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  • Religion, Philosophy of | Britannica.com
    for a tallow chandler He read widely and began to write Cudworth Ralph English theologian and philosopher of ethics who became the leading systematic exponent of Cambridge Platonism Reared as a Puritan Cudworth eventually adopted such Nonconformist views as the notion that church government and religious practice should Feuerbach Ludwig German philosopher and moralist remembered for his influence on Karl Marx and for his humanistic theologizing The fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul von Feuerbach Ludwig Feuerbach abandoned theological studies to become a student of philosophy under Fichte Johann Gottlieb German philosopher and patriot one of the great transcendental idealists Early life and career Fichte was the son of a ribbon weaver Educated at the Pforta school 1774 80 and at the universities of Jena 1780 and of Leipzig 1781 84 he started Five Ways the in the philosophy of religion the five arguments proposed by St Thomas Aquinas 1224 25 1274 as demonstrations of the existence of God Aquinas developed a theological system that synthesized Western Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic theology Flew Antony English philosopher who became a prominent defender of atheism but later declared himself a deist Flew was the son of a Methodist minister and was educated at a Christian boarding school As a teenager he decided that the traditional Christian concept Glanvill Joseph English self styled Skeptic and apologist for the Royal Society who defended the reality of witchcraft and ghosts and the preexistence of the soul Thereby according to some he initiated psychical research Glanvill was educated at Exeter and Lincoln Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders of modern times His work following Heschel Abraham Joshua Jewish theologian and philosopher noted for his presentation of the prophetic and mystical aspects of Judaism and for his attempt to construct a modern philosophy of religion on the basis of the ancient and medieval Jewish tradition After a traditional Hirsch Samuel religious philosopher rabbi and a leading advocate of radical Reform Judaism He was among the first to propose holding Jewish services on Sunday Educated at the universities of Bonn Berlin and Leipzig Hirsch became rabbi at Dessau in 1838 but Hume David Scottish philosopher historian economist and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive experimental science of human nature Taking the scientific method of the English James William American philosopher and psychologist a leader of the philosophical movement of Pragmatism and of the psychological movement of functionalism Early life and education James was the eldest son of Henry James an idiosyncratic and voluble man whose philosophical Kierkegaard Søren Danish philosopher theologian and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century He attacked the literary philosophical and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the Loisy

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  • Science, Philosophy of | Britannica.com
    its name and established the new subject in a systematic fashion Life Comte s father Louis Comte a tax official and his mother Rosalie Boyer Duhem Pierre Maurice Marie French physicist mathematician and philosopher of science who emphasized a history of modern science based on evolutionary metaphysical concepts He maintained that the role of theory in science is to systematize relationships rather than to interpret Eddington Sir Arthur Stanley English astronomer physicist and mathematician who did his greatest work in astrophysics investigating the motion internal structure and evolution of stars He also was the first expositor of the theory of relativity in the English language Early falsifiability criterion of in the philosophy of science a standard of evaluation of putatively scientific theories according to which a theory is genuinely scientific only if it is possible in principle to establish that it is false The British philosopher Sir Karl Popper 1902 94 Haldane J B S British geneticist biometrician physiologist and popularizer of science who opened new paths of research in population genetics and evolution Son of the noted physiologist John Scott Haldane he began studying science as assistant to his father at Heisenberg Werner German physicist and philosopher who discovered 1925 a way to formulate quantum mechanics in terms of matrices For that discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932 In 1927 he published his uncertainty principle upon which he built Hempel Carl Gustav German born American philosopher formerly a member of the Berlin school of logical positivism a group that viewed logical and mathematical statements as revealing only the basic structure of language but not essentially descriptive of the physical Kuhn Thomas S American historian of science noted for The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 1962 one of the most influential works of history and philosophy

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  • Philosophy - 3 | Britannica.com
    about 750 writings he was among the first to Cicero Marcus Tullius Roman statesman lawyer scholar and writer who vainly tried to uphold republican principles in the final civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic His writings include books of rhetoric orations philosophical and political treatises and letters Clarke Samuel theologian philosopher and exponent of Newtonian physics remembered for his influence on 18th century English theology and philosophy In 1698 Clarke became a chaplain to the bishop of Norwich and in 1706 to Queen Anne In 1704 05 he gave two sets Clauberg Johann philosopher and theologian who became the foremost German proponent of the thought of the French philosopher René Descartes After study at Bremen and in the Netherlands at Groningen and after travel in France and England Clauberg encountered Cartesian Cleanthes Stoic philosopher who became head of the Stoic school 263 232 bc after the death of Zeno of Citium Among his pupils were his successor Chrysippus and Antigonus II king of Macedonia Although Cleanthes produced little that is original he brought Cleitomachus Greek philosopher originally from Carthage who was head of the New Academy of Athens from 127 126 bc He characterized the wise man as one who suspends judgment about the objectivity of man s knowledge He was the pupil and literary exponent of Carneades Clifford William Kingdon British philosopher and mathematician who influenced by the non Euclidean geometries of Bernhard Riemann and Nikolay Lobachevsky wrote On the Space Theory of Matter 1876 He presented the idea that matter and energy are simply different types Cohen Hermann German Jewish philosopher and founder of the Marburg school of neo Kantian philosophy which emphasized pure thought and ethics rather than metaphysics Cohen was the son of a cantor and he studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and Collier Arthur idealist philosopher and theologian remembered for his concept of human knowledge Collier was born at the rectory of Langford Magna Educated at Pembroke and Balliol colleges Oxford he became rector at Langford Magna in 1704 Like the idealist thinker Collingwood R G English historian and philosopher whose work provided a major 20th century attempt to reconcile philosophy and history Deeply influenced by his father a painter and archaeologist who was a friend and biographer of John Ruskin Collingwood was educated communitarianism social and political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of community in the functioning of political life in the analysis and evaluation of political institutions and in understanding human identity and well being It arose in the 1980s as a Comte Auguste French philosopher known as the founder of sociology and of positivism Comte gave the science of sociology its name and established the new subject in a systematic fashion Life Comte s father Louis Comte a tax official and his mother Rosalie Boyer concrete in philosophy such entities as persons physical objects and events or the terms or names that denote such things as contrasted with such abstractions as numbers classes states qualities and relations Many philosophers however add a third Condillac Étienne Bonnot de philosopher psychologist logician economist and the leading advocate in France of the ideas of John Locke 1632 1704 Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1740 Condillac began a lifelong friendship in the same year with the philosopher J J Rousseau Condorcet Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat marquis de French philosopher of the Enlightenment and advocate of educational reform and women s rights He was one of the major Revolutionary formulators of the ideas of progress or the indefinite perfectibility of humankind He was descended from the ancient Confucianism the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th 5th century bce and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia Although transformed over time it is still the substance of learning the source of values and the social code of the Confucius China s most famous teacher philosopher and political theorist whose ideas have influenced the civilization of East Asia Confucius s life in contrast to his tremendous importance seems starkly undramatic or as a Chinese expression has it it Congreve Richard Positivist philosopher a disciple of Auguste Comte and founder of the Church of Humanity in London In 1878 he caused a schism among Positivists by repudiating the authority of Comte s successor Pierre Laffitte Afterward Congreve was especially concerned continental philosophy series of Western philosophical schools and movements associated primarily with the countries of the western European continent especially Germany and France The term continental philosophy was adopted by professional philosophers in England after Cordemoy Géraud de French historian and philosopher who showed considerable originality in his development of the general principles of physical theory He introduced a new atomism into the mechanistic system of René Descartes by linking unity and substantiality matter Cornaro Elena Italian savant who was the first woman to receive a degree from a university Cornaro s father Giovanni Battista Cornaro Piscopia was a nobleman Her mother Zanetta Boni was a peasant and was not married to Giovanni by whom she had four other children Cornutus Lucius Annaeus Roman Stoic philosopher best known as the teacher and friend of Persius whose satires he helped to revise for publication after the poet s death Cornutus resided mostly in Rome He was banished by Nero in 66 or 68 for having indirectly disparaged cosmopolitanism in political theory the belief that all people are entitled to equal respect and consideration no matter what their citizenship status or other affiliations happen to be Cosmopolitanism in Stoic philosophy Early proponents of cosmopolitanism included Cousin Victor French philosopher educational reformer and historian whose systematic eclecticism made him the best known French thinker in his time At the École Normale in 1811 Cousin was influenced by his studies of the philosophers P Laromiguière E B de Condillac Couturat Louis Alexandre French philosopher and logician who sought a universal language and symbolic logic system to study the history of philosophy and the philosophy of mathematics Educated at the École Normale

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  • Philosophy - 4 | Britannica.com
    The fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul von Feuerbach Ludwig Feuerbach abandoned theological studies to become a student of philosophy under Fichte Johann Gottlieb German philosopher and patriot one of the great transcendental idealists Early life and career Fichte was the son of a ribbon weaver Educated at the Pforta school 1774 80 and at the universities of Jena 1780 and of Leipzig 1781 84 he started Ficino Marsilio Italian philosopher theologian and linguist whose translations and commentaries on the writings of Plato and other classical Greek authors generated the Florentine Platonist Renaissance that influenced European thought for two centuries Ficino was first cause in philosophy the self created being i e God to which every chain of causes must ultimately go back The term was used by Greek thinkers and became an underlying assumption in the Judeo Christian tradition Many philosophers and theologians in this Fischer Kuno German philosopher and educator who founded neo Kantian thought with his System der Logik und Metaphysik 1852 A System of Logic and Metaphysics With other writings on Gotthold Lessing Friedrich Schiller and J W von Goethe Fischer contributed Fiske John American historian and philosopher who popularized European evolutionary theory in the United States After graduating from Harvard Law School in 1865 Fiske briefly practiced law in Boston before turning to writing In 1860 he had encountered Herbert Five Ways the in the philosophy of religion the five arguments proposed by St Thomas Aquinas 1224 25 1274 as demonstrations of the existence of God Aquinas developed a theological system that synthesized Western Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic theology Flew Antony English philosopher who became a prominent defender of atheism but later declared himself a deist Flew was the son of a Methodist minister and was educated at a Christian boarding school As a teenager he decided that the traditional Christian concept Flewelling Ralph Tyler American Idealist philosopher whose writings and teaching established the University of Southern California Los Angeles as one of the strongholds of Personalism Flewelling studied at Boston University Ph D 1909 with Bordon Parker Bowne founder Forberg Friedrich Karl German philosopher and educator An exponent of the Idealist school developed by Johann Gottlieb Fichte Forberg is best known for his essay Ü ber die Entwicklung des Begriffs Religion 1798 On the Development of the Concept of Religion a work that form the external shape appearance or configuration of an object in contradistinction to the matter of which it is composed in Aristotelian metaphysics the active determining principle of a thing as distinguished from matter the potential principle formal logic the abstract study of propositions statements or assertively used sentences and of deductive arguments The discipline abstracts from the content of these elements the structures or logical forms that they embody The logician customarily uses a symbolic Formstecher Solomon Jewish idealist philosopher who was rabbi at Offenbach from 1842 Die Religion des Geistes 1841 The Religion of the Spirit is considered the most complete exposition of his philosophy and a thorough systematization of Judaism He believed there Foucault Michel French philosopher and historian one of the most influential and controversial scholars of the post World War II period Education and career The son and grandson of a physician Michel Foucault was born to a solidly bourgeois family He resisted what Foucher Simon ecclesiastic and critical philosopher of the Cartesian school the first to publish criticisms of the philosophical theories of Nicolas Malebranche In Critique de la recherche de la vérité 1675 Critique of the Search for Truth Foucher reasoned Francis of Meyronnes Franciscan monk one of the principal philosopher theologians of 14th century Scholasticism and a leading advocate of the subtle system of Realism proposed by the English Scholastic John Duns Scotus A student of Duns Scotus at the University of Paris Frank Erich German philosopher whose writings played a role in the emergence of the German existential movement Neither an idealist nor a constructivist as were his contemporaries he believed philosophy s role was to seek faith through understanding rather free will in humans the power or capacity to choose among alternatives or to act in certain situations independently of natural social or divine restraints Free will is denied by some proponents of determinism Arguments for free will are based on the subjective Frege Gottlob German mathematician and logician who founded modern mathematical logic Working on the borderline between philosophy and mathematics viz in the philosophy of mathematics and mathematical logic in which no intellectual precedents existed Frege discovered Fries Jakob Friedrich German philosopher Fries studied at Leipzig and at Jena and he became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg in 1805 His attitude toward contemporary philosophies is set forth in Reinhold Fichte und Schelling 1803 reprinted Frohschammer Jakob Roman Catholic priest prolific writer and philosopher who was excommunicated for claiming that philosophy and church authority are autonomous Ordained in 1847 Frohschammer lectured in philosophy from 1850 at the University of Munich professor from Fromm Erich German born American psychoanalyst and social philosopher who explored the interaction between psychology and society By applying psychoanalytic principles to the remedy of cultural ills Fromm believed mankind could develop a psychologically balanced Frommel Gaston Swiss Protestant philosopher and theologian Frommel attempted to base theism the doctrine teaching the existence of a personal God religious experience and moral conscience on objective grounds as opposed to the a priori categories and moral imperative fuzzy logic in mathematics a form of logic based on the concept of a fuzzy set Membership in fuzzy sets is expressed in degrees of truth i e as a continuum of values ranging from 0 to 1 In a narrow sense the term fuzzy logic refers to a system of approximate Gadamer Hans Georg German philosopher whose system of philosophical hermeneutics derived in part from concepts of Wilhelm Dilthey Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger was influential in 20th century philosophy aesthetics theology and criticism The son of a chemistry Gassendi Pierre French philosopher scientist and mathematician who revived

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  • Philosophy - 5 | Britannica.com
    relation to American philosophy He was among the first U S scholars to analyze Marxism and was firmly opposed to all forms of totalitarianism holding liberal democracy as the Hooker Richard theologian who created a distinctive Anglican theology and who was a master of English prose and legal philosophy In his masterpiece Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie which was incomplete at the time of his death Hooker defended the Church Horkheimer Max German philosopher who as director of the Institute for Social Research 1930 41 1950 58 developed an original interdisciplinary movement known as critical theory that combined Marxist oriented political philosophy with social and cultural analysis Hugh of Saint Victor eminent scholastic theologian who began the tradition of mysticism that made the school of Saint Victor Paris famous throughout the 12th century Of noble birth Hugh joined the Augustinian canons at the monastery of Hamersleben near Halberstadt now Hui Shi Chinese philosopher an outstanding representative of the early Chinese school of thought known as the dialecticians As a result of their preoccupation with paradox and linguistic puzzles the dialecticians have always been separated from the mainstream Hulme T E English aesthetician literary critic and poet one of the founders of the Imagist movement and a major 20th century literary influence Hulme was educated at Newcastle under Lyme grammar school and went to St John s College Cambridge but was expelled humanism term freely applied to a variety of beliefs methods and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm Most frequently however the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy Humboldt Wilhelm baron von German language scholar philosopher diplomat and educational reformer whose contribution to the development of language science became highly valued in the 20th century He contended that language is an activity the character and structure of which Hume David Scottish philosopher historian economist and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive experimental science of human nature Taking the scientific method of the English Husserl Edmund German philosopher the founder of Phenomenology a method for the description and analysis of consciousness through which philosophy attempts to gain the character of a strict science The method reflects an effort to resolve the opposition between Hutcheson Francis Scots Irish philosopher and major exponent of the theory of the existence of a moral sense through which man can achieve right action The son of a Presbyterian minister Hutcheson studied philosophy classics and theology at the University of Glasgow Huxley Aldous English novelist and critic gifted with an acute and far ranging intelligence His works were notable for their elegance wit and pessimistic satire Aldous Huxley was a grandson of the prominent biologist T H Huxley and was the third child of the Huxley Sir Julian English biologist philosopher educator and author who greatly influenced the modern development of embryology systematics and studies of behaviour and evolution Julian a grandson of the prominent biologist T H Huxley a brother of novelist Aldous Huxley Thomas Henry English biologist educator and advocate of agnosticism he coined the word Huxley s vigorous public support of Charles Darwin s evolutionary naturalism earned him the nickname Darwin s bulldog while his organizational efforts public lectures Hypatia Egyptian mathematician astronomer and philosopher who lived in a very turbulent era in Alexandria s history She is the earliest female mathematician of whose life and work reasonably detailed knowledge exists Hypatia was the daughter of Theon of I Thou theological doctrine of the full direct mutual relation between beings as conceived by Martin Buber and some other 20th century philosophers The basic and purest form of this relation is that between man and God the Eternal Thou which is the model Iamblichus Syrian philosopher a major figure in the philosophical school of Neoplatonism and the founder of its Syrian branch Though only his minor philosophical works have survived the basic elements of Iamblichus system can be understood from the references Ibn al ʿArabī celebrated Muslim mystic philosopher who gave the esoteric mystical dimension of Islamic thought its first full fledged philosophic expression His major works are the monumental Al Futūḥāt al Makkiyyah The Meccan Revelations and Fuṣūṣ al ḥikam ibn Daud Abraham ben David Halevi also called Rabad I physician and historian who was the first Jewish philosopher to draw on Aristotle s writings in a systematic fashion He is probably more esteemed today for his history Sefer ha kabbala Book of Tradition than for his major philosophic Ibn Falaquera Spanish born Jewish philosopher and translator who propagated a reconciliation between Jewish Orthodoxy and philosophy and defended Maimonides Guide of the Perplexed against the attacks of the traditionalists His numerous works include Dialogue Between Ibn Gabirol one of the outstanding figures of the Hebrew school of religious and secular poetry during the Jewish Golden Age in Moorish Spain He was also an important Neoplatonic philosopher Early life and career Born in Málaga about 1022 Ibn Gabirol received Ibn Miskawayh Persian scientist philosopher and historian whose scholarly works became models for later generations of Islamic thinkers Little is known of Ibn Miskawayh s personal life It is believed he converted to Islam from Zoroastrianism the religion of pre Islamic ibn Shem Tov Joseph ben Shem Tov Jewish philosopher and Castilian court physician who attempted to mediate the disdain shown for philosophy by contemporary Jewish scholars by undertaking a reconciliation of Aristotelian ethical philosophy with Jewish religious thought best exemplified ibn Tibbon Judah ben Saul Jewish physician and translator of Jewish Arabic language works into Hebrew he was also the progenitor of several generations of important translators Persecution of the Jews forced Judah to flee Granada in 1150 and he settled in Lunel in southern Ibn Ṭufayl Moorish philosopher and physician who is known for his Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān c 1175 Eng trans by L E Goodman Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓan by Ibn Ṭufayl 1972 a philosophical romance in

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  • Philosophy - 6 | Britannica.com
    actor scientist and editor remembered chiefly for his decades long liaison with the novelist Mary Ann Evans better known by her pseudonym George Eliot After a desultory education Lewis C I American logician epistemologist and moral philosopher Educated at Harvard University Lewis taught there from 1920 until his retirement in 1953 serving as a full professor of philosophy from 1930 He was honoured in 1950 as a formal logician by Lewis David Kellogg American philosopher who at the time of his death was considered by many to be the leading figure in Anglo American philosophy see analytic philosophy Both Lewis s father and his mother taught government at Oberlin College Lewis studied philosophy Li Ao Chinese scholar poet and official who helped reestablish Confucianism at a time when it was being severely challenged by Buddhism and Daoism Li helped lay the groundwork for the later Neo Confucianists of the Song dynasty 960 1279 who systematically Liang Shuming neo Confucian philosopher and writer who attempted to demonstrate the relevance of Confucianism to China s problems in the 20th century A believer in the unity of thought and action Liang became a leader in attempts at peasant organization He also Liezi Chinese Master Lie one of the three primary philosophers who developed the basic tenets of Daoist philosophy and the presumed author of the Daoist work Liezi also known as Chongxu zhide zhenjing True Classic of the Perfect Virtue of Simplicity and Lipsius Justus Flemish humanist classical scholar and moral and political theorist Appointed to the chair of history and philosophy at Jena in 1572 Lipsius later accepted the chair of history and law at the new University of Leiden 1578 and that of history and Littré Paul Émile French language scholar lexicographer and philosopher whose monumental Dictionnaire de la langue française 4 vol 1863 73 Dictionary of the French Language is one of the outstanding lexicographic accomplishments of all time A close friend of Llull Ramon Catalan mystic and poet whose writings helped to develop the Romance Catalan language and widely influenced Neoplatonic mysticism throughout medieval and 17th century Europe He is best known in the history of ideas as the inventor of an art of finding Locke John English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empiricism and political liberalism He was an inspirer of both the European Enlightenment and the Constitution of the United States His philosophical thinking was close to logic the study of correct reasoning especially as it involves the drawing of inferences This article discusses the basic elements and problems of contemporary logic and provides an overview of its different fields For treatment of the historical development logic history of the history of the discipline from its origins among the ancient Greeks to the present time Origins of logic in the West Precursors of ancient logic There was a medieval tradition according to which the Greek philosopher Parmenides 5th century bce logic philosophy of the study from a philosophical perspective of the nature and types of logic including problems in the field and the relation of logic to mathematics and other disciplines The term logic comes from the Greek word logos The variety of senses that logos Greek word reason or plan in Greek philosophy and theology the divine reason implicit in the cosmos ordering it and giving it form and meaning Though the concept defined by the term logos is found in Greek Indian Egyptian and Persian philosophical Loisy Alfred Firmin French biblical scholar linguist and philosopher of religion generally credited as the founder of Modernism a movement within the Roman Catholic church aimed at revising its dogma to reflect advances in science and philosophy Loisy trained at the Lossky Nikolay Onufriyevich Russian intuitionist philosopher who studied the nature of cognition causation and morals His philosophy was a compound of many influences especially Leibnizian monadology and Bergsonian intuitionism Lossky graduated from the University of St Petersburg Lotze Rudolf Hermann German philosopher who bridged the gap between classical German philosophy and 20th century idealism and founded Theistic Idealism While studying for doctorates in medicine and philosophy at the University of Leipzig 1834 38 he began interpreting Lovejoy Arthur O American philosopher best known for his work on the history of ideas and theory of knowledge The son of a Boston minister and his German wife Lovejoy received his B A from the University of California Berkeley 1895 and his M A from Harvard University Lu Jiuyuan Idealist neo Confucian philosopher of the Southern Song and rival of his contemporary the great neo Confucian rationalist Zhu Xi Lu s thought was revised and refined three centuries later by the Ming dynasty neo Confucian Wang Yangming The name of Lucretius Latin poet and philosopher known for his single long poem De rerum natura On the Nature of Things The poem is the fullest extant statement of the physical theory of the Greek philosopher Epicurus It also alludes to his ethical and logical doctrines Lukács György Hungarian Marxist philosopher writer and literary critic who influenced the mainstream of European communist thought during the first half of the 20th century His major contributions include the formulation of a Marxist system of aesthetics that opposed Lunacharsky Anatoly Vasilyevich Russian author publicist and politician who with Maksim Gorky did much to ensure the preservation of works of art during the civil war of 1918 20 Deported in 1898 for his revolutionary activities Lunacharsky joined the Bolshevik group of the Social Lyotard Jean François French philosopher and leading figure in the intellectual movement known as postmodernism As a youth Lyotard considered becoming a monk a painter and a historian After studying at the Sorbonne he completed an agrégation teaching degree in philosophy Lysis of Tarentum Greek philosopher and member of the Pythagorean school in southern Italy Lysis left Italy for Greece about 390 bc after escaping a massacre of the Pythagoreans at Croton Settling in Thebes he became the teacher of Epaminondas c 420 362 bc the Mach Ernst Austrian

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  • Philosophy - 7 | Britannica.com
    writer a late scholastic thinker regarded as the founder of a form of nominalism the school of thought that denies that universal concepts such as father have any reality apart from the individual Olympiodorus the Younger a Neoplatonist philosopher who is famous for having maintained the Platonic tradition in Alexandria after the Byzantine emperor Justinian had suppressed the Greek Academy at Athens and other pagan schools in ad 529 Olympiodorus extant works include ontology the philosophical study of being in general or of what applies neutrally to everything that is real It was called first philosophy by Aristotle in Book IV of his Metaphysics The Latin term ontologia science of being was felicitously invented Ortega y Gasset José philosopher and humanist who greatly influenced the cultural and literary renaissance of Spain in the 20th century Ortega y Gasset studied at Madrid University 1898 1904 and in Germany 1904 08 and was influenced by the neo Kantian philosophical Otto Rudolf German theologian philosopher and historian of religion who exerted worldwide influence through his investigation of man s experience of the holy Das Heilige 1917 The Idea of the Holy 1923 is his most important work Early life and academic career Paley William English Anglican priest Utilitarian philosopher and author of influential works on Christianity ethics and science among them the standard exposition in English theology of the teleological argument for the existence of God Educated at Giggleswick Panaetius the founder of Roman Stoic philosophy and a friend of Scipio Aemilianus and of Polybius A pupil in Athens of Diogenes of Seleucia and of Antipater of Tarsus Panaetius also studied the philosophies of Plato and of Aristotle Many years a resident in Parfit Derek English philosopher whose work in normative ethics and metaethics personal identity and the theory of practical reason was widely influential in the English speaking world from the 1980s Many of his peers considered him the most important moral philosopher Parmenides Greek philosopher of Elea in southern Italy who founded Eleaticism one of the leading pre Socratic schools of Greek thought His general teaching has been diligently reconstructed from the few surviving fragments of his principal work a lengthy three part Pascal Blaise French mathematician physicist religious philosopher and master of prose He laid the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities formulated what came to be known as Pascal s law of pressure and propagated a religious doctrine that taught Paul of Venice Italian Augustinian philosopher and theologian who gained recognition as an educator and author of works on logic Paul studied at the universities of Oxford and Padua where he also lectured 1408 15 and became Venetian ambassador to Poland 1413 Peirce Charles Sanders American scientist logician and philosopher who is noted for his work on the logic of relations and on pragmatism as a method of research Life Peirce was one of four sons of Sarah Mills and Benjamin Peirce who was Perkins professor of astronomy Peregrinus Proteus Greek Cynic philosopher remembered for his spectacular suicide he cremated himself on the flames of the Olympic Games in 165 Suspected of murdering his father Peregrinus was forced to flee to Palestine but his influence in the Christian community Perry Ralph Barton American educator and philosopher noted as the founder of the school of new realism in American pragmatic philosophy Educated at a private school in Philadelphia and at Princeton A B 1896 and Harvard M A 1897 Ph D 1899 universities Perry Petrus Aureoli French churchman philosopher and critical thinker called Doctor facundus eloquent teacher who was important as a forerunner to William of Ockham Petrus may have become a Franciscan at Gourdon before 1300 he was in Paris 1304 to study possibly Phaedo also spelled Phaedon philosopher founder of a Socratic school of philosophy at Elis on the Peloponnese and author of works on dialectics and ethics Born of an aristocratic family Phaedo was made a prisoner in the war with Sparta 400 399 bc and phenomenalism a philosophical theory of perception and the external world Its essential tenet is that propositions about material objects are reducible to propositions about actual and possible sensations or sense data or appearances According to the phenomenalists phenomenology a philosophical movement originating in the 20th century the primary objective of which is the direct investigation and description of phenomena as consciously experienced without theories about their causal explanation and as free as possible from phenomenon in philosophy any object fact or occurrence perceived or observed In general phenomena are the objects of the senses e g sights and sounds as contrasted with what is apprehended by the intellect The Greek verb phainesthai to seem or to Philo Judaeus Greek speaking Jewish philosopher the most important representative of Hellenistic Judaism His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora As the first to attempt to synthesize revealed faith and philosophic reason Philoponus John Christian philosopher theologian and literary scholar whose writings expressed an independent Christian synthesis of classical Hellenistic thought which in translation contributed to Syriac and Arabic cultures and to medieval Western thought As a philosophical anthropology discipline within philosophy that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations of human nature in an effort to understand individuals as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values Anthropology and philosophical anthropology philosophy Western history of Western philosophy from its development among the ancient Greeks to the present This article has three basic purposes 1 to provide an overview of the history of philosophy in the West 2 to relate philosophical ideas and movements to physics philosophy of philosophical speculation about the concepts methods and theories of the physical sciences especially physics The philosophy of physics is less an academic discipline though it is that than an intellectual frontier across which theoretical physics Pico della Mirandola Giovanni conte di Concordia Italian scholar and Platonist philosopher whose De hominis dignitate oratio Oration on the Dignity of Man a characteristic Renaissance work composed in 1486 reflected

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  • Philosophy - 8 | Britannica.com
    at Heidelberg Lausanne Switzerland and Berlin where he studied with the German physicist Max Scholasticism the philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian thinkers who working against a background of fixed religious dogma sought to solve anew general philosophical problems as of faith and reason will and intellect Schopenhauer Arthur German philosopher often called the philosopher of pessimism who was primarily important as the exponent of a metaphysical doctrine of the will in immediate reaction against Hegelian idealism His writings influenced later existential philosophy Schrödinger Erwin Austrian theoretical physicist who contributed to the wave theory of matter and to other fundamentals of quantum mechanics He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics with the British physicist P A M Dirac Schrödinger entered the University of Vienna Schutz Alfred Austrian born U S sociologist and philosopher who developed a social science based on phenomenology He emigrated to the U S in 1939 teaching at the New School for Social Research in New York 1943 59 He drew attention to the social presuppositions Schweitzer Albert Alsatian German theologian philosopher organist and mission doctor in equatorial Africa who received the 1952 Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts in behalf of the Brotherhood of Nations The eldest son of a Lutheran pastor Schweitzer studied science philosophy of the study from a philosophical perspective of the elements of scientific inquiry This article discusses metaphysical epistemological and ethical issues related to the practice and goals of modern science For treatment of philosophical issues raised Searle John American philosopher best known for his work in the philosophy of language especially speech act theory and the philosophy of mind He also made significant contributions to epistemology ontology the philosophy of social institutions and the study Sellars Wilfrid American philosopher best known for his critique of traditional philosophical conceptions of mind and knowledge and for his uncompromising effort to explain how human reason and thought can be reconciled with the vision of nature found in science Although Sen Keshab Chunder Hindu philosopher and social reformer who attempted to incorporate Christian theology within the framework of Hindu thought Although not of the Brahman class varna Sen s family was prominent in Calcutta Kolkata and he was well educated At age Seneca Lucius Annaeus Roman philosopher statesman orator and tragedian He was Rome s leading intellectual figure in the mid 1st century ce and was virtual ruler with his friends of the Roman world between 54 and 62 during the first phase of the emperor Nero s reign Sergeant John English Roman Catholic priest notable for his criticisms of several of the leading thinkers of his time including John Locke After serving as secretary to Thomas Morton Anglican bishop of Durham Sergeant was converted to Roman Catholicism He then Sextus Empiricus ancient Greek philosopher historian who produced the only extant comprehensive account of Greek Skepticism in his Outlines of Pyrrhonism and Against the Mathematicians As a major exponent of Pyrrhonistic suspension of judgment Sextus elaborated the Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper 3rd Earl of English politician and philosopher grandson of the famous 1st earl and one of the principal English Deists His early education was directed by John Locke and he attended Winchester College He entered Parliament in 1695 and succeeding as 3rd Earl Shankara philosopher and theologian most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived He wrote commentaries on the Brahma sutra the principal Upanishads and the Shao Yong Chinese philosopher who greatly influenced the development of the idealist school of Neo Confucianism see Confucianism Shao Yong s mathematical ideas also influenced the 18th century European philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the development Shcherbatskoy Fyodor Ippolitovich Western authority on Buddhist philosophy whose most important work was the influential Buddhist Logic 2 vol 1930 32 Educated in comparative linguistics Sanskrit literature and Indian philosophy Shcherbatskoy spoke fluently and wrote with ease Shinran Buddhist teacher recognized as the founder of the Jōdo Shinshū True Pure Land School which advocates that faith recitation of the name of the buddha Amida Amitabha and birth in the paradise of the Pure Land For centuries Jōdo Shinshū has been Shorey Paul U S scholar and Humanist noted for his writings on classical Greek art and thought Shorey graduated from Harvard in 1878 was admitted to the bar in 1880 and later studied in Germany and Greece He taught at Bryn Mawr College and the universities Sidgwick Henry English philosopher and author remembered for his forthright ethical theory based on Utilitarianism and his Methods of Ethics 1874 considered by some critics as the most significant ethical work in English in the 19th century In 1859 Sidgwick was Siger de Brabant professor of philosophy at the University of Paris and a leading representative of the school of radical or heterodox Aristotelianism which arose in Paris when Latin translations of Greek and Arabic works in philosophy introduced new material to masters Simmel Georg German sociologist and Neo Kantian philosopher whose fame rests chiefly on works concerning sociological methodology He taught philosophy at the Universities of Berlin 1885 1914 and Strassburg 1914 18 and his insightful essays on personal and social Simplicius of Cilicia Greek philosopher whose learned commentaries on Aristotle s De caelo On the Heavens Physics De anima On the Soul and Categories are considered important both for their original content and for the fact that they contain many valuable fragments Singer Peter Australian ethical and political philosopher best known for his work in bioethics and his role as one of the intellectual founders of the modern animal rights movement Singer s Jewish parents immigrated to Australia from Vienna in 1938 to escape Nazi skepticism in Western philosophy the attitude of doubting knowledge claims set forth in various areas Skeptics have challenged the adequacy or reliability of these claims by asking what principles they are based upon or what they actually establish They have Smith Adam Scottish social philosopher and political economist

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