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  • French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    before 1789 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The complicated administrative system of the ancien régime was swept away by the National Constituent Assembly which substituted a rational system based on the division of France into départements districts cantons and communes administered by elected assemblies The principles underlying the administration of justice were also radically changed and the system was adapted to the new administrative divisions Significantly the judges were to be elected The National Constituent Assembly tried to create a monarchical regime in which the legislative and executive powers were shared between the king and an assembly This regime might have worked if the king had really wanted to govern with the new authorities but Louis XVI was weak and vacillating and was the prisoner of his aristocratic advisers On June 20 21 1791 he tried to flee the country but he was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris Images quizzes Lists Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 9 6 2015 You may also be interested in Committee of Public Safety French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars Directory Thermidorian Reaction Napoleon I American Revolution Maximilien de Robespierre Wars of the Vendée Lazare Hoche Treaty of Campo Formio Jean Marie Collot d Herbois Battle of Marengo Keep exploring Exploring Italy and France Fact or Fiction Exploring France Fact or Fiction All About Napoleon Bonaparte 10 Articles of Clothing That Deserve a Comeback What made you want to look up French Revolution To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Please select the sections you want to print Select All Table of contents Introduction Origins of the Revolution Aristocratic revolt 1787 89 Events of 1789 The new regime Counterrevolution regicide and the Reign of Terror The Directory and revolutionary expansion Cancel MLA style French Revolution Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event French Revolution The new regime APA style French Revolution 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event French Revolution The new regime Harvard style French Revolution 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event French Revolution The new regime Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v French Revolution accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event French Revolution The new regime While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special

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  • French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    phase marked by new French defeats Austria Prussia and Great Britain formed a coalition later called the First Coalition to which most of the rulers of Europe adhered France lost Belgium and the Rhineland and invading forces threatened Paris These reverses as those of 1792 had done strengthened the extremists The Girondin leaders were driven from the National Convention and the Montagnards who had the support of the Paris sansculottes workers craftsmen and shopkeepers seized power and kept it until 9 Thermidor year II of the new French republican calendar July 27 1794 The Montagnards were bourgeois liberals like the Girondins but under pressure from the sansculottes and in order to meet the requirements of defense they adopted a radical economic and social policy They introduced the Maximum government control of prices taxed the rich brought national assistance to the poor and to the disabled declared that education should be free and compulsory and ordered the confiscation and sale of the property of émigrés These exceptional measures provoked violent reactions the Wars of the Vendée the federalist risings in Normandy and in Provence the revolts of Lyon and Bordeaux and the insurrection of the Chouans in Brittany Opposition however was broken by the Reign of Terror 19 Fructidor year I 9 Thermidor year II September 5 1793 July 27 1794 which entailed the arrest of at least 300 000 suspects 17 000 of whom were sentenced to death and executed while more died in prisons or were killed without any form of trial At the same time the revolutionary government raised an army of more than one million men Thanks to this army the war entered its fourth phase beginning in the spring of 1794 A brilliant victory over the Austrians at Fleurus on 8 Messidor year II June 26 1794 enabled the French to reoccupy Belgium Victory made the Terror and the economic and social restrictions seem pointless Robespierre the Incorruptible who had sponsored the restrictions was overthrown in the National Convention on 9 Thermidor year II July 27 1794 and executed the following day Soon after his fall the Maximum was abolished the social laws were no longer applied and efforts toward economic equality were abandoned Reaction set in the National Convention began to debate a new constitution and meanwhile in the west and in the southeast a royalist White Terror broke out Royalists even tried to seize power in Paris but were crushed by the young Gen Napoleon Bonaparte on 13 Vendémiaire year IV October 5 1795 A few days later the National Convention dispersed Images quizzes Lists Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 9 6 2015 You may also be interested in Committee of Public Safety French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars Directory Thermidorian Reaction Napoleon I American Revolution Maximilien de Robespierre Wars of the Vendée Lazare Hoche Treaty of Campo Formio Jean Marie Collot d Herbois Battle of Marengo Keep exploring Exploring Italy and France Fact

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  • French Revolution | Causes, Facts, & Summary | Britannica.com
    to the appeals of Jacobins abroad Thus French troops in 1798 and 1799 entered Switzerland the Papal States and Naples and set up the Helvetic Roman and Parthenopean republics Great Britain however remained at war with France Unable to effect a landing in England the Directory on Bonaparte s request decided to threaten the British in India by occupying Egypt An expeditionary corps under Bonaparte easily occupied Malta and Egypt but the squadron that had convoyed it was destroyed by Horatio Nelson s fleet at the Battle of the Nile on 14 Thermidor year VI August 1 1798 This disaster encouraged the formation of a Second Coalition of powers alarmed by the progress of the Revolution This coalition of Austria Russia Turkey and Great Britain won great successes during the spring and summer of 1799 and drove back the French armies to the frontiers Bonaparte thereupon returned to France to exploit his own great prestige and the disrepute into which the military reverses had brought the government His coup d état of 18 Brumaire overthrew the Directory and substituted the consulate Although Bonaparte proclaimed the end of the Revolution he himself was to spread it in new forms throughout Europe Images quizzes Lists Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 9 6 2015 You may also be interested in Committee of Public Safety French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars Directory Thermidorian Reaction Napoleon I American Revolution Maximilien de Robespierre Wars of the Vendée Lazare Hoche Treaty of Campo Formio Jean Marie Collot d Herbois Battle of Marengo Keep exploring Exploring Italy and France Fact or Fiction Exploring France Fact or Fiction All About Napoleon Bonaparte Our Days Are Numbered 7 Crazy Facts About Calendars What made you want to look up French Revolution To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Please select the sections you want to print Select All Table of contents Introduction Origins of the Revolution Aristocratic revolt 1787 89 Events of 1789 The new regime Counterrevolution regicide and the Reign of Terror The Directory and revolutionary expansion Cancel MLA style French Revolution Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event French Revolution The Directory and revolutionary expansion APA style French Revolution 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event French Revolution The Directory and revolutionary expansion Harvard style French Revolution 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event French Revolution The Directory and revolutionary expansion Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v French Revolution accessed February 12 2016 http

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  • Louis XVI: execution by guillotine | Encyclopedia Britannica
    execution of Louis XVI in 1793 Album Prism Album SuperStock MEDIA FOR French Revolution Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when

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  • revolution | politics | Britannica.com
    force for the advancement of humankind Kant believed that revolution was a natural step in the realization of a higher ethical foundation for society This idea helped serve as a basis for the American and French revolutions Marx Karl Bettmann Archive The 19th century German philosopher G W F Hegel was a crucial catalyst in the formation of 20th century revolutionary thought He saw revolutions as the fulfillment of human destiny and he saw revolutionary leaders as those necessary to instigate and implement reforms Hegel s theories served as the foundation for the most influential revolutionary thinker Karl Marx Marx used Hegel s abstractions as the basis for a plan of class struggle centred on a fight for the control of the economic processes of society Marx believed in progressive stages of human history culminating in the working class overthrow of the property owning class For society to advance the working class or proletariat must take over the means of production Marx viewed this eventuality as the conclusion of the human struggle for freedom and a classless society thus eliminating the need for further political change Communist revolutions led by Marxists took place in Russia Yugoslavia China Vietnam and Cuba among other countries in the 20th century In the mid 20th century American historian Crane Brinton analyzed the tendencies of a society prior to a major revolution He saw a prerevolutionary society as having a combination of social and political tensions caused by a gradual breakdown of the society s values This leads to a fracture of political authority as the governing body must rely upon an increasingly desperate use of force to remain in power Commensurate with this is the emergence of reform elements that serve to emphasize the corruption of the political authority As the existing political order begins to lose its grasp on authority momentum builds among the diverse forces of the opposition As the government becomes more precarious the splinter groups that form the threat to the existing order band together to topple the authority Khomeini Ruhollah AFP Getty Images Brinton also observed the different stages of a major revolution After the government is overthrown there is usually a period of optimistic idealism and the revolutionaries engage in much perfectionist rhetoric But this phase does not last very long The practical tasks of governing have to be faced and a split develops between moderates and radicals It ends in the defeat of the moderates the rise of extremists and the concentration of all power in their hands For one faction to prevail and maintain its authority the use of force is almost inevitable The goals of the revolution fade as a totalitarian regime takes command Some of the basic tenets of the original revolutionary movement however are eventually incorporated in the end The French and Russian revolutions followed this course of development as did the Islamic revolution in Iran in the late 20th century A strictly political revolution independent of social transformation does not possess the

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  • France | history - geography | Britannica.com
    southeast including the Alps and the Pyrenees with their attendant narrow plains Much of the detailed relief can be attributed geologically to the varying differences in the resistance of rocks to erosion A great deal of the present landscape detail is due to glaciation during the Pleistocene Epoch about 2 600 000 to 11 700 years ago France lay outside the range of the great ice sheets that descended upon the northern part of Europe so the direct sculpting of the land by ice was restricted to the Alps the Pyrenees the Vosges Corsica and the highest summits of the Massif Central Just outside these glacial areas in what are known as periglacial lands repeated freezing and thawing of unprotected surfaces modified slopes by the movement of waste sheets formed of shattered bedrock producing very much the landscape that exists today Pleistocene periglacial action generated the sheets of the fine windblown limon or loess that is the basis of the most fertile lowland soils and it possibly also created the Landes a sandy plain in southwestern France The development of river terraces flat raised surfaces alongside valleys was another characteristic of periglacial action The Hercynian massifs The physical structure of France is dominated by a group of ancient mountains in the shape of a gigantic V the sides of which form the two branches of Hercynian folding that took place between 345 and 225 million years ago The eastern branch comprises the Ardennes the Vosges and the eastern part of the Massif Central while the Hercynian massifs to the west comprise the western part of the Massif Central and the Massif Armoricain These highlands are composed of resistant metamorphic crystalline and sedimentary rocks from the Paleozoic Era about 540 to 250 million years ago the last including coal deposits They share the common characteristic of repeated planation or flattening Some variety is provided by subsequent deformation and faulting such as in the ridge and valley areas of the Massif Armoricain where upland surfaces are deeply carved by valleys in dramatic fashion The Ardennes The Ardennes massif is an extension from Belgium into France of the great Rhine Uplands characterized by rocks of slate and quartz from the Paleozoic Era Differential erosion of Paleozoic rocks has produced long ridges alternating with open valleys crossed by the Sambre and Meuse rivers The Vosges The Alpine earth movements produced a great upswelling along the line of the present upper Rhine leaving the Vosges with steep eastern slopes that descend to a rift valley containing the plains of Alsace and Baden on the west the upland descends rather gently into the scarplands of Lorraine The Vosges reaches its maximum elevation in the south near the Alps where crystalline rocks are exposed the highest summits are called ballons and the highest is the Ballon de Guebwiller Mount Guebwiller with an elevation of 4 669 feet 1 423 metres To the north the Vosges massif dips beneath a cover of forested sandstone from the Triassic Period about 250 to 200 million years ago The Massif Central Chaîne des Puys Christian Kempf from TSW CLICK Chicago The vast plateau of the Massif Central covers about 33 000 square miles 86 000 square km or some one sixth of the area of the country The Massif Central borders the Rhône Saône valley on the east the Languedoc lowlands on the south the Aquitaine Basin on the southwest and the Paris Basin on the north The planation that occurred following the creation of the Hercynian belt removed the ancient mountain chains but the block was uplifted under the impact of the Alpine mountain building movements with a steep descent on the east and southeast nearest the Alps and a gentle decline under the later sediments of the Aquitaine Basin to the west and the Paris Basin to the north Much of the western massif notably Limousin consists of monotonous erosion surfaces The centre and eastern parts of the massif were much fractured in the course of the Alpine movements leaving behind upthrust blocks of which the most conspicuous is the Morvan the forested bastion of the northeastern corner of the massif Downfaulted basins filled with sediments from Paleogene and Neogene times i e about 65 to 2 6 million years ago such as the Limagne near the city of Clermont Ferrand in south central France were also formed Faulting was associated with volcanic activity which in the central part of the region formed the vast and complex structures of the massifs of Cantal and Monts Dore where the Sancy Hill Puy de Sancy at 6 184 feet 1 885 metres is the highest summit of the Massif Central Farther west on the fringe of the Limagne is the extraordinary Chaîne des Puys whose numerous cinder cones were formed only about 10 000 years ago and still retain the newness of their craters lava flows and other volcanic features Numerous mineral springs such as those at Vichy in the central Auvergne region are a relic of volcanic activity The eastern and southern portions of the massif from the Morvan through the Cévennes to the final southwestern termination of the massif in the Noire Mountains Montagne Noire are marked by a series of hill masses that overlook the lowlands of the Rhône Saône river valley and the région of Languedoc Roussillon at least one of these uplands Beaujolais has become famous for the grapevines grown at its foot Between the hill masses lie infolded coal deposits at locations such as Alès Decazeville Saint Étienne and Blanzy Le Creusot that are of more historical than contemporary importance To the southwest the rocks of the massif are overlain by a great thickness of limestones causses from the Jurassic Period about 200 to 145 million years ago Lacking in surface water and little populated this portion of the massif is crossed by rivers that trench dramatic gorges notably that of the Tarn Extensive cave systems bear remains of prehistoric art such as that of

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  • ancien regime | French history | Britannica.com
    ancien r é gime To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Authors of Classic Literature Author Showcase Fact or Fiction Japanese History Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style ancien regime Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event ancien regime APA style ancien regime 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event ancien regime Harvard style ancien regime 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event ancien regime Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v ancien regime accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event ancien regime While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external

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  • July Revolution | French history | Britannica.com
    Fiction Exploring French History International Literary Tour 10 Places Every Lit Lover Should See 9 Nineties Babies with Britannica Bios What made you want to look up July Revolution To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Ancient Civilizations Texas Revolution Literary Character Study Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style July Revolution Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event July Revolution APA style July Revolution 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event July Revolution Harvard style July Revolution 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event July Revolution Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v July Revolution accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event July Revolution While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not

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