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  • Voltaire | French philosopher and author | Britannica.com
    York one of the greatest of all French writers Although only a few of his works are still read he continues to be held in worldwide repute as a courageous crusader against tyranny bigotry and cruelty Through its critical capacity wit and satire Voltaire s work vigorously propagates an ideal of progress to which people of all nations have remained responsive His long life spanned the last years of classicism

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Voltaire (2016-02-13)
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  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Swiss-born French philosopher | Britannica.com
    Jacques Photos com Jupiterimages Swiss born philosopher writer and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation Rousseau was the least academic of modern philosophers and in many ways was the most influential His thought marked the end of the Age of Reason He propelled political and ethical thinking into new channels His reforms revolutionized taste first in music then in

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Jean-Jacques-Rousseau (2016-02-13)
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  • Enlightenment | European history | Britannica.com
    and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art philosophy and politics Central to Enlightenment thought were the use and celebration of reason the power by which humans understand the universe and improve their own condition The goals of rational humanity were considered to be knowledge freedom and happiness 100 of 1 056 words Images Videos About Us

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Enlightenment-European-history (2016-02-13)
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  • Freemasonry | secret organization | Britannica.com
    British Isles and in other countries originally within the empire Freemasonry evolved from the guilds of stonemasons and cathedral builders of the Middle Ages With the decline of cathedral building some lodges of operative working masons began to accept honorary members to bolster their declining membership From a few of these lodges developed modern symbolic or speculative Freemasonry which particularly in the 17th and 18th 100 of 425 words About

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/order-of-Freemasons (2016-02-13)
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  • enlightened despotism | political science | Britannica.com
    you want to look up enlightened despotism To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES History 101 Fact or Fiction Buddha and Buddhism Economics News See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style enlightened despotism Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic enlightened despotism APA style enlightened despotism 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic enlightened despotism Harvard style enlightened despotism 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic enlightened despotism Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v enlightened despotism accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic enlightened despotism While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/enlightened-despotism (2016-02-13)
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  • North America | continent | Britannica.com
    the rest of North America by strong ties of physical geography Greenland also is culturally divided from but physically close to North America Some geographers characterize the area roughly from the southern border of the United States to the northern border of Colombia as Middle America which differs from Central America because it includes Mexico Some definitions of Middle America also include the West Indies North America contains some of the oldest rocks on Earth Its geologic structure is built around a stable platform of Precambrian rock called the Canadian Laurentian Shield To the southeast of the shield rose the ancient Appalachian Mountains and to the west rose the younger and considerably taller Cordilleras which occupy nearly one third of the continent s land area In between these two mountain belts are the generally flat regions of the Great Plains in the west and the Central Lowlands in the east The continent is richly endowed with natural resources including great mineral wealth vast forests immense quantities of fresh water and some of the world s most fertile soils These have allowed North America to become one of the most economically developed regions in the world and its inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living North America has the highest average income per person of any continent and an average food intake per person that is significantly greater than that of other continents Although it is home to less than 10 percent of the world s population its per capita consumption of energy is almost four times as great as the world average North America s first inhabitants are believed to have been ancient Asiatic peoples who migrated from Siberia to North America sometime during the last glacial advance known as the Wisconsin Glacial Stage the most recent major division of the Pleistocene Epoch about 2 6 million to 11 700 years ago The descendants of these peoples the various Native American and Eskimo groups largely have been supplanted by peoples from the Old World People of European ancestry constitute the largest group followed by those of African and of Asian ancestry in addition there is a large group of Latin Americans who are of mixed European and Native American ancestry James Wreford Watson EB Editors This article treats the physical and human geography of North America For discussion of individual countries of the continent see the articles Canada Mexico and United States of America See also coverage of North American regions under the titles West Indies and the individual countries of Central America For discussion of major cities of the continent see specific articles by name e g Mexico City New York City and Toronto For discussion of the indigenous peoples of the continent see the articles Native American and pre Columbian civilizations The principal treatment of North American historical and cultural development is contained in the articles mentioned above and in the article Latin America history of For further discussion of arts and literature see the articles American literature

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/North-America (2016-02-13)
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  • American Revolution | United States history | Britannica.com
    the Battles of Lexington and Concord The Siege of Boston and the Battle of Bunker Hill Washington takes command The battle for New York The surrender at Saratoga and French involvement Land campaigns from 1778 Setbacks in the North Final campaigns in the South and the surrender of Cornwallis The war at sea The status of naval forces at the outbreak of war Early engagements and privateers French intervention and the decisive action at Virginia Capes Aftermath American Revolution also called United States War of Independence or American Revolutionary War The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis Architect of the Capitol 1775 83 insurrection by which 13 of Great Britain s North American colonies won political independence and went on to form the United States of America The war followed more than a decade of growing estrangement between the British crown and a large and influential segment of its North American colonies that was caused by British attempts to assert greater control over colonial affairs after having long adhered to a policy of salutary neglect Until early in 1778 the conflict was a civil war within the 100 of 6 938 words Images About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/American-Revolution (2016-02-13)
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  • aristocracy | Britannica.com
    aristocracy of birth and nonhereditary aristocracy is relative because even in caste societies some low born persons climb into the higher castes and some high born persons slide into the lower castes On the other hand even in open aristocracies there is a tendency for the upper stratum to become a hereditary group filled mainly by the offspring of aristocratic parents For example among millionaires and billionaires living in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century the percentage born of wealthy parents is notably higher than among American millionaires of the mid 19th century Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in social class social structure government prince viscount baron count duke lord marquess grand duke landgrave Keep exploring Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Journey Around the World Literary Character Study Fact or Fiction 9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens Order in the Court 10 Trials of the Century What made you want to look up aristocracy To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style aristocracy Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic aristocracy APA style aristocracy 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic aristocracy Harvard style aristocracy 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic aristocracy Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v aristocracy accessed February 12 2016

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