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  • Revolutions of 1848 | European history | Britannica.com
    were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals The revolutionary movement began in Italy with a local revolution in Sicily in January 1848 and after the revolution of February 24 in France the movement extended throughout the whole of Europe with the exception of Russia Spain and the Scandinavian countries In Great Britain it amounted to little more than a Chartist demonstration and a republican agitation in Ireland In Belgium the

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  • The French Revolution | work by Carlyle | Britannica.com
    exploring British Culture and Politics Exploring French History Famous Documents The Canadian Football League 10 Claims to Fame Nutritional Powerhouses 8 Foods That Pack a Nutritional Punch What made you want to look up The French Revolution To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Languages Alphabets Super Bowl Pass the Mustard Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style The French Revolution Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic The French Revolution by Carlyle APA style The French Revolution 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic The French Revolution by Carlyle Harvard style The French Revolution 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic The French Revolution by Carlyle Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v The French Revolution accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic The French Revolution by Carlyle While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name

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  • feudalism | social system | Britannica.com
    in western Europe during the early Middle Ages the long stretch of time between the 5th and 12th centuries Feudalism and the related term feudal system are labels invented long after the period to which they were applied They refer to what those who invented them perceived as the most significant and distinctive characteristics of the early and central Middle Ages The expressions féodalité and feudal system were coined by

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/feudalism (2016-02-13)
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  • Europe | continent | Britannica.com
    Asia and occupying nearly one fifteenth of the world s total land area It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and on the south west to east by the Mediterranean Sea the Black Sea the Kuma Manych Depression and the Caspian Sea The continent s eastern boundary north to south runs along the Ural Mountains and then roughly southwest along

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Europe (2016-02-13)
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  • bourgeoisie | social class | Britannica.com
    the term bourgeoisie had nearly disappeared from the vocabulary of political writers and politicians by the mid 20th century Nevertheless the underlying idea that most political conflict stems from competing economic interests and is therefore broadly concerned with property an insight first offered by Aristotle 384 322 bc continued to be applied Alan Ryan Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 1 29 2016 You may also be interested in social class proletariat peasant social structure yeoman aristocracy pharaoh prince of Wales maharaja dauphin Lumpenproletariat kulak Keep exploring Exploring French History Famous People in History A Study of History Who What Where and When 10 Failed Doomsday Predictions Editor Picks The 7 Best Techno Thriller Authors What made you want to look up bourgeoisie To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style bourgeoisie Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic bourgeoisie APA style bourgeoisie 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic bourgeoisie Harvard style bourgeoisie 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic bourgeoisie Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v bourgeoisie accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic bourgeoisie While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link

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  • peasant | social class | Britannica.com
    Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in social class social structure bourgeoisie proletariat yeoman aristocracy primitive culture feudalism nomadism folk society vassal hunting and gathering culture Keep exploring Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Writer s Digest Exploring Latin American History The Axial Age 5 Fast Facts 7 Puzzling Plane Disappearances What made you want to look up peasant To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Economics News Character Education American Civil War Who Won Which Battles See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style peasant Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic peasantry APA style peasant 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic peasantry Harvard style peasant 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic peasantry Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v peasant accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic peasantry While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter

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  • education | Britannica.com
    and considering the various philosophies that have inspired the resulting systems Other aspects of education are treated in a number of articles For a treatment of education as a discipline including educational organization teaching methods and the functions and training of teachers see teaching pedagogy and teacher education For a description of education in various specialized fields see historiography legal education medical education science history of For an analysis of educational philosophy see education philosophy of For an examination of some of the more important aids in education and the dissemination of knowledge see dictionary encyclopaedia library museum printing publishing history of Some restrictions on educational freedom are discussed in censorship For an analysis of pupil attributes see intelligence human learning theory psychological testing Education in primitive and early civilized cultures Prehistoric and primitive cultures The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation which is the process of cultural transmission A primitive person whose culture is the totality of his universe has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness The model of life is relatively static and absolute and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation As for prehistoric education it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their tribe or band There is a marked emphasis upon training for citizenship because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty Mead Margaret Cornell Capa Magnum Because of the variety in the countless thousands of primitive cultures it is difficult to describe any standard and uniform characteristics of prepuberty education Nevertheless certain things are practiced commonly within cultures Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist Margaret Mead called empathy identification and imitation Primitive children before reaching puberty learn by doing and observing basic technical practices Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate community In contrast to the spontaneous and rather unregulated imitations in prepuberty education postpuberty education in some cultures is strictly standardized and regulated The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans The initiation may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates The purpose of this separation is to deflect the initiate s deep attachment away from his family and to establish his emotional and social anchorage in the wider web of his culture The initiation curriculum does not usually include practical subjects Instead it consists of a whole set of cultural values tribal religion myths philosophy history rituals and other knowledge Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge constituting

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  • standard of living | Britannica.com
    countries are more acute than the differences that exist between countries with developed economies These problems occur regardless of what quantitative indicators are chosen to measure the standard of living Apart from income useful indicators may include the consumption of certain foodstuffs such as protein a measure of life expectancy and access to basic amenities such as a safe water supply These indexes however involve serious problems of comparability between countries and regions especially since even the most basic data such as reliable population estimates may be unavailable for some very poor countries Monetary measures of living standards tend to omit important aspects of life e g nutrition life expectancy that cannot be bought or sold Other difficulties accompany the use of monetary indicators For example the items that are measurable in monetary terms may have been valued at distorted prices International comparisons using official exchange rates can be misleading particularly where the foreign exchange market is manipulated by governments Comparisons over time need to be adjusted for variations in price levels but this is not always a simple matter especially given differences in inflation rates between countries If the relative prices of various goods and services differ substantially between two countries it is particularly difficult to make a fair comparison of standards of living when they are based on consumption levels Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 8 25 2014 You may also be interested in poverty taxation Rhodes scholarship interest subsidy Fulbright scholarship price cost consumption cost of living profit rent Keep exploring Hezbollah Romeo and Juliet The Little Prince Order in the Court 10 Trials of the Century Riding Freedom 10 Milestones in U S Civil Rights History What made you want to look up standard of living To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style standard of living Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic standard of living APA style standard of living 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic standard of living Harvard style standard of living 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic standard of living Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v standard of living accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic standard of living While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You

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