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  • Philosophy - 9 | Britannica.com
    is recognized today as a forerunner of cultural anthropology or ethnology He attempted especially in his major work the Scienza nuova 1725 New Science to bring about the convergence of history Vischer Friedrich Theodor von German literary critic and aesthetician known for his efforts to create a theoretical basis for literary realism Vischer s theories of aesthetics based on ideas of G W F Hegel began to develop while he was teaching at the University of Tübingen Voegelin Eric Herman Wilhelm German American political scientist and interdisciplinary scholar known for his studies of modern political thought and for his efforts to create a comprehensive philosophy of man society and history Voegelin earned a Ph D from the University of Voltaire one of the greatest of all French writers Although only a few of his works are still read he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny bigotry and cruelty Through its critical capacity wit and satire Voltaire s von Hügel Friedrich Baron von Hügel Roman Catholic philosopher and author who was the forerunner of the realist revival in philosophy and the theological study of religious feeling Of Austrian descent von Hügel inherited his father s baronial title in 1870 but lived most of his life Wach Joachim Protestant theologian and one of the foremost scholars in the modern study of religion As a professor of the history of religion at the University of Leipzig 1929 35 and the University of Chicago 1945 55 Wach contributed significantly to the field Wang Bi one of the most brilliant and precocious Chinese philosophers of his day By the time of Wang s death at the age of 23 he was already the author of outstanding commentaries on the Daoist classic the Daodejing or Laozi and the Confucian mantic classic Wang Chong one of the most original and independent Chinese thinkers of the Han period 206 bce 220 ce A rationalistic naturalist during an age of superstition Wang dared attack the belief in omens and portents that had begun to creep into the Confucian doctrines Wang Yangming Chinese scholar official whose idealistic interpretation of neo Confucianism influenced philosophical thinking in East Asia for centuries Though his career in government was rather unstable his suppression of rebellions brought a century of peace to Ward James philosopher and psychologist who exerted a major influence on the development of psychology in Great Britain After completing his theological studies at Spring Hill College later Mansfield College Oxford 1869 he obtained a one year scholarship Watsuji Tetsurō Japanese moral philosopher and historian of ideas outstanding among modern Japanese thinkers who have tried to combine the Eastern moral spirit with Western ethical ideas Watsuji studied philosophy at Tokyo University and became professor of ethics Webb Clement Charles Julian English scholar and philosopher remembered for his contribution to the study of the societal aspects of religion A fellow and tutor in philosophy at Magdalen College Oxford from 1889 to 1922 Webb served as the first Oriel Professor of the Philosophy Weil Simone French mystic social philosopher and activist in the French Resistance during World War II whose posthumously published works had particular influence on French and English social thought Intellectually precocious Weil also expressed social awareness Weininger Otto Austrian philosopher whose single work Geschlecht und Charakter 1903 Sex and Character served as a sourcebook for anti Semitic propagandists The son of a prosperous Jewish artisan Weininger became a Christian the day he received his Ph D degree West Cornel American philosopher scholar of African American studies and political activist His influential book Race Matters 1993 lamented what he saw as the spiritual impoverishment of the African American underclass and critically examined the crisis of Westermarck Edward Finnish sociologist philosopher and anthropologist who denied the widely held view that early humans had lived in a state of promiscuity and instead theorized that the original form of human sexual attachment had been monogamy He asserted that primitive Whately Richard Anglican archbishop of Dublin educator logician and social reformer The son of a clergyman Whately was educated at Oriel College Oxford and took holy orders While at Oxford he wrote his satiric Historic Doubts Relative to Napoleon Bonaparte Whewell William English philosopher and historian remembered both for his writings on ethics and for his work on the theory of induction a philosophical analysis of particulars to arrive at a scientific generalization Whewell spent most of his career at Trinity College Whitehead Alfred North English mathematician and philosopher who collaborated with Bertrand Russell on Principia Mathematica 1910 13 and from the mid 1920s taught at Harvard University and developed a comprehensive metaphysical theory Background and schooling Whitehead s William de la Mare English philosopher and theologian advocate of the traditional Neoplatonic Augustinian school of Christian philosophy and leading critic of the Aristotelian thought introduced by Thomas Aquinas A member of the Franciscan order William became a master William of Auvergne the most prominent French philosopher theologian of the early 13th century and one of the first Western scholars to attempt to integrate Classical Greek and Arabic philosophy with Christian doctrine William became a master of theology at the University William of Auxerre French philosopher theologian who contributed to the adaptation of classical Greek philosophy to Christian doctrine He is considered the first medieval writer to develop a systematic treatise on free will and the natural law Probably a student of the William of Champeaux French bishop logician theologian and philosopher who was prominent in the Scholastic controversy on the nature of universals i e words that can be applied to more than one particular thing After studies under the polemicist Manegold of Lautenbach William of Conches French Scholastic philosopher and a leading member of the School of Chartres A pupil of the philosopher Bernard of Chartres he taught at Chartres and Paris and was tutor to Henry later Henry II of England son of Geoffrey Plantagenet William a William of Moerbeke Flemish cleric archbishop and classical scholar whose Latin

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Philosophy/9 (2016-02-13)
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  • Acoustics | Britannica.com
    phenomenon is used in astronomical measurements envelope in musical sound the attack sustain and decay of a sound Attack transients consist of changes occurring before the sound reaches its steady state intensity Sustain refers to the steady state of a sound at its maximum intensity and decay is the Germain Sophie French mathematician who contributed notably to the study of acoustics elasticity and the theory of numbers As a girl Germain read widely in her father s library and then later using the pseudonym of M Le Blanc managed to obtain lecture notes for hydrophone device for converting sound waves into electrical signals similar in operation to a microphone but used primarily for detecting sound waves from an underwater source such as a submarine Usually an array of hydrophones is employed to pinpoint the source infrasonics vibrational or stress waves in elastic media having a frequency below those of sound waves that can be detected by the human ear i e below 20 hertz The range of frequencies extends down to geologic vibrations that complete one cycle in 100 seconds loudness in acoustics attribute of sound that determines the intensity of auditory sensation produced The loudness of sound as perceived by human ears is roughly proportional to the logarithm of sound intensity when the intensity is very small the sound is Mahillon Victor Charles Belgian musical scholar who collected described and copied musical instruments and wrote on acoustics and other subjects In 1865 Mahillon entered the instrument manufacturing firm established by his father Charles Mahillon He also founded a music musical sound any tone with characteristics such as controlled pitch and timbre The sounds are produced by instruments in which the periodic vibrations can be controlled by the performer That some sounds are intrinsically musical while others are not is

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Acoustics (2016-02-13)
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  • Atoms | Britannica.com
    charge and oppositely directed magnetic moment It is the proton s antiparticle Antiprotons were first produced and identified in 1955 by Emilio Segrè Owen Chamberlain for atom smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles It also is the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristic properties of a chemical element As such the atom is the basic building block of atomic bomb weapon with great explosive power that results from the sudden release of energy upon the splitting or fission of the nuclei of such heavy elements as plutonium or uranium The properties and effects of atomic bombs When a neutron strikes the nucleus atomic clock type of clock that uses certain resonance frequencies of atoms usually cesium or rubidium to keep time with extreme accuracy The electronic components of atomic clocks are regulated by the frequency of the microwave electromagnetic radiation Only atomic mass the quantity of matter contained in an atom of an element It is expressed as a multiple of one twelfth the mass of the carbon 12 atom 1 992646547 10 23 gram which is assigned an atomic mass of 12 units In this scale 1 atomic mass unit amu atomic number the number of a chemical element in the periodic system whereby the elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons in the nucleus Accordingly the number of protons which is always equal to the number of electrons in the neutral atom atomic physics the scientific study of the structure of the atom its energy states and its interactions with other particles and with electric and magnetic fields Atomic physics has proved to be a spectacularly successful application of quantum mechanics which atomic radius half the distance between the nuclei of identical neighbouring atoms in the solid form of an element An atom has no rigid spherical boundary but it may be thought of as a tiny dense positive nucleus surrounded by a diffuse negative cloud of electrons atomic theory ancient philosophical speculation that all things can be accounted for by innumerable combinations of hard small indivisible particles called atoms of various sizes but of the same basic material or the modern scientific theory of matter according atomic weight ratio of the average mass of a chemical element s atoms to some standard Since 1961 the standard unit of atomic mass has been one twelfth the mass of an atom of the isotope carbon 12 An isotope is one of two or more species of atoms of the same chemical atomism any doctrine that explains complex phenomena in terms of aggregates of fixed particles or units This philosophy has found its most successful application in natural science according to the atomistic view the material universe is composed of minute barn unit of area used to measure the reaction cross section generally different from the geometric cross section of atomic nuclei and subatomic particles in the study of their interactions with other nuclei or particles

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Atoms (2016-02-13)
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  • Electricity | Britannica.com
    living organisms Bioelectric potentials are generated by a variety of biological processes and generally range in strength from one to a few hundred millivolts In the electric eel however Brush Charles Francis U S inventor and industrialist who devised an electric arc lamp and a generator that produced a variable voltage controlled by the load and a constant current He installed his lamps in Wanamaker s Department Store Philadelphia in 1878 The following Canton John British physicist and teacher The son of a weaver Canton became the clerk to the master of a school in London in 1737 he succeeded the master as teacher in 1745 and ran the school himself until his death in 1772 Canton s invention of a new way to capacitance property of an electric conductor or set of conductors that is measured by the amount of separated electric charge that can be stored on it per unit change in electrical potential Capacitance also implies an associated storage of electrical energy Cavendish Henry natural philosopher the greatest experimental and theoretical English chemist and physicist of his age Cavendish was distinguished for great accuracy and precision in researches into the composition of atmospheric air the properties of different gases Coulomb Charles Augustin de French physicist best known for the formulation of Coulomb s law which states that the force between two electrical charges is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them Coulombic Crompton Rookes Evelyn Bell British inventor and pioneer in electrical development After military service in India where he had introduced steam driven road transport Crompton in 1875 became a partner in an engineering firm at Chelmsford Essex and soon broadened its activity dielectric insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current When dielectrics are placed in an electric field practically no current flows in them because unlike metals they have no loosely bound or free electrons that may drift through the dielectric constant property of an electrical insulating material a dielectric equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material The insertion of dielectric loss loss of energy that goes into heating a dielectric material in a varying electric field For example a capacitor incorporated in an alternating current circuit is alternately charged and discharged each half cycle During the alternation of polarity Edison Thomas Alva American inventor who singly or jointly held a world record 1 093 patents In addition he created the world s first industrial research laboratory Edison was the quintessential American inventor in the era of Yankee ingenuity He began his career electric arc continuous high density electric current between two separated conductors in a gas or vapour with a relatively low potential difference or voltage across the conductors The high intensity light and heat of arcs are utilized in welding in carbon arc electric displacement auxiliary electric

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Electricity (2016-02-13)
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  • Electromagnetism | Britannica.com
    It was not until the 19th century that they were Ewing Sir Alfred British physicist who discovered and named hysteresis the resistance of magnetic materials to change in magnetic force Ewing was professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Tokyo 1878 83 and professor of mechanism and applied mechanics Faraday Michael English physicist and chemist whose many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism Faraday who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century began his career as a chemist He wrote a manual of practical chemistry Gauss Carl Friedrich German mathematician generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time for his contributions to number theory geometry probability theory geodesy planetary astronomy the theory of functions and potential theory including electromagnetism Glashow Sheldon Lee American theoretical physicist who with Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for their complementary efforts in formulating the electroweak theory which explains the unity of electromagnetism and the weak force Green George English mathematician who was first to attempt to devise a theory of electricity and magnetism This work heralded the beginning of modern mathematical physics in Great Britain The son of a prosperous miller and a miller by trade himself Green was Henry Joseph one of the first great American scientists after Benjamin Franklin He aided and discovered several important principles of electricity including self induction a phenomenon of primary importance in electronic circuitry While working with electromagnets Kelvin William Thomson Baron Scottish engineer mathematician and physicist who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation Thomson who was knighted and raised to the peerage in recognition of his work in engineering and physics was foremost among the small Lamb Willis Eugene Jr American physicist and corecipient with Polykarp Kusch of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Electromagnetism (2016-02-13)
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  • Electronics | Britannica.com
    for several U S and international telephone companies It also manufactures electronic consumer and industrial equipment It is headquartered in Stamford Connecticut General Telephone was founded in 1926 as Associated Telephone Litton Industries Inc diversified U S multinational corporation founded in 1953 by Charles Bates Tex Thornton 1913 81 Its more than 80 divisions provide products and services ranging from electronic and electrical components and equipment to aerospace and marine systems Matsushita Electric Industrial Company Ltd major Japanese manufacturer of electric appliances and consumer electronics products Headquarters are in Kadoma near Ōsaka The company was founded in 1918 by Matsushita Konosuke to manufacture and market the electric lamp sockets and plugs he designed Page Robert Morris American physicist known as the father of U S radar Page changed his major from theology to physics in his senior year at Hamline University in St Paul Minnesota After graduating in 1927 he moved to Washington D C where he joined the U S Philips Electronics NV major Dutch manufacturer of consumer electronics electronic components medical imaging equipment household appliances lighting equipment and computer and telecommunications equipment Philips Company was founded in 1891 by Frederik Philips and RCA Corporation major American electronics and broadcasting conglomerate that is a unit of General Electric Company Among its subsidiaries is the National Broadcasting Company NBC Headquarters are in New York City RCA was founded as Radio Corporation of America Rockwell International Corporation diversified American corporation that was formerly one of the country s leading aerospace contractors making launch vehicles and spacecraft for the U S space program The main company was incorporated in 1928 as North American Aviation Inc a holding Schottky Walter German physicist whose research in solid state physics and electronics yielded many devices that now bear his name Schottky obtained doctorates in engineering

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Electronics (2016-02-13)
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  • Energy | Britannica.com
    the outdoors while spending time at his Bunsen burner device for combining a flammable gas with controlled amounts of air before ignition it produces a hotter flame than would be possible using the ambient air and gas alone Named for Robert Bunsen the German chemist who introduced it in 1855 from a chemical energy Energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds Chemical energy may be released during a chemical reaction often in the form of heat such reactions are called exothermic Reactions that require an input of heat to proceed may store some of that energy Citrine Walter McLennan Citrine 1st Baron English trade union leader and general secretary of the Trades Union Congress TUC from 1926 to 1946 Born into a working class family Citrine began his career as an electrician and became active in the electrician s union of Liverpool From 1914 to combustion a chemical reaction between substances usually including oxygen and usually accompanied by the generation of heat and light in the form of flame The rate or speed at which the reactants combine is high in part because of the nature of the chemical Einstein s mass energy relation relationship between mass m and energy E in the special theory of relativity of Albert Einstein embodied by the formula E m c 2 where c equals 300 000 km 186 000 miles per second i e the speed of light In physical theories prior to that electric power energy generated through the conversion of other forms of energy such as mechanical thermal or chemical energy Electric energy is unrivaled for many uses as for lighting computer operation motive power and entertainment applications For other Endesa Spanish energy company that is one of the largest private conglomerates in the world Headquarters are in Madrid Endesa s activities are aimed at generating transporting distributing and selling electrical energy and related services The company energy conservation of principle of physics according to which the energy of interacting bodies or particles in a closed system remains constant The first kind of energy to be recognized was kinetic energy or energy of motion In certain particle collisions called elastic energy conversion the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans Over the centuries a wide array of devices and systems has been developed for this purpose Some of these energy converters are quite simple The early windmills fire rapid burning of combustible material with the evolution of heat and usually accompanied by flame It is one of the human race s essential tools control of which helped start it on the path toward civilization The original source of fire undoubtedly fire storm violent convection caused by a continuous area of intense fire and characterized by destructively violent surface indrafts Sometimes it is accompanied by tornado like whirls that develop as hot air from the burning fuel rises Such a fire is beyond flame rapidly reacting body of gas commonly a mixture

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Physics/Energy (2016-02-13)
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  • Geophysics | Britannica.com
    Arthur L U S geophysicist known for his studies of the properties of rocks and minerals at very high and very low temperatures He investigated hot springs and earthquakes the absolute measurement of high temperatures and physical and chemical problems regarding Dietz Robert S American geophysicist and oceanographer who set forth a theory of seafloor spreading in 1961 Dietz was educated at the University of Illinois B S 1937 M S 1939 Ph D 1941 After serving as an officer in the U S Army Air Corps during World dip circle instrument for measuring the inclination or dip of the Earth s magnetic field It consists essentially of a magnetic needle pivoted at the centre of a graduated circle The assembly is mounted such that the needle swings vertically rather than horizontally dipolar hypothesis theory that the Earth s magnetic field is produced or is best represented by a magnetic dipole a body having poles of opposite sign that is positive and negative In the first quantitative study made of the Earth s magnetic field William Gilbert Dutton Clarence Edward American geologist and pioneer seismologist who developed and named the principle of isostasy According to this principle the level of the Earth s crust is determined by its density lighter material rises forming continents mountains and plateaus dynamo theory geophysical theory that explains the origin of Earth s main magnetic field in terms of a self exciting or self sustaining dynamo In this dynamo mechanism fluid motion in Earth s outer core moves conducting material liquid iron across an already Ewing Maurice U S geophysicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding of marine sediments and ocean basins using seismic methods Studying the structure of the Earth s crust and mantle and making seismic refraction measurements in the Atlantic basins geomagnetic field magnetic field associated with the Earth It primarily is dipolar i e it has two poles these being the north and south magnetic poles on the Earth s surface Away from the surface the dipole becomes distorted In the 1830s the German mathematician geomagnetics branch of geophysics concerned with all aspects of the Earth s magnetic field including its origin variation through time and manifestations in the form of magnetic poles the remanent magnetization of rocks and local or regional magnetic anomalies Geophone trade name for an acoustic detector that responds to ground vibrations generated by seismic waves Geophones also called jugs pickups and tortugas are placed on the ground surface in various patterns or arrays to record the vibrations generated by geophysics major branch of the Earth sciences that applies the principles and methods of physics to the study of the Earth A brief treatment of geophysics follows For full treatment see geology Geophysics Geophysics deals with a wide array of geologic phenomena Gutenberg Beno American seismologist noted for his analyses of earthquake waves and the information they furnish about the physical properties of the Earth s interior Gutenberg served as a professor of geophysics and director of

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