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  • Web sites: French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    Department of State Office of the Historian The United States and the French Revolution Britannica Web sites Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students French Revolution Children s Encyclopedia Ages 8 11 In 1789 the people of France began the French Revolution The revolution brought down their king and made France a republic a country ruled by the people This republic did not last but France never returned to its old unequal form of society In addition the ideas of the French Revolution spread to many other countries French Revolution Student Encyclopedia Ages 11 and up The French people overthrew their ancient government in 1789 They took as their slogan the famous phrase Liberte Egalite Fraternite Liberty Equality Fraternity Equality or doing away with privilege was the most important part of the slogan to the French revolutionists For equality they were willing to sacrifice their political liberty They did this when they accepted the rule of Napoleon I Fraternity or brotherhood with all men was also sacrificed However they did win equality before the law Submit a Web site Name URL Description I agree to the Terms and Conditions Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing

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  • Bibliography: French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    Revolution 1989 reprinted 1992 and David Andress French Society in Revolution 1789 1799 1999 are more detailed studies Samuel F Scott and Barry Rothaus eds Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 1789 1799 2 vol 1985 is a reliable source Submit a publication Search for an ISBN number ISBN Or enter the publication information Author Name Publication Title Date Editor I agree to the Terms and Conditions Britannica Stories Behind

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  • Contributors: French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    the mid 19th century He is a graduate of Williams College and earned his Ph D from Yale University where he was a member of the History Department and an administrator during the 1980s The Idea of Progress in Eighteenth Century Britain Dr Spadafora s book on British Enlightenment era historical optimism was named a Choice Outstanding Book in 1991 He is at work on a book length project about

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  • The Editors of The Encyclopedia Britannica | Britannica.com
    advanced degree in their field Britannica s artists cartographers and media editors who work in close collaboration with subject editors produce and acquire a wide range of media for all Britannica products World data experts research and compile statistical information from a variety of authoritative sources All the Editorial division s work is supported by an extensive library staffed by reference librarians and researchers that makes available reference titles periodicals and online subscription databases Britannica has always had vigorous interaction with its advisers contributors and readers This interaction represents the first step in Britannica s editorial process For each article subject editors in collaboration with supervisory editors create an editorial plan that combines their own research and analysis with comments by members of Britannica s worldwide community of experts and with feedback from readers Prospective contributors are asked to revise or write an article or several articles in accordance with that plan and to submit detailed documentation of sources used Fact checkers verify the content s factual accuracy and subject editors ensure that each article fulfills Britannica s goals of clarity accuracy objectivity and fairness Supervisory editors review each article and copy editors read it for grammar style and consistency It is then sent to the contributor for review and the subject editor incorporates the contributor s responses Copy editors do a final reading after which the information management team analyzes the article and classifies its contents Once an article has been published the process begins anew with interaction between readers contributors and editors producing refinements and updates that ensure accuracy and timeliness Editors approach these improvements with the same meticulousness that they apply to a new or substantially revised article but an abbreviated editorial process allows these changes to be published almost immediately while still being subject to rigorous

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  • French Revolution -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
    Constituent Assembly on July 9 at the same time however he began gathering troops to dissolve it The storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 undated coloured engraving Photos com Thinkstock These two months of prevarication at a time when the problem of maintaining food supplies had reached its climax infuriated the towns and the provinces Rumours of an aristocratic conspiracy by the king and the privileged to overthrow the Third Estate led to the Great Fear of July 1789 when the peasants were nearly panic stricken The gathering of troops around Paris and the dismissal of Necker provoked insurrection in the capital On July 14 1789 the Parisian crowd seized the Bastille a symbol of royal tyranny Again the king had to yield visiting Paris he showed his recognition of the sovereignty of the people by wearing the tricolour cockade In the provinces the Great Fear of July led the peasants to rise against their lords The nobles and the bourgeois now took fright The National Constituent Assembly could see only one way to check the peasants on the night of August 4 1789 it decreed the abolition of the feudal regime and of the tithe Then on August 26 it introduced the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen proclaiming liberty equality the inviolability of property and the right to resist oppression The decrees of August 4 and the Declaration were such innovations that the king refused to sanction them The Parisians rose again and on October 5 marched to Versailles The next day they brought the royal family back to Paris The National Constituent Assembly followed the court and in Paris it continued to work on the new constitution The French population participated actively in the new political culture created by the Revolution Dozens of uncensored newspapers kept citizens abreast of events and political clubs allowed them to voice their opinions Public ceremonies such as the planting of trees of liberty in small villages and the Festival of Federation held in Paris in 1790 on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille were symbolic affirmations of the new order The new regime Assignat of 15 sols 1790s Sanao The National Constituent Assembly completed the abolition of feudalism suppressed the old orders established civil equality among men at least in metropolitan France since slavery was retained in the colonies and made more than half the adult male population eligible to vote although only a small minority met the requirement for becoming a deputy The decision to nationalize the lands of the Roman Catholic Church in France to pay off the public debt led to a widespread redistribution of property The bourgeoisie and the peasant landowners were undoubtedly the chief beneficiaries but some farm workers also were able to buy land The land transfer was made through the sale of assignats bonds that were issued by the National Constituent Assembly and guaranteed by the value of the church lands The bonds were to be retired once the transfer had been completed but within a year assignats in varying denominations were being printed as a form of Revolutionary currency with predictable inflationary effects Having deprived the church of its resources the assembly then resolved to reorganize the church enacting the Civil Constitution of the Clergy which was rejected by Pope Pius VI and by many of the French clergy This produced a schism that aggravated the violence of the accompanying controversies Gouvernements before 1789 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Revolutionary départements after 1789 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The complicated administrative system of the ancien régime was swept away by the National Constituent Assembly which substituted a rational system based on the division of France into départements districts cantons and communes administered by elected assemblies The principles underlying the administration of justice were also radically changed and the system was adapted to the new administrative divisions Significantly the judges were to be elected The National Constituent Assembly tried to create a monarchical regime in which the legislative and executive powers were shared between the king and an assembly This regime might have worked if the king had really wanted to govern with the new authorities but Louis XVI was weak and vacillating and was the prisoner of his aristocratic advisers On June 20 21 1791 he tried to flee the country but he was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris Counterrevolution regicide and the Reign of Terror The events in France gave new hope to the revolutionaries who had been defeated a few years previously in the United Provinces Belgium and Switzerland Likewise all those who wanted changes in England Ireland the German states the Austrian lands or Italy looked upon the Revolution with sympathy A number of French counterrevolutionaries nobles ecclesiastics and some bourgeois abandoned the struggle in their own country and emigrated As émigrés many formed armed groups close to the northeastern frontier of France and sought help from the rulers of Europe The rulers were at first indifferent to the Revolution but began to worry when the National Constituent Assembly proclaimed a revolutionary principle of international law namely that a people had the right of self determination In accordance with this principle the papal territory of Avignon was reunited with France on September 13 1791 By early 1792 both radicals eager to spread the principles of the Revolution and the king hopeful that war would either strengthen his authority or allow foreign armies to rescue him supported an aggressive policy France declared war against Austria on April 20 1792 Marie Antoinette painting by Élisabeth Vigée Lebrun 18th century in the Versailles Ronald Sheridan Ancient Art Architecture Collection In the first phase of the war April September 1792 France suffered defeats Prussia joined the war in July and an Austro Prussian army crossed the frontier and advanced rapidly toward Paris Believing that they had been betrayed by the monarchy indeed France s Austrian born queen Marie Antoinette had privately encouraged her brother Holy Roman

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  • French Revolution | Britannica.com
    of the Bastille The storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 undated coloured engraving Assignat Assignat of 15 sols 1790s France history of gouvernements before 1789 Gouvernements before 1789 Département revolutionary departements after Revolutionary départements after 1789 Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette painting by Élisabeth Vigée Lebrun 18th century in the Versailles Louis XVI execution by guillotin Execution of Louis XVI 1793 Robespierre Maximilien de Maximilien de Robespierre Demachy Pierre Antoine Une Exécution capitale An execution by guillotine during the Reign of Terror depicted in Une Exécution Terror Reign of last prisoners awaiting execution The last prisoners awaiting execution during the Reign of Terror in 1794 undated First Consul Bonaparte First Consul Bonaparte oil on canvas by Antoine Jean Gros c Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole 17 November 1796 oil on canvas by The Battle of the Pyramids The Battle of the Pyramids oil on canvas by Louis François Lejeune Paine Thomas British caricature of Paine s support English caricature of Thomas Paine s involvement in the French Revolution French Revolution peasants storm the Bastille Storming of the Bastille prison the opening event of the French Revolution on You may also be interested

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  • View History: French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    site Buzzle com French Revolution Vivek Abhinav Dec 06 2012 Add new Web site Fact Monster History French Revolution Vivek Abhinav Dec 06 2012 Add new Web site NeoK12 Educational Videos Lessons and Games French Revolution Gloria Lotha Nov 03 2011 Added image of the Estates General Heather Campbell Aug 06 2009 Added new Web site H2g2 French Revolution Deepti Mahajan Oct 24 2008 Added new Web site How Stuff Works History French Revolution Shiveta Singh Oct 23 2008 Added new Web site How Stuff Works History How the French Revolution Worked Shiveta Singh Oct 23 2008 Added new Web site New Zealand History Central Power Gaurav Shukla Jul 23 2008 Added new Web site Center for History and New Media French Revolution Gaurav Shukla Jul 23 2008 Added new Web site U S Department of State Office of the Historian The United States and the French Revolution Veenu Setia Jul 13 2008 Media added Amy Tikkanen Jun 30 2008 Added new Web site Swiss World The French Revolution Gloria Lotha Sep 26 2007 Added new Web site Public Broadcasting Service Reign of Terror 1793 1794 Timeline Gloria Lotha Sep 26 2007 Added new Web site History com French Revolution

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  • Feedback: French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    other ideas for improving this article Let us know We d also like to know what sources you ve found that support the changes you d like to see Your feedback has been submitted successfully There was a problem submitting your feedback Please try again later Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus

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