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  • Holidays, Festivals, and Observances | Britannica.com
    On January 26 1788 Arthur Phillip who had sailed into what is now Sydney Cove with a shipload of convicts hoisted the British bank holiday in the United Kingdom any of several days designated as holidays by the Bank Holidays Act of 1871 and a supplementary act of 1875 for all the banks in England Wales Northern Ireland and Scotland Although these days are not statutory public holidays Bastille Day in France and its overseas départements and territories holiday marking the anniversary of the fall on July 14 1789 of the Bastille in Paris Originally built as a medieval fortress the Bastille eventually came to be used as a state prison Political Boxing Day in Great Britain and some Commonwealth countries particularly Australia Canada and New Zealand holiday December 26 on which servants tradespeople and the poor traditionally were presented with gifts Explanations for the origin of the name have Breast Cancer Awareness Month international health campaign lasting the month of October that is intended to increase global awareness of breast cancer In the United States the monthlong campaign is known as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month The first organized effort to bring Canada Day the national holiday of Canada The possibility of a confederation between the colonies of British North America was discussed throughout the mid 1800s On July 1 1867 a dominion was formed through the British North America Act as approved by the British Ch usŏk Korean holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month to commemorate the fall harvest and to honour one s ancestors Similar to Thanksgiving Day in the United States the Harvest Moon Festival as it is also known is one of the most popular Cinco de Mayo Spanish Fifth of May holiday celebrated in parts of Mexico and the United States in honour of a military victory in 1862 over the French forces of Napoleon III When in 1861 Mexico declared a temporary moratorium on the repayment of foreign debts Columbus Day in the United States holiday originally October 12 since 1971 the second Monday in October to commemorate the landing of Christopher Columbus on October 12 1492 in the New World Although his explorations were financed by King Ferdinand and Queen coronation ceremony whereby a sovereign is inaugurated into office by receiving upon his or her head the crown which is the chief symbol of regal authority From earliest historical times a king queen or chieftain was inaugurated by some public ceremony the Day of Reconciliation public holiday observed in South Africa on December 16 The holiday originally commemorated the victory of the Voortrekkers southern Africans of Dutch German or Huguenot descent who made the Great Trek over the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River Day of the Dead holiday in Mexico also observed to a lesser extent in other areas of Latin America and in the United States honouring dead loved ones and making peace with the eventuality of death by treating it familiarly without fear

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  • Languages | Britannica.com
    German language scholars before Jacob Grimm His grammars dictionary and works on style helped to standardize the language He engaged in private research from 1761 to 1787 when he became principal librarian to the elector Aelfric Anglo Saxon prose writer considered the greatest of his time He wrote both to instruct the monks and to spread the learning of the 10th century monastic revival His Catholic Homilies written in 990 992 provided orthodox sermons based on the Church affix a grammatical element that is combined with a word stem or phrase to produce derived and inflected forms There are three types of affixes prefixes infixes and suffixes A prefix occurs at the beginning of a word or stem sub mit pre determine affricate a consonant sound that begins as a stop sound with complete obstruction of the breath stream and concludes with a fricative sound with incomplete closure and a sound of friction Examples of affricates are the ch sound in English chair which may African American English AAE a language variety that has also been identified at different times in dialectology and literary studies as Black English black dialect and Negro nonstandard English Since the late 1980s the term has been used ambiguously sometimes with reference Afrikaans language West Germanic language of South Africa developed from 17th century Dutch sometimes called Netherlandic by the descendants of European Dutch German and French colonists indigenous Khoisan peoples and African and Asian slaves in the Dutch colony Afro Asiatic languages languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa the Arabian Peninsula and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia About 250 Afro Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately 250 million people Numbers of agglutination a grammatical process in which words are composed of a sequence of morphemes meaningful word elements each of which represents not more than a single grammatical category This term is traditionally employed in the typological classification of languages Akan languages dialect cluster of the Nyo group within the Kwa branch of the Niger Congo language family Its principal members are Asante Ashanti Fante Fanti Brong Abron and Akuapem The Akan cluster is located primarily in southern Ghana although many Brong Akkadian language extinct Semitic language of the Northern Peripheral group spoken in Mesopotamia from the 3rd to the 1st millennium bce Akkadian spread across an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf during the time of Sargon Akkadian Sharrum kin al Arabic definite article meaning the It often prefixes Arabic proper nouns especially place names an example is Al Jazīrah Arabic The Island the name of an interfluvial region in Sudan The article is often used in lowercase form hence al Jazīrah Albanian language Indo European language spoken in Albania and by smaller numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of the southern Balkans along the east coast of Italy and in Sicily in southern Greece and in Germany Sweden the United States Ukraine and Belgium Aleut

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  • Peoples of the World | Britannica.com
    and Paraná rivers In pre Spanish times the Acholi ethnolinguistic group of northern Uganda and South Sudan Numbering more than one million at the turn of the 21st century they speak a Western Nilotic language of the Eastern Sudanic branch of the Nilo Saharan family and are culturally and historically Adangme people occupying the coastal area of Ghana from Kpone to Ada on the Volta River and inland along the Volta they include the Ada Kpone Krobo Ningo Osuduku Prampram and Shai all speaking variants of Ga Adangme of the Kwa branch of the Niger Congo Aedui Celtic tribe of central Gaul occupying most of what was later the French région of Burgundy chiefly responsible for the diplomatic situation exploited by Julius Caesar when he began his conquests in that region in 58 bc The Aedui had been Roman allies Aequi ancient people of Italy originally inhabiting the region watered by the tributaries of the Avens River modern Velino Long hostile to Rome they became especially menacing in the 5th century bc advancing to the Alban Hills Although repulsed by the Afar a people of the Horn of Africa who speak Afar a language of the Eastern Cushitic branch of the Afro Asiatic language family They live in northeastern Ethiopia southeastern Eritrea and Djibouti where with the Issas they are the dominant people African American one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States African Americans are mainly of African ancestry but many have nonblack ancestors as well African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves people who were brought from their Afrīdī Pashtun tribe inhabiting the hill country from the eastern spurs of the Spīn Ghar Range to northern Pakistan The Afrīdīs whose territory straddles the Khyber Pass are of uncertain origin Fighting between the Afrīdīs and the troops of the Mughal dynasty Agau an ancient people who settled in the northern and central Ethiopian Plateau and are associated with the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in the area The term Agau also refers to any of several contemporaneous groups that are either culturally Ahom tribe that ruled much of Assam from the 13th century until the establishment of British rule in 1838 Their power in Assam reached its peak during the reign of King Rudra Singh 1696 1714 They originated in the Chinese province of Yunnan and began Ainu indigenous people of Hokkaido Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands who were culturally and physically distinct from their Japanese neighbours until the second part of the 20th century The Ainu may be descendants of an indigenous population once widely spread Akan ethnolinguistic grouping of peoples of the Guinea Coast who speak Akan languages of the Kwa branch of the Niger Congo family They include the speakers of the Akyem Anyi Asante Ashanti Attié Baule Brong Chakosi Fante Fanti and Guang languages Akhlame ancient Semitic nomads of northern Syria and Mesopotamia and traditional enemies of the Assyrians They are first mentioned about 1375 bc in an

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  • Social Sciences and the Humanities | Britannica.com
    of the late 20th century such as those regarding labour costs or the implications of property ownership Alchian studied at Stanford University earning a B A 1936 alderman member of the legislative body of a municipal corporation in England and the United States In Anglo Saxon England ealdormen or aldermen were high ranking officials of the crown who exercised judicial administrative or military functions Earls Alexander Polyhistor philosopher geographer and historian whose fragmentary writings provide valuable information on antiquarian and Jewish subjects Imprisoned by the Romans in the war of the Roman general Sulla against King Mithradates VI of Pontus Alexander was sold alien in national and international law a foreign born resident who is not a citizen by virtue of parentage or naturalization and who is still a citizen or subject of another country In early times the tendency was to look upon the alien as an enemy and Allais Maurice French economist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1988 for his development of principles to guide efficient pricing and resource allocation in large monopolistic enterprises Allais studied economics at the École Polytechnique Polytechnic Ameghino Florentino paleontologist anthropologist and geologist whose fossil discoveries on the Argentine Pampas rank with those made in the western United States during the late 19th century Ameghino s family immigrated to Argentina when he was a small child He began American Philosophical Society oldest extant learned society in the United States founded under the impetus of Benjamin Franklin in 1743 At the beginning of the 21st century it had more than 850 members elected for their scholarly and scientific accomplishments in any of five Angell Robert Cooley American sociologist known for his studies of individuals interacting in social groups such as government units the church the family business enterprises clubs cooperatives and other associations He received his education at the University of Angell Sir Norman English economist and worker for international peace who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1933 After an education in France London and Geneva Angell spent several years 1890 98 in the United States working as a cowboy a prospector and anthropological linguistics study of the relationship between language and culture it usually refers to work on languages that have no written records In the United States a close relationship between anthropology and linguistics developed as a result of research by anthropologists anthropology the science of humanity which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species Because of the diverse anthropometry the systematic collection and correlation of measurements of the human body Now one of the principal techniques of physical anthropology the discipline originated in the 19th century when early studies of human biological and cultural evolution stimulated anthrozoology study of the interactions and relationships between human and nonhuman animals Anthrozoology spans the humanities and the social behavioral and biomedical sciences While the

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  • Social Structure and Change | Britannica.com
    century movement in Egypt and other Muslim countries to revitalize Islāmic teachings and institutions in the modern world As muftī Islāmic legal counsellor for Egypt from 1899 Abdülhamid II Ottoman sultan from 1876 to 1909 under whose autocratic rule the reform movement of Tanzimat Reorganization reached its climax and who adopted a policy of pan Islamism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affairs A son of Sultan Abdülmecid abolitionism c 1783 1888 in western Europe and the Americas the movement chiefly responsible for creating the emotional climate necessary for ending the transatlantic slave trade and chattel slavery With the decline of Roman slavery in the 5th century the absentee voting electoral process that enables persons who cannot appear at their designated polling places to vote from another location The usual method of absentee voting is by mail although provision is sometimes made for voting at prescribed places in advance academy a society of learned individuals organized to advance art science literature music or some other cultural or intellectual area of endeavour From its original reference in Greek to the philosophical school of Plato the word has come to refer much acculturation the processes of change in artifacts customs and beliefs that result from the contact of two or more cultures The term is also used to refer to the results of such changes Two major types of acculturation incorporation and directed change may be adoption the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity In most ancient civilizations Aerial Experiment Association AEA organization that gathered together a group of young aviators and designers for the purpose of developing heavier than air flying machines It was founded in 1907 and funded for slightly longer than one year by the American inventor Alexander Graham Agaja third ruler of the West African kingdom of Dahomey 1708 40 who was able to extend his kingdom southward to the coast and who consolidated and centralized it through important administrative reforms The first part of Agaja s reign was by far the more Agis IV Spartan king 244 241 who failed in his attempt to reform Sparta s economic and political structure Agis succeeded his father Eudamidas II at the age of 19 Drawing upon the tradition of the Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus Agis sought to reform a system Aguesseau Henri François d jurist who as chancellor of France during most of the period from 1717 to 1750 made important reforms in his country s legal system The son of Henri d Aguesseau intendant royal agent of Languedoc he was advocate general to the Parlement high Akbar the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent In order to preserve the unity of his empire Akbar adopted programs that

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  • Society - 3 | Britannica.com
    to defraud by passing it for the original or genuine article Because of the value conferred on money and the high level of technical skill required to imitate it coup d état the sudden violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group The chief prerequisite for a coup is control of all or part of the armed forces the police and other military elements Unlike a revolution which is usually achieved by large credit transaction between two parties in which one the creditor or lender supplies money goods services or securities in return for a promised future payment by the other the debtor or borrower Such transactions normally include the payment of interest credit bureau organization that provides information to merchants or other businesses relating to the creditworthiness of current and prospective customers Credit bureaus may be private enterprises or cooperatives operated by the merchants in a particular locality credit card small plastic card containing a means of identification such as a signature or picture that authorizes the person named on it to charge goods or services to an account for which the cardholder is billed periodically The use of credit cards originated credit letter of order from a bank to a bank or other party abroad authorizing payment of money up to a specified limit to a person named in the letter A letter of credit unlike a bill of exchange is not negotiable but is cashable only by the paying bank The two credit union credit cooperative formed by an organized group of people with some common bond who in effect save their money together and make low cost loans to each other The loans are usually short term consumer loans mainly for automobiles household needs creole languages vernacular languages that developed in colonial European plantation settlements in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of contact between groups that spoke mutually unintelligible languages Creole languages most often emerged in colonies located crime three classifications of criminal offense that are central to the administration of justice in many Roman and civil law countries for distinctions in Anglo American law covering analogous offenses see felony and misdemeanour Crimes in French law criminal justice interdisciplinary academic study of the police criminal courts correctional institutions e g prisons and juvenile justice agencies as well as of the agents who operate within these institutions Criminal justice is distinct from criminal law criminal law the body of law that defines criminal offenses regulates the apprehension charging and trial of suspected persons and fixes penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders Criminal law is only one of the devices by which organized criminology scientific study of the nonlegal aspects of crime and delinquency including its causes correction and prevention from the viewpoints of such diverse disciplines as anthropology biology psychology and psychiatry economics sociology and statistics Croly Herbert David American author editor and political philosopher founder of the magazine The New Republic The son of widely known journalists Croly was educated at Harvard University and spent his early adult years editing or contributing to architectural journals crown monetary unit of several European countries including Sweden Denmark and Norway the first countries to adopt the crown in the 1870s The Swedish crown krona is divided into 100 öre though coins valued at less than 100 öre are no longer in circulation cultural anthropology a major division of anthropology that deals with the study of culture in all of its aspects and that uses the methods concepts and data of archaeology ethnography and ethnology folklore and linguistics in its descriptions and analyses of the diverse culture contact contact between peoples with different cultures usually leading to change in both systems The effects of culture contact are generally characterized under the rubric of acculturation a term encompassing the changes in artifacts customs and beliefs currency in industrialized nations portion of the national money supply consisting of bank notes and government issued paper money and coins that does not require endorsement in serving as a medium of exchange among less developed societies currency encompasses Cushing Frank Hamilton early American ethnographer of the Zuni people Cushing studied the Zuni culture while making a five year stay with the tribe during which he was initiated into the Bow Priest Society Many of his findings are summarized in Zuñi Folk Tales 1901 Zuñi cybercrime the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends such as committing fraud trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property stealing identities or violating privacy Cybercrime especially through the Internet has grown in cyberwar war conducted in and from computers and the networks connecting them waged by states or their proxies against other states Cyberwar is usually waged against government and military networks in order to disrupt destroy or deny their use Cyberwar Danegeld a tax levied in Anglo Saxon England to buy off Danish invaders in the reign of Ethelred II 978 1016 it also designates the recurrent gelds or taxes collected by the Anglo Norman kings The word is not recorded before the Norman Conquest the usual De Sanctis Francesco Italian literary critic whose work contributed significantly to the understanding of Italian literature and civilization De Sanctis a liberal patriot took part in the Neapolitan revolution of 1848 and for some years was a prisoner of the Bourbons decolonization Process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country Decolonization was gradual and peaceful for some British colonies largely settled by expatriates but violent for others where native rebellions were energized by nationalism After Defence of India Act 1915 legislation designed to give the government of British India special powers to deal with revolutionary and German inspired threats during World War I 1914 18 especially in the Punjab A special legal tribunal was set up to deal with such cases defense economics field of national economic management concerned with the economic effects of military expenditure the management of economics in wartime and the management of peacetime military

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  • Society - 4 | Britannica.com
    of social interaction forced labour labour performed involuntarily and under duress usually by relatively large groups of people Forced labour differs from slavery in that it involves not the ownership of one person by another but rather merely the forced exploitation of that person s foreign worker Those who work in a foreign country without initially intending to settle there and without the benefits of citizenship in the host country Some are recruited to supplement the workforce of a host country for a limited term or to provide skills on a forgery in law making of a false writing with an intent to defraud Writing to be forgery must either have legal significance or be commonly relied upon in business transactions It need not be handwriting the law of forgery covers printing engraving and forint monetary unit of Hungary The Hungarian National Bank Magyar Nezmeti Bank which has the sole authority to issue currency issues coins in denominations ranging from 1 to 100 forints and banknotes of 200 to 20 000 forints The obverse of banknotes Fortes Meyer British social anthropologist known for his investigations of West African societies After studying at the University of Cape Town in South Africa Fortes received his Ph D in psychology from the London School of Economics and Political Science LSE Foucault Michel French philosopher and historian one of the most influential and controversial scholars of the post World War II period Education and career The son and grandson of a physician Michel Foucault was born to a solidly bourgeois family He resisted what franc originally a French coin but now the monetary unit of a number of countries notably Switzerland most French and former Belgian overseas territories and some African states at one time it was also the currency of France Belgium and Luxembourg The Frankfurt School group of researchers associated with the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt am Main Ger who applied Marxism to a radical interdisciplinary social theory The Institute for Social Research Institut für Sozialforschung was founded by Carl fraud in law the deliberate misrepresentation of fact for the purpose of depriving someone of a valuable possession Although fraud is sometimes a crime in itself more often it is an element of crimes such as obtaining money by false pretense or by impersonation free trade a policy by which a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports by applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports A free trade policy does not necessarily imply however that a country abandons all control and free trade zone an area within which goods may be landed handled manufactured or reconfigured and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become Freedman Maurice British scholar who was one of the world s leading experts on Chinese anthropology After studying English at King s College London and serving in the Royal Artillery in World War II Freedman enrolled as a graduate student of anthropology at the London friendly society mutual aid organization formed voluntarily by individuals to protect members against debts incurred through illness death or old age Friendly societies arose in the 17th and 18th centuries and were most numerous in the 19th century Friendly societies functionalism in linguistics the approach to language study that is concerned with the functions performed by language primarily in terms of cognition relating information expression indicating mood and conation exerting influence Especially associated futures commercial contract calling for the purchase or sale of specified quantities of a commodity at specified future dates The origin of futures contracts was in trade in agricultural commodities and the term commodity is used to define the underlying asset futurology in the social sciences the study of current trends in order to forecast future developments While the speculative and descriptive aspects of futurology are traceable to the traditions of utopian literature and science fiction the methodology of the gabelle form of tax in France before the Revolution of 1789 in particular from the 15th century onward the tax on salt In the 14th century the gabelle denoted any tax on the sale of consumer goods an ordinance of 1360 made it a permanent tax In the 15th Geertz Clifford American cultural anthropologist a leading rhetorician and proponent of symbolic anthropology and interpretive anthropology After service in the U S Navy in World War II 1943 45 Geertz studied at Antioch College Ohio B A 1950 and Harvard geography the study of the diverse environments places and spaces of the Earth s surface and their interactions it seeks to answer the questions of why things are as they are where they are The modern academic discipline of geography is rooted in ancient geopolitics analysis of the geographic influences on power relationships in international relations The word geopolitics was originally coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén about the turn of the 20th century and its use spread throughout Europe Gerzean culture predynastic Egyptian cultural phase given the sequence dates 40 65 by Sir Flinders Petrie and later dated c 3400 c 3100 bce Evidence indicates that the Gerzean culture was a further development of the culture of the Amratian period which immediately Ghassulian culture archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Palestine c 3800 c 3350 bc Its type site Tulaylāt al Ghassūl is located in the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea in modern Jordan and was excavated 1929 38 by the Jesuits GI Bill of Rights U S legislation passed in 1944 that provided benefits to World War II veterans Through the Veterans Administration VA the bill provided grants for school and college tuition low interest mortgage and small business loans job training hiring privileges gift tax a levy imposed on gratuitous transfers of property i e those made without compensation Provisions for such taxes are common in national tax systems In the tax systems

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  • Society - 5 | Britannica.com
    Jewry The Jews of Angevin England 1893 a historian of Jewish culture Studies in Jewish jāgīrdār system form of land tenancy developed in India during the time of Muslim rule beginning in the early 13th century in which the collection of the revenues of an estate and the power of governing it were bestowed on an official of the state The term was derived jizya head or poll tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from their non Muslim subjects Islamic law made a distinction between two categories of non Muslim subjects pagans and dhimmis protected peoples or peoples of the book i e those peoples who Jochelson Vladimir Ilich Russian ethnographer and linguist noted for his studies of Siberian peoples Jochelson began his research while in exile in the Kamchatka region of eastern Siberia because of his activities with the revolutionary Narodnaya Volya People s Will organization Jōmon culture earliest major culture of prehistoric Japan characterized by pottery decorated with cord pattern jōmon impressions or reliefs For some time there has been uncertainty about assigning dates to the Jōmon period particularly to its onset The earliest Jones Sir William British Orientalist and jurist who did much to encourage interest in Oriental studies in the West Of Welsh parentage he studied at Harrow and University College Oxford 1764 68 and learned Latin Greek Hebrew Arabic and Persian By the end of judiciary branch of government whose task is the authoritative adjudication of controversies over the application of laws in specific situations Conflicts brought before the judiciary are embodied in cases involving litigants who may be individuals groups Judiciary Act of 1789 act establishing the organization of the U S federal court system which had been sketched only in general terms in the U S Constitution The act established a three part judiciary made up of district courts circuit courts and the Supreme Court and Junod Henri Alexandre Swiss Protestant missionary and anthropologist noted for his ethnography of the Tsonga Thonga peoples of southern Africa During Junod s first assignment in the Transvaal 1889 96 in addition to carrying out his missionary office he collected plant jurisprudence Science or philosophy of law Jurisprudence may be divided into three branches analytical sociological and theoretical The analytical branch articulates axioms defines terms and prescribes the methods that best enable one to view the legal order just war notion that the resort to armed force jus ad bellum is justified under certain conditions also the notion that the use of such force jus in bello should be limited in certain ways Just war is a Western concept and should be distinguished from juvenile justice system of laws policies and procedures intended to regulate the processing and treatment of nonadult offenders for violations of law and to provide legal remedies that protect their interests in situations of conflict or neglect Punishable offenses Kachemak culture a culture found around the Kachemak Bay of the southern Kenai Peninsula in central southern Alaska It is divided into three phases the oldest of which may date back as far as the 8th century bc and the most recent lasting until historic times The Kantorowicz Hermann German teacher and scholar whose doctrine of free law Frei rechtslehre contributed to the development of the sociology of law Specializing in criminal law Kantorowicz taught at the universities of Freiburg 1908 29 and Kiel 1929 33 until the rise Kendall Henry Way American nuclear physicist who shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Physics with Jerome Isaac Friedman and Richard E Taylor for obtaining experimental evidence for the existence of the subatomic particles known as quarks Kendall received his B A from Amherst Key V O Jr U S political scientist known for his studies of the U S political process and for his contributions to the development of a more empirical and behavioral political science Educated at the University of Texas B A 1929 M A 1930 and the University kharāj a special Islāmic fiscal imposition that was demanded from recent converts to Islām in the 7th and 8th centuries The origin of the concept of the kharāj is closely linked to changes in the status of non Muslims and of recent converts to Islām in newly Khatami Mohammad Iranian political leader who was president of Iran 1997 2005 The son of a well known religious teacher Khatami studied at a traditional madrasah religious school in the holy city of Qom where he later taught However he also received degrees kinship system of social organization based on real or putative family ties The modern study of kinship can be traced back to mid 19th century interests in comparative legal institutions and philology In the late 19th century however the cross cultural comparison Klaproth Julius Heinrich German Orientalist and explorer whose major work Asia polyglotta nebst Sprachatlas 1823 Asia Polyglotta with Language Atlas is one of the important early surveys of Oriental languages notably the Caucasian languages and is the only source of Klemm Gustav Friedrich German anthropologist who developed the concept of culture and is thought to have influenced the prominent English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor Klemm spent most of his life as director of the royal library at Dresden Distinguishing three Kluckhohn Clyde K M American professor of anthropology at Harvard University who contributed to anthropology in a number of ways by his ethnographic studies of the Navajo by his theories of culture partial value systems and cultural patterns by his intellectual leadership Košice government pro Soviet Czechoslovak provisional government that inaugurated far reaching socialist programs during the single year of its rule after World War II and made way for the eventual Communist domination of Czechoslovakia Appointed by Edvard Beneš the Križanić Juraj Roman Catholic priest and scholar who became an early advocate of Pan Slavism and of a program of cultural and social reform in Russia that foreshadowed the reforms made by Peter I the Great who ruled from 1682 to 1725 Križanić studied at various theological Kroeber A L

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