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  • Christianity | Britannica.com
    love of books and his remarkable Adeodatus II pope 672 676 who was the first pontiff to date events in terms of his reign which began with his election on April 11 672 Adeodatus played no known role in the political events of the day or in the liquidation of monothelitism a heresy teaching adiaphorism from Greek adiaphora indifferent in Christian theology the opinion that certain doctrines or practices in morals or religion are matters of indifference because they are neither commanded nor forbidden in the Bible Two adiaphorist controversies Adoptionism either of two Christian heresies one developed in the 2nd and 3rd centuries and is also known as Dynamic Monarchianism see Monarchianism the other began in the 8th century in Spain and was concerned with the teaching of Elipandus archbishop of Toledo Adrian I pope from 772 to 795 whose close relationship with the emperor Charlemagne symbolized the medieval ideal of union of church and state in a united Christendom Having been born an aristocrat and having served Popes Paul I and Stephen III IV he was Adrian II pope from 867 to 872 A relative of two previous popes Stephen V and Sergius II he had been called to the papacy twice before but declined He accepted the call on Dec 14 867 Under his vigorous predecessor St Nicholas I the papacy had reached Adrian III Saint pope from 884 to 885 Adrian s brief pontificate came during troubled times He died en route to the Diet of Worms after being summoned by the Frankish king Charles III the Fat to settle the succession to the empire and discuss the rising Saracen power Adrian IV the only Englishman to occupy the papal throne 1154 59 He became a canon regular of St Ruf near Avignon Fr and in about 1150 Pope Eugenius III appointed him cardinal bishop of Albano Italy Eugenius sent him in 1152 as legate to Scandinavia Adrian V pope for about five weeks in 1276 His uncle Pope Innocent IV appointed him cardinal He was legate to England 1265 68 charged with establishing peace between the English king Henry III and the rebellious barons in 1265 Elected as successor to Innocent Adrian VI the only Dutch pope elected in 1522 He was the last non Italian pope until the election of John Paul II in 1978 He studied at the Catholic University of Leuven Louvain where he was ordained priest and became successively professor of theology Advent adventus coming in the Christian church calendar the period of preparation for the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ at Christmas and also of preparation for the Second Coming of Christ It begins on the Sunday nearest to November 30 St Andrew s Adventism member of any one of a group of Protestant Christian churches that trace their origin to the United States in the mid 19th century and that are distinguished by their emphasis on the belief that the personal visible return of Christ in glory

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Christianity (2016-02-13)
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  • Confucianism | Britannica.com
    and Autumn Annals the first Chinese chronological history said to be the traditional history of the vassal state of Lu as revised by Confucius It is one of the Five Classics Wujing of Confucianism The name actually an abbreviation Confucianism the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th 5th century bce and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia Although transformed over time it is still the substance of learning the source of values and the social code of the Confucius China s most famous teacher philosopher and political theorist whose ideas have influenced the civilization of East Asia Confucius s life in contrast to his tremendous importance seems starkly undramatic or as a Chinese expression has it it Dai Zhen Chinese empirical philosopher considered by many to have been the greatest thinker of the Qing period 1644 1911 12 Born to poor parents Dai educated himself by reading borrowed books Although he passed his preliminary civil service examinations Daxue Chinese Great Learning brief Chinese text generally attributed to the ancient sage Confucius 551 479 bc and his disciple Zengzi For centuries the text existed only as a chapter of the Liji Collection of Rituals one of the Wujing Five Classics Dong Zhongshu scholar instrumental in establishing Confucianism in 136 bce as the state cult of China and as the basis of official political philosophy a position it was to hold for 2 000 years As a philosopher Dong merged the Confucian and Yinyang schools of thought Donglin party of Chinese scholars and officials who attempted to combat the moral laxity and intellectual weakness they felt was undermining public life during the last years of the Ming dynasty 1368 1644 The party was founded by Gu Xiancheng a government Falun Gong Chinese the Practice of the Wheel of Dharma controversial Chinese new religious movement founded by Li Hongzhi in 1992 its adherents exercise ritually to obtain mental and spiritual renewal The teachings of Falun Gong draw from Buddhism Daoism Feng Dao Chinese Confucian minister generally given credit for instigating the first printing of the Confucian Classics in 932 As a result Confucian texts became cheap and accessible the number of scholars and the knowledge of literature greatly increased Ge Hong in Chinese Daoism perhaps the best known alchemist who tried to combine Confucian ethics with the occult doctrines of Daoism In his youth he received a Confucian education but later he grew interested in the Daoist cult of physical immortality xian Gongsun Hong scholar who helped establish Confucianism as the official doctrine of the Chinese state According to tradition Gongsun Hong was a poor swineherd who did not begin the study of the Confucian Classics until he was 40 years old In 140 bc he placed first Gu Yanwu one of the most famous of the Ming dynasty loyalists whose rationalist critiques of the useless book learning and metaphysical speculations of neo Confucian philosophy which had been the underpinning of the Chinese empire for almost

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Confucianism (2016-02-13)
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  • Daoism | Britannica.com
    Laozi identified by the historian Daoism indigenous religio philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more than 2 000 years In the broadest sense a Daoist attitude toward life can be seen in the accepting and yielding the joyful and carefree sides of the Chinese character Daozang Chinese Canon of the Way a large imperially sponsored collection of Daoist writings very few of which have been translated into English The original canon printed by the Daoist emperors of the Song dynasty 960 1279 ce comprised almost 5 000 de Chinese virtue excellence moral power in Chinese philosophy the inner moral power through which a person may positively influence others Although the term is often translated in English as virtue de is not simply a desirable human trait Dōkyō from Chinese Tao chiao Teaching of the Way popular or religious Taoism as distinguished from philosophical Taoism as introduced into Japan from China It was the source of many widespread Japanese folk beliefs and practices of divination and Falun Gong Chinese the Practice of the Wheel of Dharma controversial Chinese new religious movement founded by Li Hongzhi in 1992 its adherents exercise ritually to obtain mental and spiritual renewal The teachings of Falun Gong draw from Buddhism Daoism Ge Hong in Chinese Daoism perhaps the best known alchemist who tried to combine Confucian ethics with the occult doctrines of Daoism In his youth he received a Confucian education but later he grew interested in the Daoist cult of physical immortality xian Han Xiang in Chinese mythology one of the Baxian the Eight Immortals of Daoism He desired to make flowers bloom in an instant and to produce fine tasting wine without using grain When his uncle scoffed at the idea Han Xiang performed the impossible before He Xiangu in Chinese mythology one of the Baxian the Eight Immortals of Daoism As a teenaged girl she dreamed that mother of pearl conferred immortality She thereupon ate some became ethereal and found she could float across the hills at will She returned He Yan Chinese scholar who cofounded the philosophical movement qingtan pure conversation in which groups of scholars used Daoist terms and concepts to give new meanings to Confucian texts They also utilized Confucian moral and social philosophy to politicize Huainanzi Chinese Master Huainan important Chinese classic written in the 2nd century bc under the patronage of the nobleman Huainanzi Liu An It is a compilation of 21 loosely connected chapters on metaphysics cosmology matters of state and conduct Although Huangdi third of ancient China s mythological emperors a culture hero and patron saint of Daoism Huangdi is reputed to have been born about 2704 bc and to have begun his rule as emperor in 2697 His legendary reign is credited with the introduction of wooden hun in Chinese Daoism the heavenly and more spiritual souls of the human being that leave the body on death as distinguished from po the earthly and more material souls These souls are multiple each person

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Daoism (2016-02-13)
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  • Hinduism | Britannica.com
    were the Nayanars The name Alvar ānanda Sanskrit joy or bliss in Indian philosophy of the Upaniṣad s and the school of Vedānta an important attribute of the supreme being Brahman Bliss is characteristically used in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad c 6th century bc to define Brahman and antyeshti Hindu funeral rites varying according to the caste and religious sect of the deceased but generally involving cremation followed by disposal of the ashes in a sacred river Antyeshti rites are the final sacraments samskara s in a series that ideally Aranyaka Sanskrit Forest Book a later development of the Brahmanas or expositions of the Vedas which were composed in India in about 700 bce The Aranyakas are distinguished from the Brahmanas in that they may contain information on secret rites to be carried Ardhanarishvara Sanskrit Lord Who Is Half Woman composite male female figure of the Hindu god Shiva together with his consort Parvati As seen in many Indian and Southeast Asian sculptures the right male half of the figure is adorned with the traditional ornaments Arjuna one of the five Pandava brothers who are the heroes of the Indian epic the Mahabharata Arjuna son of the god Indra is famous for his archery he can shoot with either hand and for the magical weapons that he wins from the god Shiva His hesitation artha Sanskrit wealth or property in Hinduism the pursuit of wealth or material advantage one of the four traditional aims in life The sanction for artha rests on the assumption that with the exclusion of the exceptional few who can proceed directly arti Hindi the ceremony of lights in Hindu and Jain rites the waving of lighted lamps before an image of a god or a person to be honoured In performing the rite the worshiper circles the lamp three times in a clockwise direction while chanting a prayer Arya Samaj Sanskrit Society of Nobles vigorous reform movement of modern Hinduism founded in 1875 by Dayananda Sarasvati whose aim was to reestablish the Vedas the earliest Hindu scriptures as revealed truth He rejected all later accretions to the Vedas asana Sanksrit sitting posture seat in the Yoga system of Indian philosophy an immobile bodily posture that a person assumes in an attempt to isolate the mind by freeing it from attention to bodily functions It is the third of the eight prescribed stages ashrama in Hinduism any of the four stages of life through which a Hindu ideally will pass The stages are those of 1 the student brahmacari marked by chastity devotion and obedience to one s teacher 2 the householder grihastha requiring marriage Asiatic Society of Bengal scholarly society founded on Jan 15 1784 by Sir William Jones a British lawyer and Orientalist to encourage Oriental studies At its founding Jones delivered the first of a famous series of discourses An outstanding scholar from the University āstika in Indian philosophy any orthodox school of thought defined as one that accepts the authority of the Vedas

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Hinduism (2016-02-13)
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  • Indian Religion | Britannica.com
    the ontological assumption that any entity is at once enduring but also undergoing change that is both constant and inevitable The doctrine of anekantavada states that all entities have three antyeshti Hindu funeral rites varying according to the caste and religious sect of the deceased but generally involving cremation followed by disposal of the ashes in a sacred river Antyeshti rites are the final sacraments samskara s in a series that ideally apsara in Indian religion and mythology one of the celestial singers and dancers who together with the gandharva s or celestial musicians inhabit the heaven of the god Indra the lord of the heavens Originally water nymphs the apsara s provide sensual Aranyaka Sanskrit Forest Book a later development of the Brahmanas or expositions of the Vedas which were composed in India in about 700 bce The Aranyakas are distinguished from the Brahmanas in that they may contain information on secret rites to be carried artha Sanskrit wealth or property in Hinduism the pursuit of wealth or material advantage one of the four traditional aims in life The sanction for artha rests on the assumption that with the exclusion of the exceptional few who can proceed directly arti Hindi the ceremony of lights in Hindu and Jain rites the waving of lighted lamps before an image of a god or a person to be honoured In performing the rite the worshiper circles the lamp three times in a clockwise direction while chanting a prayer Arya Samaj Sanskrit Society of Nobles vigorous reform movement of modern Hinduism founded in 1875 by Dayananda Sarasvati whose aim was to reestablish the Vedas the earliest Hindu scriptures as revealed truth He rejected all later accretions to the Vedas asana Sanksrit sitting posture seat in the Yoga system of Indian philosophy an immobile

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Indian-Religion (2016-02-13)
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  • Indigenous Religion | Britannica.com
    of the dead In England the equivalent term is barrow in Scotland cairn and in Europe and elsewhere tumulus In western Europe and the British Isles burial cairns and barrows date primarily cairn a pile of stones that is used as a boundary marker a memorial or a burial site Cairns are usually conical in shape and were often erected on high ground Burial cairns date primarily from the Neolithic Period and the Early Bronze Age Cairns are still dema deity any of several mythical ancestral beings of the Marind Anim of southern New Guinea the centre of a body of mythology called the dema deity complex The decisive act in dema myths is the slaying of a dema ancestral deity by the ancestral tribe This devarāja in ancient Cambodia the cult of the god king established early in the 9th century ad by Jayavarman II founder of the Khmer empire of Angkor For centuries the cult provided the religious basis of the royal authority of the Khmer kings The devarāja Dreaming the mythological period of time that had a beginning but no foreseeable end during which the natural environment was shaped and humanized by the actions of mythic beings Many of these beings took the form of human beings or of animals totemic some Earth Mother in ancient and modern nonliterate religions an eternally fruitful source of everything Unlike the variety of female fertility deities called mother goddess es the Earth Mother is not a specific source of vitality who must periodically undergo sexual effigy mound earthen mound in the form of an animal or bird found throughout the north central United States Prehistoric Native Americans built a variety of earth berm structures in addition to effigy mounds including conical linear and flat topped mounds Although fire walking religious

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Indigenous-Religion (2016-02-13)
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  • Islam | Britannica.com
    led the late 19th century movement in Egypt and other Muslim countries to revitalize Islāmic teachings and institutions in the modern world As muftī Islāmic legal counsellor for Egypt from 1899 Abū Bakr Muhammad s closest companion and adviser who succeeded to the Prophet s political and administrative functions thereby initiating the office of the caliphate Of a minor clan of the ruling merchant tribe of Quraysh at Mecca Abū Bakr purportedly was Abū Ḥanīfah Muslim jurist and theologian whose systematization of Islāmic legal doctrine was acknowledged as one of the four canonical schools of Islāmic law The school of Abū Ḥanīfah acquired such prestige that its doctrines were applied by a majority of Muslim ʿādah Arabic custom in Islāmic law a local custom that is given a particular consideration by judicial authorities even when it conflicts with some principle of canon law Sharīʿah in Indonesia it is known as adat in North Africa it is ʿurf and adhān Arabic announcement the Muslim call to Friday public worship and to the five daily hours of prayer It is proclaimed by the muezzin a servant of the mosque chosen for good character as he stands at the door or side of a small mosque or in the Afghānī Jamāl al Dīn al Muslim politician political agitator and journalist whose belief in the potency of a revived Islamic civilization in the face of European domination significantly influenced the development of Muslim thought in the 19th and early 20th centuries Very Aga Khan in Shīʿite Islam title of the imam s of the Nizārī Ismāʿilī sect The title was first granted in 1818 to Ḥasan ʿAlī Shah 1800 81 by the shah of Iran As Aga Khan I he later revolted against Iran 1838 and defeated fled to India His eldest son Aga Khan III only son of the Aga Khan II He succeeded his father as imam leader of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlī sect in 1885 Under the care of his mother who was born into the ruling house of Iran he was given an education that was not only Islamic and Oriental but Agus Salim Hadji Indonesian nationalist and religious leader from an upper class Minangkabau family who played a key role during the 1920s in moderating the messianic and communist element in the Muslim nationalist movement in the Dutch East Indies Agus Salim received Ahl al Kitāb Arabic People of the Book in Islamic thought those religionists Jews Christians and Zoroastrians as well as the imprecisely defined group referred to as Sabians who are possessors of divine books i e the Torah the Gospel and the Avesta as Ahl e Ḥaqq Arabic People of Truth or People of God a secret syncretistic religion derived largely from Islām whose adherents are found in western Iran with enclaves in Iraq They retain the 12 imams of the Ithnā ʿAsharīyah sect and such aspects of Aḥmad Bābā jurist writer and a cultural leader of the western Sudan A descendant of a line of jurists

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Islam (2016-02-13)
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  • Jainism | Britannica.com
    and intellectual skills ayagapata Prakrit homage tablet in Jainism any of numerous votive slabs associated with such Jain sites as Kankali Tila in Mathura India and dating to about the 1st century ce The slabs are decorated with an object of Jain veneration such as the stupa relic Bahubali According to the traditions of the Indian religion Jainism the son of the first Tirthankara literally ford maker a metaphor for saviour Rishabhanatha He is said to have lived many millions of years ago After Bahubali won a duel with his half Bhadrabahu I Jain religious leader and monk often associated with one of Jainism s two principal sects the Digambara According to Digambara tradition in 310 bce after a 12 year famine Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta the first king of the Mauryan dynasty who had chakravartin the ancient Indian conception of the world ruler derived from the Sanskrit chakra wheel and vartin one who turns Thus a chakravartin may be understood as a ruler whose chariot wheels roll everywhere or whose movements are unobstructed Digambara Sanskrit Sky clad i e naked one of the two principal sects of the Indian religion Jainism whose male ascetics shun all property and wear no clothes In accordance with their practice of nonviolence the monks also use a peacock feather duster to dravya Sanskrit substance a fundamental concept of Jainism a religion of India that is the oldest Indian school of philosophy to separate matter and soul completely The Jains recognize the existence of five astikaya s eternal categories of being which Ellora Caves a series of 34 magnificent rock cut temples in northwest central Maharashtra state western India They are located near the village of Ellora 19 miles 30 km northwest of Aurangabad and 50 miles 80 km southwest of the Ajanta Caves Spread

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Religion/Jainism (2016-02-13)
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