falange He published Aleixandre Vicente Spanish poet a member of the Generation of 1927 who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1977 He was strongly influenced by the Surrealist technique of poetic composition Aleixandre was the son of a railway engineer He studied law and business Alemán Mateo novelist a master stylist best known for his early highly popular picaresque novel Guzmán de Alfarache Descended from Jews who had been forcibly converted to Catholicism Alemán expressed many aspects of the experiences and feelings of the New Christians Alonso Dámaso Spanish poet literary critic and scholar a member of the group of poets called the Generation of 1927 Educated at the University of Madrid Alonso taught at the Centre of Historical Studies Madrid 1923 36 and was a professor at the University Alós Concha Spanish novelist and short story writer best known for her neorealistic often existential works deploring social injustice especially the institutionally sanctioned victimization of women Alós and her family fled to Murcia during the Spanish Civil Antonio Nicolás first systematic historian of Spanish literature His Bibliotheca Hispana appeared in two parts Nova 1672 Vetus 1696 The first is a vast bibliography of Peninsular and Spanish colonial writers after 1500 with critical evaluations The second Aribau Buenaventura Carles economist and author whose poem Oda a la patria 1832 Ode to the Fatherland marked the renaissance of Catalan literature in the 19th century in Spain After working in Madrid at the banking establishment of Gaspar Remisa 1830 41 Aribau became Arniches Carlos popular Spanish dramatist of the early 20th century best known for works in the género chico lesser genre the one act zarzuela musical comedy and the one act sainete sketch These plays were based upon direct observation of the customs and auto sacramental Spanish sacramental act Spanish dramatic genre that reached its height in the 17th century with autos written by the playwright Pedro Calderón de la Barca Performed outdoors as part of the Corpus Christi feast day celebrations autos were short Ayala Francisco Spanish novelist and sociologist whose literary works examined the abuse of power and its moral implications for individuals and society Ayala received a law degree from the University of Madrid in 1929 at which time he had already published the novel Azorín novelist essayist and the foremost Spanish literary critic of his day He was one of a group of writers who were engaged at the turn of the 20th century in a concerted attempt to revitalize Spanish life

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Spanish-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Turkish Literature | Britannica.com
    14th century Anatolia As a young man Ahmedi studied with the famous scholar Akmal ad Din al Babarti in Cairo He then went to Kütahya in Anatolia and wrote for the ruler Amīr Süleyman 1367 86 Later he went to the Ahmet Paşa Bursali one of the most important figures in 15th century Turkish literature Born into a prominent family Ahmet Paşa received a classical Islamic education and was appointed as a teacher in the madrasah religious college in the city of Bursa In 1451 he Aşık Paşa poet who was one of the most important figures in early Turkish literature Very little about his life is known A wealthy and respected figure in his community he apparently was also a very religious sheikh mystic leader hence his name Aşık which Bâkî one of the greatest lyric poets of the classical period of Ottoman Turkish literature The son of a muezzin he lived in Constantinople After an apprenticeship as a saddler he entered a religious college where he studied Islāmic law He also came Cumalı Necati Turkish writer and translator whose notable contributions to his native literature include poetry short fiction essays and plays He was one of the best known Turkish writers of the 20th century At the age of 18 Cumalı began publishing poetry After Ekrem Recaizade Mahmud writer who was one of the outstanding figures in 19th century Turkish literature The son of a poet and scholar Ekrem was apprenticed to a number of government offices after his formal education Later he became an official in the Council of State and Fraşeri Şemseddin Sami author and lexicographer who was a leading figure in 19th century Turkish literature Born into an established Albanian Muslim family Fraşeri was educated at the Greek school of Janina and was also given lessons in Turkish Persian and Arabic by private Fuzuli Mehmed bin Süleyman Turkish poet and the most outstanding figure in the classical school of Turkish literature A resident of Baghdad Fuzuli apparently came from a family of religious officials and was well versed in the thought of his day but very little is known about Gâlib Dede Turkish poet one of the last great classical poets of Ottoman literature Gâlib Dede was born into a family that was well connected with the Ottoman government and with the Mawlawīyah or Mevlevîs an important order of Muslim dervishes Continuing ghazal in Islamic literatures genre of lyric poem generally short and graceful in form and typically dealing with themes of love As a genre the ghazal developed in Arabia in the late 7th century from the nasib which itself was the often amorous prelude Gökalp Ziya sociologist writer and poet one of the most important intellectuals and spokesmen of the Turkish nationalist movement While Gökalp was a student at the Constantinople Veterinary School his active membership in a secret revolutionary society led Güntekin Reșat Nuri prolific Turkish novelist short story writer journalist and playwright His best known work is the novel C alıkușu

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Turkish-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Vietnamese Literature | Britannica.com
    Vietnamese language devised by mid 17th century Portuguese missionaries and further modified by Alexandre de Rhodes a 17th century French missionary Nguyen Du best loved poet of the Vietnamese and creator of the epic poem Kim van Kieu written in chu nom southern characters He is considered by some to be the father of Vietnamese literature Nguyen Du passed the mandarin examinations at the age of 19 and Vietnamese literature

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Vietnamese-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Western Literature | Britannica.com
    Antichrist became the standard work on the subject from the mid 10th to the 13th century Born of a noble family Adso was an oblate at the important monastery of Luxeuil where he also received his education AE poet artist and mystic a leading figure in the Irish literary renaissance of the late 19th and early 20th centuries Russell took his pseudonym from a proofreader s query about his earlier pseudonym AEon After attending the Metropolitan School Agustín José Mexican novelist whose prolific writings reflecting an urban sensibility and the modern culture of youth highlight urban violence and decay Agustín was educated at National Autonomous University of Mexico and at Centro Mexicano de Escritores He was Agustini Delmira one of the most important poets of South America Agustini was the first woman in Latin American literature to deal boldly with the themes of sensuality and passion and her poems have a force lacking from most Modernist poetry of the period Her life aisling in Irish literature a poetic or dramatic description or representation of a vision The Vision of Adamnán is one of the best known examples In the 18th century the aisling became popular as a means of expressing support for the exiled Roman Catholic Akhmadulina Bella Russian language poet of Tatar and Italian descent a distinctive voice in post Stalinist Soviet literature Akhmadulina completed her education at the Gorky Literary Institute in 1960 after which she traveled in Central Asia She was eventually admitted Akhmatova Anna Russian poet recognized at her death as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature Akhmatova began writing verse at age 11 and at 21 joined a group of St Petersburg poets the Acmeists whose leader Nikolay Gumilyov she married in 1910 They soon Aksakov Konstantin Sergeyevich Russian writer and one of the founders and principal theorists of the Slavophile movement The son of the novelist Sergey Timofeyevich Aksakov he entered Moscow University where he was influenced by the work of the German philosopher G W Hegel From Aksakov Sergey Timofeyevich novelist noted for his realistic and comic narratives and for his introduction of a new genre a cross between memoir and novel into Russian literature Brought up in a strongly patriarchal family Aksakov was educated in the pseudoclassical tradition Aksyonov Vasily Pavlovich Russian novelist and short story writer one of the leading literary spokesmen for the generation of Soviets who reached maturity after World War II The son of parents who spent many years in Soviet prisons Aksyonov was raised in a state home and graduated Alabaster William English poet mystic and scholar in Latin and Hebrew author of a Latin tragedy Roxana 1597 published 1632 which the 18th century critic Samuel Johnson thought was the finest Latin writing in England before John Milton s elegies Alabaster was Alain de Lille theologian and poet so celebrated for his varied learning that he was known as the universal doctor Alain studied and taught at Paris lived for some time at Montpellier and later

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Literature/Western-Literature (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive



  •