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  • 10 Milestones in U.S. Civil Rights History | Britannica.com
    the civil rights movement can be told without Brown v Board of Education in 1954 In 1896 the U S Supreme Court had issued its separate but equal ruling in Plessy v Ferguson which stipulated that segregation was permissible in practice separate was emphasized rather than equal Particularly in the South but not only schools were racially segregated and schools catering to African American students were generally inferior On May 17 1954 the U S Supreme Court ruled unanimously 9 0 that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution Arguing for the plaintiffs the suits were filed by the NAACP on behalf of African American students was Thurgood Marshall who would go on to become the first African American to serve on the U S Supreme Court In a subsequent opinion on the question of relief commonly referred to as Brown v Board of Education of Topeka II argued April 11 14 1955 and decided on May 31 of that year Chief Justice Earl Warren ordered the district courts and local school authorities to take appropriate steps to integrate public schools in their jurisdictions with all deliberate speed Public schools in Southern states however remained almost completely segregated until the late 1960s 5 Standing Up by Sitting Down Part I Bettmann Corbis Rosa Parks is often called the mother of the civil rights movement for her role in sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 56 December 1 1955 she was arrested for refusing to give her bus seat to a white man a violation of the city s racial segregation ordinances Under the aegis of the Montgomery Improvement Association and the leadership of the young pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church Martin Luther King Jr a boycott of the municipal bus company was begun on December 5 The boycott would last until December 21 1956 with total victory for the protestors following the Supreme Court upholding in November a lower court s decision declaring Montgomery s segregated seating Parks went on to receive numerous awards including the Presidential Medal of Freedom 1996 and the Congressional Gold Medal 1999 4 Standing Up by Sitting Down Part II UPI Bettmann Corbis Although victories came in Supreme Court rulings on education and in segregated seating on buses not all segregation was wiped away easily so on February 1 1960 the Greensboro Four all students at North Carolina A T in Greensboro North Carolina entered a Woolworth s store that had a dining area They purchased items and then sat at the lunch counter which was reserved for whites only The Greensboro Four politely requested service at the counter remaining seated while their orders were refused by the waitstaff The lunch counter manager contacted the police but the local media had already been alerted The police arrived only to declare that they could do nothing because the four men were paying customers of the store and had not taken any provocative actions The media response however was

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/list/10-milestones-in-us-civil-rights-history (2016-02-13)
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  • Let’s Move: Fact or Fiction Quiz | Britannica.com
    When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Let s Move Fact or Fiction vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Let s Move Fact or Fiction 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results Let s Move Fact or Fiction vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score Sports Recreation An Encyclopedia of Sports Music Music Fact or Fiction Pop Culture Character Profile Food Nuts Seeds and Legumes Fact or Fiction Science Fun Facts of Measurement Math Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect Your

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/lets-move-fact-or-fiction (2016-02-13)
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  • 5 Amazing Adaptations of Pyrophytic Plants | Britannica.com
    Inc Some plants are able to survive wildfires due to a clever layer of thermal insulation provided by their bark dead leaves or moist tissues Certain trees including larches and giant sequoias have incredibly thick fire retardant bark and can be directly burned without sustaining damage to their vital tissues though they will eventually succumb to intense fires Other plants such as the Australian grass tree and South African aloes pictured retain dense dead leaves around their stems to serve as insulation against the heat of a wildfire Additionally some plants have moist tissues that provide both thermal insulation and protect against dehydration during a fire This strategy is common in a number of Protea species which have corky tissues to protect their buds from desiccation 3 Resprouting Ron Dorman Bruce Coleman Inc Though wildfires inevitably kill and injure many organisms in their path a number of plants have adapted to resprout if they are damaged in a blaze Some of these resprouters including several Eucalyptus species have specialized buds that are protected under the bark of their trunks When the trees are burned these buds emerge to produce new leaves and branches Other plants rely on underground structures for regrowth which allows them to come back even if the above ground portion has been destroyed Some Banksia species and other shrubs have swollen stem bases or underground woody organs known as lignotubers from which new shoots can emerge Similarly many herbaceous plants have fleshy bulbs rhizomes or other types of underground stems from which green shoots rapidly develop in the wake of a fire 2 Prolific Flowering Hans Reinhard OKAPIA Photo Researchers To take advantage of the ash fertilized soil some plant species are able to flower prolifically after a fire The Australian grass tree pictured is a well known example of this adaptation Its conspicuous flower spikes are often the first sign that the plant survived a blaze and individuals grown in greenhouses are often subjected to blowtorching to encourage flowering Other fire stimulated species often bloom simultaneously a few weeks after being burned creating lush landscapes of colorful flowers This is especially common in annual plants that emerge rapidly from the post fire soil seed bank Several members of the fire lily genus Cyrtanthus only flower after fires and have an extremely fast flowering response to natural bush fires One species can even reach full flowering stage in just nine days following a fire 1 Tall Crowns Andrew Brown Ecoscene Corbis A tall crown and few to no lower branches is a strategy a number of tree species employ to reduce wildfire damage In keeping their leaves and vital growth tissues far above the reach of most flames these trees can often survive a fire with only minor charring to their trunks This adaptation is common in several pine species as well as in many Eucalyptus species Some of these trees such as the ponderosa pine have even evolved a self pruning mechanism and readily remove their

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/list/5-amazing-adaptations-of-pyrophytic-plants (2016-02-13)
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  • Sports Culture: Fact or Fiction Quiz | Britannica.com
    When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Sports Culture Fact or Fiction vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Sports Culture Fact or Fiction 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results Sports Culture Fact or Fiction vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score Sports Recreation Gymnastics Fact or Fiction Music Taylor Swift Technology Computers and Technology History American Civil War Who Won Which Battles Pop Culture Scary Movie Quiz Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect Your Correct Answer Back to Top Science

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/sports-culture-fact-or-fiction (2016-02-13)
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  • poison frog | amphibian | Britannica.com
    and even bright blues and greens on a black or dark background Not all dendrobatids are so poisonous or brightly coloured many are patterned with shades of brown and well camouflaged as in Colostethus and their skin secretions are generally nontoxic and nonirritating strawberry poison dart frog hotshotsworldwide Fotolia Parental care of the young which is often performed by the male occurs in all poison frog species The male attracts a female to his residence beneath a leaf or log and she lays the eggs and often departs The male remains to guard the clutch however in some species the female remains When the tadpoles hatch the parent allows the tadpoles to swim or crawl up onto his or her back They are subsequently carried to a nearby body of water such as a stream a pond or a tree hole There the tadpoles slide off the back of the parent and into the water to complete their development Superficially the mantelline frogs of Madagascar family Mantellidae appear nearly identical to the dendrobatids however they are not closely related The similarities between the two groups are attributed to convergent evolution Also both are comparable in terms of physical size as mantellines range from 15 to 120 mm 0 6 inch to nearly 5 inches from snout to vent although most species are less than 60 mm about 2 5 inches long While the skin secretions of the mantellines have not been thoroughly studied the secretions of Mantella are toxic and capable of killing vertebrate predators Mantellines include more than 100 species in three genera of terrestrial to arboreal tree dwelling forms that live in semiarid scrubland to rainforest habitats Some species lay eggs on leaves that overhang bodies of water and hatching larvae then drop into the water Other species lay terrestrial eggs that develop either directly into froglets or into a nonaquatic nonfeeding tadpole stage In addition parental care occurs in some mantelline species with terrestrial eggs George R Zug Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 7 1 2014 You may also be interested in animal life amphibian chordate vertebrate Anura Leptodactylidae Myobatrachidae glass frog frog clawed frog Ranidae Keep exploring All About Amphibians Animals Fact or Fiction Ultimate Animals Quiz Christening Pluto s Moons 7 Drugs that Changed the World What made you want to look up poison frog To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style poison frog Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com animal poison frog APA style poison frog 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com animal poison

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/animal/poison-frog (2016-02-13)
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  • Jose Ortega y Gasset | Spanish philosopher | Britannica.com
    Madrid University 1898 1904 and in Germany 1904 08 and was influenced by the neo Kantian philosophical school at Marburg As professor of metaphysics at Madrid 1910 however he diverged from neo Kantianism in such works as Adán en el paraíso 1910 Adam in Paradise Meditaciones del Quijote 1914 Quixote s Meditations and El tema de nue stro tiempo 1923 Modern Theme He saw individual life as the fundamental reality

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Jose-Ortega-y-Gasset (2016-02-13)
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  • eugenics | genetics | Britannica.com
    president David Starr Jordan Research from around the globe was featured at three international congresses held in 1912 1921 and 1932 In addition eugenics education was monitored in Britain by the English Eugenics Society founded by Galton in 1907 as the Eugenics Education Society and in the United States by the American Eugenics Society Following World War I the United States gained status as a world power A concomitant fear arose that if the healthy stock of the American people became diluted with socially undesirable traits the country s political and economic strength would begin to crumble The maintenance of world peace by fostering democracy capitalism and at times eugenics based schemes was central to the activities of the Internationalists a group of prominent American leaders in business education publishing and government One core member of this group the New York lawyer Madison Grant aroused considerable pro eugenic interest through his best selling book The Passing of the Great Race 1916 Beginning in 1920 a series of congressional hearings was held to identify problems that immigrants were causing the United States As the country s eugenics expert Harry Laughlin provided tabulations showing that certain immigrants particularly those from Italy Greece and Eastern Europe were significantly overrepresented in American prisons and institutions for the feebleminded Further data were construed to suggest that these groups were contributing too many genetically and socially inferior people Laughlin s classification of these individuals included the feebleminded the insane the criminalistic the epileptic the inebriate the diseased including those with tuberculosis leprosy and syphilis the blind the deaf the deformed the dependent chronic recipients of charity paupers and ne er do wells Racial overtones also pervaded much of the British and American eugenics literature In 1923 Laughlin was sent by the U S secretary of labour as an immigration agent to Europe to investigate the chief emigrant exporting nations Laughlin sought to determine the feasibility of a plan whereby every prospective immigrant would be interviewed before embarking to the United States He provided testimony before Congress that ultimately led to a new immigration law in 1924 that severely restricted the annual immigration of individuals from countries previously claimed to have contributed excessively to the dilution of American good stock Immigration control was but one method to control eugenically the reproductive stock of a country Laughlin appeared at the centre of other U S efforts to provide eugenicists greater reproductive control over the nation He approached state legislators with a model law to control the reproduction of institutionalized populations By 1920 two years before the publication of Laughlin s influential Eugenical Sterilization in the United States 1922 3 200 individuals across the country were reported to have been involuntarily sterilized That number tripled by 1929 and by 1938 more than 30 000 people were claimed to have met this fate More than half of the states adopted Laughlin s law with California Virginia and Michigan leading the sterilization campaign Laughlin s efforts secured staunch judicial support in 1927 In the precedent setting case of Buck v Bell Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr upheld the Virginia statute and claimed It is better for all the world if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime or to let them starve for their imbecility society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind Popular support for eugenics During the 1930s eugenics gained considerable popular support across the United States Hygiene courses in public schools and eugenics courses in colleges spread eugenic minded values to many A eugenics exhibit titled Pedigree Study in Man was featured at the Chicago World s Fair in 1933 34 Consistent with the fair s Century of Progress theme stations were organized around efforts to show how favourable traits in the human population could best be perpetuated Contrasts were drawn between the emulative presidential Roosevelt family and the degenerate Ishmael family one of several pseudonymous family names used the rationale for which was not given By studying the passage of ancestral traits fairgoers were urged to adopt the progressive view that responsible individuals should pursue marriage ever mindful of eugenics principles Booths were set up at county and state fairs promoting fitter families contests and medals were awarded to eugenically sound families Drawing again upon long standing eugenic practices in agriculture popular eugenic advertisements claimed it was about time that humans received the same attention in the breeding of better babies that had been given to livestock and crops for centuries Antieugenics sentiment Antieugenics sentiment began to appear after 1910 and intensified during the 1930s Most commonly it was based on religious grounds For example the 1930 papal encyclical Casti connubii condemned reproductive sterilization though it did not specifically prohibit positive eugenic attempts to amplify the inheritance of beneficial traits Many Protestant writings sought to reconcile age old Christian warnings about the heritable sins of the father to pro eugenic ideals Indeed most of the religion based popular writings of the period supported positive means of improving the physical and moral makeup of humanity In the early 1930s Nazi Germany adopted American measures to identify and selectively reduce the presence of those deemed to be socially inferior through involuntary sterilization A rhetoric of positive eugenics in the building of a master race pervaded Rassenhygiene racial hygiene movements When Germany extended its practices far beyond sterilization in efforts to eliminate the Jewish and other non Aryan populations the United States became increasingly concerned over its own support of eugenics Many scientists physicians and political leaders began to denounce the work of the ERO publicly After considerable reflection the Carnegie Institution formally closed the ERO at the end of 1939 During the aftermath of World War II eugenics became stigmatized such that many individuals who had once hailed it as a science now spoke disparagingly of it as a failed pseudoscience Eugenics was dropped from organization and publication names In 1954 Britain s Annals of Eugenics was renamed Annals of Human

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/eugenics-genetics (2016-02-13)
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  • Easter Island | island, Chile | Britannica.com
    It is famous for its giant stone statues The island stands in isolation 1 200 miles 1 900 kilometres east of Pitcairn Island and 2 200 miles west of Chile Forming a triangle 14 miles long by seven miles wide it has an area of 63 square miles 163 square kilometres its highest point Mount Terevaka is 1 969 feet 600 metres above sea level To its original inhabitants the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Easter-Island (2016-02-13)
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