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  • Supreme Court Halts Obama’s Clean Power Plan | Britannica.com
    power plants by some 30 percent by 2030 drew praise from environmentalists but condemnation from energy companies and coal producing states Opponents quickly brought a lawsuit claiming that the proposed regulation was a power grab by the Environmental Protection Agency In an unprecedented move the Supreme Court granted a stay request before the regulation had been reviewed by a federal appeals court a move critics described as an act of judicial activism Although the Supreme Court did not address the merits of the lawsuit it was clear that the five conservative justices had serious concerns over the initiative s legality The Obama administration however expressed confidence that the Clean Power Plan would ultimately be upheld The stay was to remain in place as the lawsuit made its way through the courts with a final decision possibly not coming until 2017 Read More on This Topic 1 What is cited as evidence of climate change 2 The Supreme Court was also accused of judicial activism in what campaign finance case 3 How long has coal been used as a fuel source LIST 5 Notorious Greenhouse Gases These gases are hot Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/supreme-court-halts-obamas-clean-power-plan (2016-02-13)
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  • Thomas Malthus’s 250th Birthday | Britannica.com
    environment and the concept of carrying capacity regardless of whether one considers the environment to be a local regional or global one Specifically Malthus noted that food production will only increase arithmetically that is as an upward trending straight line from technological advances whereas the human population will increase geometrically an upward trending curved line Population increases will continue until they are checked by resource limitations which appear as famine war and ill health and population decreases can only be brought about through contraception misery and sexual self restraint Will Malthus s apocalyptic future come to pass It remains to be seen Certainly more of Earth s resources have been recruited to support an ever rising human population but the population checks and crashes Malthus predicted have been few because of significant advances in agriculture medical care and contraception Although Earth s human population has skyrocketed from 1 65 billion to roughly 7 4 billion between 1900 and 2016 the annual rate of growth has slowed from 2 in 1960 to a little more than 1 today So while Earth s human population continues to grow and this fact continues to worry ecologists there are demographically speaking no signs that

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/story/thomas-malthuss-250th-birthday (2016-02-13)
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  • French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    very different conclusions about political social and economic matters A revolution seemed necessary to apply the ideas of Montesquieu Voltaire or Rousseau This Enlightenment was spread among the educated classes by the many societies of thought that were founded at that time masonic lodges agricultural societies and reading rooms It is uncertain however whether revolution would have come without the added presence of a political crisis Faced with the heavy expenditure that the wars of the 18th century entailed the rulers of Europe sought to raise money by taxing the nobles and clergy who in most countries had hitherto been exempt To justify this the rulers likewise invoked the arguments of advanced thinkers by adopting the role of enlightened despots This provoked reaction throughout Europe from the privileged bodies diets and estates In North America this backlash caused the American Revolution which began with the refusal to pay a tax imposed by the king of England Monarchs tried to stop this reaction of the aristocracy and both rulers and the privileged classes sought allies among the nonprivileged bourgeois and the peasants Although scholarly debate continues about the exact causes of the Revolution the following reasons are commonly adduced 1 the bourgeoisie resented its exclusion from political power and positions of honour 2 the peasants were acutely aware of their situation and were less and less willing to support the anachronistic and burdensome feudal system 3 the philosophes had been read more widely in France than anywhere else 4 French participation in the American Revolution had driven the government to the brink of bankruptcy 5 France was the most populous country in Europe and crop failures in much of the country in 1788 coming on top of a long period of economic difficulties compounded existing restlessness and 6 the French monarchy no longer seen as divinely ordained was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures that were being exerted on it Images quizzes Lists 1 2 3 4 5 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 9 6 2015 You may also be interested in Committee of Public Safety French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars Directory Thermidorian Reaction Napoleon I American Revolution Maximilien de Robespierre Wars of the Vendée Lazare Hoche Treaty of Campo Formio Jean Marie Collot d Herbois Battle of Marengo Keep exploring Exploring Italy and France Fact or Fiction Exploring France Fact or Fiction All About Napoleon Bonaparte 5 Famous Battle Axes What made you want to look up French Revolution To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Please select the sections you want to print Select All Table of contents Introduction Origins of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/French-Revolution (2016-02-13)
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  • 10 Celebrity Politicians | Britannica.com
    actor Joseph Estrada made a career of playing tough guys who fight a crooked establishment Truth veered rather dramatically away from fiction after Estrada was elected president of the Philippines in 1998 however when a massive bribery and corruption scandal brought his government down amidst nationwide protests 6 The Dame Keystone Archives Heritage Images Imagestate British actress Glenda Jackson rose from modest beginnings to become one of the finest stage and screen performers of her day She won a pair of Academy Awards before turning to politics in 1992 when she won a seat in the House of Commons as a Labour candidate Although she failed in a bid to become mayor of London in 2000 she successfully defended her parliamentary seat in 1997 2001 2005 and 2010 5 The Governator Dirck Halstead Time Life Pictures Getty Images The 2003 California gubernatorial election necessitated by recall of sitting governor Gray Davis was political theater at its most theatrical with a flood of unlikely candidates from every imaginable background In a field that included diminutive actor Gary Coleman former baseball commissioner Pete Ueberroth Hustler publisher Larry Flynt and political pundit Arianna Huffington former bodybuilder and action star Arnold Schwarzenegger emerged as the winner inheriting the state s colossal budget crisis 4 The Salsero Paul Hawthorne Getty Images Not content simply to be one of the world s most popular and influential salsa musicians Rubén Blades forged a successful career as a film actor Always ready to tackle social issues through his music Blades tried to influence policy directly by running for president of Panama in 1994 Although unsuccessful he remained politically involved in his native country and in 2004 he was appointed to the cabinet of President Martín Torrijos to serve as minister of tourism 3 The Wrestler The world of professional wrestling is rife with outrageous plots wherein an established bad guy heel will turn good guy face to further the overall narrative But few could have predicted that longtime heel Jesse the Body Ventura would turn face in a storyline that led to the Minnesota governor s office Running as a Reform Party candidate he won a three way battle that saw him post the Reform Party s most notable victory Schwarzenegger s later electoral success meant that two members of the cast of the 1987 action film Predator had been elected governor of a U S state leading speculators to wonder at the possible political aspirations of fellow castmate Carl Weathers 2 The Tunesmith Songwriter Sonny Bono excelled at self deprecation positioning himself as the straight man for the comic jabs of his partner and one time wife Cher The earnestness of his lyrics most notably in Sonny and Cher s biggest hit I Got You Babe reflected an optimistic core that fueled his later career in public service After winning election as mayor of Palm Springs California in 1988 Bono won a seat in the U S House of Representatives 1 The Receiver Government Printing Office Professional

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/list/10-celebrity-politicians (2016-02-13)
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  • Chess Master: Fact or Fiction Quiz | Britannica.com
    faster you answer the higher your score When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Chess Master Fact or Fiction vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Chess Master Fact or Fiction 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results Chess Master Fact or Fiction vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score Pop Culture Pop Quiz History This or That Cowboy vs Ranger Geography Exploring Chile Fact or Fiction Science Optics Fact or Fiction Animals Dinosaurs Fact or Fiction Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/chess-master-fact-or-fiction (2016-02-13)
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  • Oskar Schindler | German industrialist | Britannica.com
    to the villa from which he oversaw the camp Schindler thus managed to prevail upon Göth to create a separate camp for his Jewish workers where they were free of the abuses suffered at Płaszów Though Schindler s motivations prior to this point are unclear many scholars interpret his efforts to extricate his workers from Płaszów as indication that his concern for them was not purely financial When in August 1944 his factory was decommissioned Schindler successfully petitioned to have it moved to Brnĕnec Brünnlitz in the Sudetenland close to his hometown Schindler and his associates composed a list of Jewish workers that he deemed essential for the new factory and submitted it for approval to the Jewish labour office With several versions of the list known it is difficult to determine how many people were ultimately selected Though those chosen were diverted for a time to other concentration camps Schindler intervened ensuring that 700 men and 300 women eventually arrived at Brnĕnec They were later joined by 100 more Jews who had been transported from another concentration camp by the Nazis and abandoned in train cars in Brnĕnec Those who reached the camp spent the remaining months of the war manufacturing munitions that were rigged to fail A final head count compiled at this time listed 1 098 Jews at the camp On May 8 1945 the war in Europe ended and the next day Schindler and his wife fled the country with the help of several of the Schindlerjuden as the Jews he saved came to be known Schindler was wanted for war crimes in Czechoslovakia due to his earlier espionage activities In 1949 they settled in Argentina with several of the Jewish families they had saved Having spent the bulk of his profiteering fortune on bribes Schindler unsuccessfully attempted to farm He went bankrupt in 1957 and the next year traveled alone to West Germany where he made an abortive entry into the cement business Schindler spent the rest of his life supported by donations from the Schindlerjuden He was named a Righteous Gentile by Yad Vashem in 1962 and was interred in the Catholic cemetery on Mount Zion in Jerusalem Kingsley Sir Ben still with Neeson and Kingsley from Schindler s List and 1993 Universal City Studios and Amblin Entertainment Inc all rights reserved Schindler s story remained largely the province of Holocaust scholars until the publication in 1982 of Schindler s Ark a Booker Prize winning novelization by Thomas Keneally The novel which became a canonical text of Holocaust literature was later used as the basis for Steven Spielberg s film Schindler s List 1993 which starred Liam Neeson as Schindler and Ralph Fiennes as Göth Richard Pallardy Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 5 2 2014 You may also be interested in Adolf Hitler Hermann Göring Heinrich Himmler Adolf Eichmann Joseph Goebbels Erich Ludendorff Reinhard Heydrich Joachim von Ribbentrop Martin Bormann Albert Speer Josef Dietrich Rudolf Hess Keep exploring Technological Ingenuity Geography and

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Oskar-Schindler (2016-02-13)
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  • Physical Education: Fact or Fiction Quiz | Britannica.com
    answer the higher your score When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Physical Education Fact or Fiction vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Physical Education Fact or Fiction 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results Physical Education Fact or Fiction vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score Sports Recreation Ready Set Know Society William and Catherine Arts Culture Clowning Around History Weapons and Warfare Philosophy Religion What s In a Name Philosopher Edition Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect Your Correct

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/physical-education-fact-or-fiction (2016-02-13)
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  • 10 Famous Names in the Espionage Game | Britannica.com
    scheme Confederate spy Belle Boyd contributed little to the Southern war effort during the American Civil War Having overheard Union officers discussing their plans for retreat she made her way through both armies picket lines to relay those plans to Confederate General Stonewall Jackson Her later exploits were less dramatic than that but the image of a teenage girl a refined member of the Southern gentry acting as a spy proved to be captivating to the American public She went on to a moderately successful career as an actress and lecturer 5 Femme Fatale or Unjustly Accused Harlinque H Roger Viollet The name Mata Hari is virtually shorthand for a sultry seductress who uses beauty and feminine wiles to obtain information But what was the real Mata Hari s crime During World War I she was certainly a sensation both for her sensuality and her succession of lovers but the facts regarding her espionage activities remain obscure According to one account in the spring of 1916 while she was living in The Hague a German consul is said to have offered to pay her for whatever information she could obtain on her next trip to France After her arrest by the French she acknowledged only that she had given some outdated information to a German intelligence officer The German government publicly exculpated her in 1930 and the French dossier documenting her activities reportedly indicated her innocence 4 Casualties of the Cold War AP After the spying activities of Klaus Fuchs were uncovered in Britain in 1950 attention turned to his confederates The trail eventually led to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Americans who had provided the Soviet Union with detailed data about the construction of an atomic bomb Ethel s brother who was a machinist at the Manhattan Project provided the Rosenbergs with the information but he later cooperated with the government and served as the primary prosecution witness at their espionage trial After the death sentence was passed there was a widespread outcry for clemency and for decades after the executions there was significant debate about their guilt This controversy was largely resolved in the early 1990s after the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and the release of Soviet intelligence information that confirmed the Rosenbergs involvement in espionage 3 The Cambridge Spy Ring Shostal Associates One of the most damaging or effective depending on one s national allegiance spy networks of the Cold War era had its beginnings in the 1930s at the University of Cambridge where a group of disaffected upper class young men were recruited to become Soviet agents The four men Guy Burgess Kim Philby Donald Maclean and Anthony Blunt spent decades in various positions of power working for MI5 and MI6 as well as ambassadorial posts and each used his position to forward sensitive information to the Soviets By the time the ring was unraveled in the 1950s countless state secrets had been spilled 2 M Butterfly AP One of the most unusual cases

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/list/10-famous-names-in-the-espionage-game (2016-02-13)
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