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  • Free Will | Britannica.com
    situations independently of natural social or divine restraints Free will is denied by some proponents of determinism Arguments for free will are based on the subjective Green T H English educator political theorist and Idealist philosopher of the so called Neo Kantian school Through his teaching Green exerted great influence on philosophy in late 19th century England Most of his life centred at Oxford where he was educated Ḥasan al Baṣrī al deeply pious and ascetic Muslim who was one of the most important relgious figures in early Islām Ḥasan was born nine years after the death of the Prophet Muḥammad One year after the Battle of Ṣiffīn 657 he moved to Basra a military camp town situated James William American philosopher and psychologist a leader of the philosophical movement of Pragmatism and of the psychological movement of functionalism Early life and education James was the eldest son of Henry James an idiosyncratic and voluble man whose philosophical Jansen Cornelius Otto Flemish leader of the Roman Catholic reform movement known as Jansenism He wrote biblical commentaries and pamphlets against the Protestants His major work was Augustinus published by his friends in 1640 Although condemned by Pope Urban VIII in 1642 Kierkegaard Søren Danish philosopher theologian and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century He attacked the literary philosophical and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the Libertas in Roman religion female personification of liberty and personal freedom Libertas was given a temple on the Aventine Hill about 238 bc This is not the same as the temple of Jupiter Libertas restored by the emperor Augustus After the statesman and National Association of Free Will Baptists association of Baptist churches organized in Nashville Tennessee U S in 1935 It traces its

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  • Logic | Britannica.com
    and that therefore the analytic proposition in logic a statement or judgment that is necessarily true on purely logical grounds and serves only to elucidate meanings already implicit in the subject its truth is thus guaranteed by the principle of contradiction Such propositions are distinguished analytic synthetic distinction In both logic and epistemology the distinction derived from Immanuel Kant between statements whose predicate is included in the subject analytic statements and statements whose predicate is not included in the subject synthetic statements Some antinomy in philosophy contradiction real or apparent between two principles or conclusions both of which seem equally justified it is nearly synonymous with the term paradox Immanuel Kant the father of critical philosophy in order to show the inadequacy anumana Sanskrit measuring along some other thing or inference in Indian philosophy the second of the pramana s or the five means of knowledge Inference occupies a central place in the Hindu school of logic Nyaya This school worked out a syllogism applied logic the study of the practical art of right reasoning This study takes different forms depending on the type of reasoning involved and on what the criteria of right reasoning are taken to be The reasoning in question may turn on the principles of logic argument in logic reasons that support a conclusion sometimes formulated so that the conclusion is deduced from premises Erroneous arguments are called fallacies in logic see fallacy In mathematics an argument is a variable in the domain of a function Aristotle ancient Greek philosopher and scientist one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic arthapatti Sanskrit the incidence of a case in Indian philosophy the fifth of the five means of knowledge pramana by which one obtains accurate knowledge of the world Arthapatti is knowledge arrived at by circumstantial implication associative law in mathematics either of two laws relating to number operations of addition and multiplication stated symbolically a b c a b c and a bc ab c that is the terms or factors may be associated in any way desired While associativity axiom in logic an indemonstrable first principle rule or maxim that has found general acceptance or is thought worthy of common acceptance whether by virtue of a claim to intrinsic merit or on the basis of an appeal to self evidence An example would be axiomatic method in logic a procedure by which an entire system e g a science is generated in accordance with specified rules by logical deduction from certain basic propositions axioms or postulates which in turn are constructed from a few terms taken as primitive Bernays Paul Isaak Swiss mathematician whose work in proof theory and axiomatic set theory helped create the new discipline of mathematical logic After obtaining his doctorate from the University of Göttingen in Germany under Edmund Landau in 1912 Bernays taught for Boethius Anicius

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  • Mathematics, Philosophy of | Britannica.com
    logician who founded modern mathematical logic Working on the borderline between philosophy and mathematics viz in the philosophy of mathematics and mathematical logic in which no intellectual precedents existed Frege discovered Kronecker Leopold German mathematician whose primary contributions were in the theory of equations and higher algebra Kronecker acquired a passion for number theory from Ernst Kummer his instructor in mathematics at the Liegnitz Gymnasium and earned his doctor s degree Leśniewski Stanisław Polish logician and mathematician who was a co founder and leading representative of the Warsaw school of logic Life Leśniewski was the son of one of the civil engineers chiefly responsible for the construction and supervision of the trans Siberian mathematics philosophy of branch of philosophy that is concerned with two major questions one concerning the meanings of ordinary mathematical sentences and the other concerning the issue of whether abstract objects exist The first is a straightforward question of interpretation Philolaus philosopher of the Pythagorean school named after the Greek thinker Pythagoras fl c 530 bc Philolaus was born either at Tarentum or according to the 3rd century ad Greek historian Diogenes Laërtius at Croton in southern Italy When after the Poincaré Henri French mathematician one of the greatest mathematicians and mathematical physicists at the end of 19th century He made a series of profound innovations in geometry the theory of differential equations electromagnetism topology and the philosophy Putnam Hilary leading American philosopher who made major contributions to metaphysics epistemology the philosophy of mind the philosophy of language the philosophy of science the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic He is best known for his Russell Bertrand British philosopher logician and social reformer founding figure in the analytic movement in Anglo American philosophy and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950 Russell s

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  • Metaphysics | Britannica.com
    only insofar as it is perceived by the senses Early life and works Berkeley was the Bosanquet Bernard philosopher who helped revive in England the idealism of G W F Hegel and sought to apply its principles to social and political problems Made a fellow of University College Oxford in 1870 Bosanquet was a tutor there until 1881 when he moved to Brown Thomas British metaphysician whose work marks a turning point in the history of the common sense school of philosophy Between 1792 and 1803 Brown studied philosophy law and medicine at the University of Edinburgh where he met the philosopher Dugald Stewart Campanella Tommaso Italian philosopher and writer who sought to reconcile Renaissance humanism with Roman Catholic theology He is best remembered for his socialistic work La città del sole 1602 The City of the Sun written while he was a prisoner of the Spanish crown Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Scottish writer best known for his creation of the detective Sherlock Holmes one of the most vivid and enduring characters in English fiction Conan Doyle the second of Charles Altamont and Mary Foley Doyle s 10 children began seven years of Jesuit Deleuze Gilles French writer and antirationalist philosopher Deleuze began his study of philosophy at the Sorbonne in 1944 Appointed to the faculty there in 1957 he later taught at the University of Lyons and the University of Paris VIII where he was a popular Derrida Jacques French philosopher whose critique of Western philosophy and analyses of the nature of language writing and meaning were highly controversial yet immensely influential in much of the intellectual world in the late 20th century Life and work Derrida Descartes René French mathematician scientist and philosopher Because he was one of the first to abandon scholastic Aristotelianism because he formulated the first modern version of mind body dualism from which stems the mind body problem and because he promoted Dummett Sir Michael A E English philosopher who did influential work in the philosophy of language metaphysics logic the philosophy of mathematics and the history of analytic philosophy He was also one of the foremost expositors of the work of the German mathematical logician essentialism In ontology the view that some properties of objects are essential to them The essence of a thing is conceived as the totality of its essential properties Theories of essentialism differ with respect to their conception of what it means to say that Ferrier James Frederick Scottish metaphysician distinguished for his theory of agnoiology or theory of ignorance Educated at Edinburgh and Oxford Ferrier qualified as a barrister in 1832 but he came under the influence of the Scottish philosopher Sir William Hamilton who Fichte Johann Gottlieb German philosopher and patriot one of the great transcendental idealists Early life and career Fichte was the son of a ribbon weaver Educated at the Pforta school 1774 80 and at the universities of Jena 1780 and of Leipzig 1781 84 he started Genovesi Antonio Italian philosopher and economist whose

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  • Mind, Philosophy of | Britannica.com
    of mind body dualism from which stems the mind body problem and because he promoted double aspect theory type of mind body monism According to double aspect theory the mental and the material are different aspects or attributes of a unitary reality which itself is neither mental nor material The view is derived from the metaphysics of Benedict de Spinoza Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders of modern times His work following Hume David Scottish philosopher historian economist and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive experimental science of human nature Taking the scientific method of the English identity theory in philosophy one view of modern Materialism that asserts that mind and matter however capable of being logically distinguished are in actuality but different expressions of a single reality that is material Strong emphasis is placed upon the empirical intentionality in phenomenology the characteristic of consciousness whereby it is conscious of something i e its directedness toward an object The concept of intentionality enables the phenomenologist to deal with the immanent transcendent problem i e the relation interactionism in Cartesian philosophy and the philosophy of mind those dualistic theories that hold that mind and body though separate and distinct substances causally interact Interactionists assert that a mental event as when John Doe wills to kick a brick mind philosophy of reflection on the nature of mental phenomena and especially on the relation of the mind to the body and to the rest of the physical world Philosophy of mind and empirical psychology Philosophy is often concerned with the

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  • Modern Schools | Britannica.com
    s Socialist Party Althusser Louis French philosopher who attained international renown in the 1960s for his attempt to fuse Marxism and structuralism Inducted into the French army in 1939 Althusser was captured by German troops in 1940 and spent the remainder of the war in a German analytic synthetic distinction In both logic and epistemology the distinction derived from Immanuel Kant between statements whose predicate is included in the subject analytic statements and statements whose predicate is not included in the subject synthetic statements Some Aristotle ancient Greek philosopher and scientist one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic Austin John English jurist whose writings especially The Province of Jurisprudence Determined 1832 advocated a definition of law as a species of command and sought to distinguish positive law from morality He had little influence during his lifetime outside Ayer Sir A J British philosopher and educator and a leading representative of logical positivism through his widely read work Language Truth and Logic 1936 Although Ayer s views changed considerably after the 1930s becoming more moderate and increasingly subtle Baur Ferdinand Christian German theologian and scholar who initiated the Protestant Tübingen school of biblical criticism and who has been called the father of modern studies in church history Educated at the seminary at Blaubeuren and at the University of Tübingen Baur became Baxter Andrew Scottish metaphysical rationalist who maintained the essential distinction between matter and spirit resisting the more advanced British epistemology of his century Having gone to Utrecht in the Netherlands as tutor to two young gentlemen in 1741 Beattie James Scottish poet and essayist whose once popular poem The Minstrel was one of the earliest works of the Romantic movement Beattie was a farmer s son He graduated from Marischal College Aberdeen and became professor of moral philosophy there At the Beauvoir Simone de French writer and feminist a member of the intellectual fellowship of philosopher writers who have given a literary transcription to the themes of Existentialism She is known primarily for her treatise Le Deuxième Sexe 2 vol 1949 The Second Sex Benjamin Walter man of letters and aesthetician now considered to have been the most important German literary critic in the first half of the 20th century Born into a prosperous Jewish family Benjamin studied philosophy in Berlin Freiburg im Breisgau Munich and Bentham Jeremy English philosopher economist and theoretical jurist the earliest and chief expounder of utilitarianism Early life and works At the age of four Bentham the son of an attorney is said to have read eagerly and to have begun the study of Latin Much Berdyayev Nikolay Aleksandrovich religious thinker philosopher and Marxist who became a critic of Russian implementation of Karl Marx s views and a leading representative of Christian existentialism a school of philosophy that stresses examination of the human condition within a Berkeley George Anglo Irish

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  • Nature, Philosophy of | Britannica.com
    that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders of modern times His work following Helmholtz Hermann von German scientist and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology optics electrodynamics mathematics and meteorology He is best known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy He brought to his laboratory research Henderson Lawrence Joseph U S biochemist who discovered the chemical means by which acid base equilibria are maintained in nature Henderson spent most of his career at Harvard Medical School 1904 42 where he was professor of biological chemistry 1919 34 and chemistry Heraclitus Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe Little is known about his life and the one book he apparently wrote is lost His views survive in the short fragments quoted and mechanism in philosophy the predominant form of Materialism which holds that natural phenomena can and should be explained by reference to matter and motion and their laws Upholders of this philosophy were mainly concerned with the elimination from science Mullā Ṣadrā philosopher who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century The foremost representative of the illuminationist or Ishrāqī school of philosopher mystics he is commonly regarded by Iranians as the greatest philosopher their country has Oken Lorenz German naturalist the most important of the early 19th century German nature philosophers who speculated about the significance of life which they believed to be derived from a vital force that could not be understood totally through scientific physics philosophy of philosophical speculation about the concepts methods and theories of the physical sciences especially physics The philosophy of physics is less an

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  • Political Philosophy | Britannica.com
    stable government was widely influential in Europe at a time when medieval systems were giving way to centralized states He is widely credited with introducing the concept of sovereignty Bonald Louis Gabriel Ambroise vicomte de political philosopher and statesman who with the French Roman Catholic thinker Joseph de Maistre was a leading apologist for Legitimism a position contrary to the values of the French Revolution and favouring monarchical and ecclesiastical authority Bosanquet Bernard philosopher who helped revive in England the idealism of G W F Hegel and sought to apply its principles to social and political problems Made a fellow of University College Oxford in 1870 Bosanquet was a tutor there until 1881 when he moved to Burke Edmund British statesman parliamentary orator and political thinker prominent in public life from 1765 to about 1795 and important in the history of political theory He championed conservatism in opposition to Jacobinism in Reflections on the Revolution Campanella Tommaso Italian philosopher and writer who sought to reconcile Renaissance humanism with Roman Catholic theology He is best remembered for his socialistic work La città del sole 1602 The City of the Sun written while he was a prisoner of the Spanish crown Chamberlain Houston Stewart British born Germanophile political philosopher whose advocacy of the racial and cultural superiority of the so called Aryan element in European culture influenced pan German and German nationalist thought particularly Adolf Hitler s National Socialist Chen Boda revolutionist and propagandist who became the chief interpreter of the thought of Mao Zedong and was briefly one of the five most powerful leaders of modern China Later he was prosecuted for his role in the Cultural Revolution 1966 76 Born into Communist Manifesto The 1848 Manifesto of the Communist Party pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to serve as the platform of the Communist League It became one of the principal programmatic statements of the European socialist and communist parties in communitarianism social and political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of community in the functioning of political life in the analysis and evaluation of political institutions and in understanding human identity and well being It arose in the 1980s as a Comte Auguste French philosopher known as the founder of sociology and of positivism Comte gave the science of sociology its name and established the new subject in a systematic fashion Life Comte s father Louis Comte a tax official and his mother Rosalie Boyer Croce Benedetto historian humanist and foremost Italian philosopher of the first half of the 20th century Early life Croce belonged to a family of landed proprietors with estates in the Abruzzi region of central Italy but chiefly resident in Naples His background Dante Italian poet prose writer literary theorist moral philosopher and political thinker He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia later named La divina commedia The Divine Comedy Dante s Divine Comedy a great work of medieval literature Eötvös József Báró novelist essayist educator and statesman whose life

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