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  • Oskar Schindler Enamelware Factory; Deutsche Emaillewaren-Fabrik Oskar Schindler | Encyclopedia Britannica
    The Deutsche Emaillewaren Fabrik Oskar Schindler Oskar Schindler Enamelware Factory in Kraków Poland Jongleur100 MEDIA FOR Oskar Schindler Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully

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  • Munich Agreement | Europe [1938] | Britannica.com
    the Czechoslovaks who rejected it as did the British cabinet and the French On the 24th the French ordered a partial mobilization the Czechoslovaks had ordered a general mobilization one day earlier Munich Agreement Photos com Jupiterimages In a last minute effort to avoid war Chamberlain then proposed that a four power conference be convened immediately to settle the dispute Hitler agreed and on September 29 Hitler Chamberlain Daladier and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini met in Munich where Mussolini introduced a written plan that was accepted by all as the Munich Agreement Many years later it was discovered that the so called Italian plan had been prepared in the German Foreign Office It was almost identical to the Godesberg proposal the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by October 10 and an international commission would decide the future of other disputed areas Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations The Czechoslovak government chose to submit Before leaving Munich Chamberlain and Hitler signed a paper declaring their mutual desire to resolve differences through consultation to assure peace Both Daladier and Chamberlain returned home to jubilant welcoming crowds relieved that the threat of war had passed and Chamberlain told the British public that he had achieved peace with honour I believe it is peace for our time His words were immediately challenged by his greatest critic Winston Churchill who declared You were given the choice between war and dishonour You chose dishonour and you will have war Indeed Chamberlain s policies were discredited the following year when Hitler annexed the remainder of Czechoslovakia in March and then precipitated World War II by invading Poland in September The Munich Agreement became a byword for the futility of appeasing expansionist totalitarian states although it did buy time for the Allies to increase their military preparedness Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 10 2015 You may also be interested in World War II Helsinki Accords Pact of Locarno World War I European Union EU North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Treaty of Versailles European Community EC European Parliament Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OECD Paris Peace Conference Group of Eight G8 Keep exploring British Culture and Politics Exploring France Fact or Fiction Exploring Italy and France Fact or Fiction From Box Office to Ballot Box 10 Celebrity Politicians 13 Ways of Looking at a Blackbird What made you want to look up Munich Agreement To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Munich Agreement Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016

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  • Poland | history - geography | Britannica.com
    spreading its values and agenda throughout the country In May 1989 the Polish government fell along with communist regimes throughout eastern Europe beginning Poland s rapid transformation into a democracy That transformation has not been without its difficulties as the Nobel Prize winning poet Wisława Szymborska wrote a decade later I came to the paradoxical conclusion that some workers had it much easier in the Polish People s Republic They didn t have to pretend They didn t have to be polite if they didn t feel like it They didn t have to suppress their exhaustion boredom irritation They didn t have to conceal their lack of interest in other people s problems They didn t have to pretend that their back wasn t killing them when their back was in fact killing them If they worked in a store they didn t have to try to get their customers to buy things since the products always vanished before the lines did By the turn of the 21st century Poland was a market based democracy abundant in products of all kinds and a member of both NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union EU allied more strongly with western Europe than with eastern Europe but as always squarely between them A land of striking beauty Poland is punctuated by great forests and rivers broad plains and tall mountains Warsaw Warszawa the country s capital combines modern buildings with historic architecture most of which was heavily damaged during World War II but has since been faithfully restored in one of the most thoroughgoing reconstruction efforts in European history Other cities of historic and cultural interest include Poznań the seat of Poland s first bishopric Gdańsk one of the most active ports on the busy Baltic Sea and Kraków a historic centre of arts and education and the home of Pope John Paul II who personified for the Polish their country s struggle for independence and peace in modern times Quick Facts Images Videos Audio quizzes Lists 1 Roman Catholicism has special recognition per 1997 concordat with Vatican City Official name Rzeczpospolita Polska Republic of Poland Form of government unitary multiparty republic with two legislative houses Senate 100 Sejm 460 Head of state President Andrzej Duda Head of government Prime Minister Beata Szydło Capital Warsaw Official language Polish Official religion none 1 Monetary unit złoty zł Population 2014 est 38 483 000 Expand Total area sq mi 120 726 Total area sq km 312 679 Urban rural population Urban 2013 60 6 Rural 2013 39 4 Life expectancy at birth Male 2012 72 7 years Female 2012 81 years Literacy percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male not available Female not available GNI per capita U S 2013 12 960 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 11 16 2015 You may also be interested in Europe Vistula River Oder River Kraków Warsaw Oświęcim Warta

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Poland (2016-02-13)
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  • SS | corps of Nazi Party | Britannica.com
    become a massive and labyrinthian bureaucracy divided mainly into two groups the Allgemeine SS General SS and the Waffen SS Armed SS The Allgemeine SS dealt mainly with police and racial matters Its most important division was the Reichssicherheitshauptamt RSHA Reich Security Central Office which oversaw the Sicherheitspolizei Sipo Security Police which in turn was divided into the Kriminalpolizei Kripo Criminal Police and the dreaded Gestapo under Heinrich Müller The RSHA also included the Sicherheitsdienst SD Security Service a security department in charge of foreign and domestic intelligence and espionage Normandy Invasion German SS panzer grenadier Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The Waffen SS was made up of three subgroups the Leibstandarte Hitler s personal bodyguard the Totenkopfverbände Death s Head Battalions which administered the concentration camps and a vast empire of slave labour drawn from the Jews and the populations of the occupied territories and the Verfügungstruppen Disposition Troops which swelled to 39 divisions in World War II and which serving as elite combat troops alongside the regular army gained a reputation as fanatical fighters Warsaw Ghetto Uprising interrogation of religious Jews National Archives United States Holocaust Memorial Museum SS men were schooled in racial hatred and admonished to harden their hearts to human suffering Their chief virtue was their absolute obedience and loyalty to the Führer who gave them their motto Thy honour is thy loyalty During World War II the SS carried out massive executions of political opponents Roma Gypsies Jews Polish leaders communist authorities partisan resisters and Russian prisoners of war Following the defeat of Nazi Germany by the Allies the SS was declared a criminal organization by the Allied Tribunal in Nürnberg in 1946 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 20 2015 You may also be interested in Nazi Party Buchenwald Majdanek Auschwitz Gestapo Chelmno Sobibor Belzec Sachsenhausen Stutthof Dachau Babi Yar Keep exploring World Wars The Second World War Fact or Fiction World War II Fact or Fiction Editor Picks Top 10 Must Visit Fictional Lands 8 Influential Abolitionist Texts What made you want to look up SS To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style SS Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic SS APA style SS 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic SS Harvard style SS 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic SS Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v SS accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic SS While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may

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  • Plaszow | concentration camp, Poland | Britannica.com
    an SS Nazi paramilitary corps officer was tried and executed in 1946 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Europe Vistula River Nowa Huta Auschwitz Poland Belzec Stutthof Warsaw Prussia Silesia Kraków Carpathian Mountains Keep exploring World Wars The Second World War Fact or Fiction World War II Fact or Fiction 5 Unbelievable Facts About Christopher Columbus Brain Games 8 Philosophical Puzzles and Paradoxes What made you want to look up Plaszow To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Wars Throughout History Fact or Fiction English Royalty Fact or Fiction The Works of Edgar Allan Poe See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Plaszow Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Plaszow APA style Plaszow 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Plaszow Harvard style Plaszow 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Plaszow Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Plaszow accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Plaszow While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then

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  • Amon Goth | German Nazi officer | Britannica.com
    More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Amon Goth Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Amon Goth APA style Amon Goth 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Amon Goth Harvard style Amon Goth 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Amon Goth Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Amon Goth accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Amon Goth While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind Encyclopaedia Britannica

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  • concentration camp | Britannica.com
    the Nazi Party Communists and Social Democrats Political opposition soon was enlarged to include minority groups chiefly Jews but by the end of World War II many gypsies homosexuals and anti Nazi civilians from the occupied territories had also been liquidated After the outbreak of World War II the camp inmates were used as a supplementary labour supply and such camps mushroomed throughout Europe Inmates were required to work for their wages in food those unable to work usually died of starvation and those who did not starve often died of overwork The most shocking extension of this system was the establishment after 1940 of extermination centres or death camps They were located primarily in Poland which Adolf Hitler had selected as the setting for his final solution to the Jewish problem The most notorious were Auschwitz Majdanek and Treblinka See extermination camp At some camps notably Buchenwald medical experimentation was conducted New toxins and antitoxins were tried out new surgical techniques devised and studies made of the effects of artificially induced diseases all by experimenting on living human beings In the Soviet Union by 1922 there were 23 concentration camps for the incarceration of persons accused of political offenses as as well as criminal offenses Many corrective labour camps were established in northern Russia and Siberia especially during the First Five Year Plan 1928 32 when millions of rich peasants were driven from their farms under the collectivization program The Stalinist purges of 1936 38 brought additional millions into the camps said to be essentially institutions of slavery The Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in 1939 and the absorption of the Baltic states in 1940 led to the incarceration of large numbers of non Soviet citizens Following the outbreak of war with Germany in 1941 the camps received Axis prisoners of war and Soviet nationals accused of collaboration with the enemy After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953 many prisoners were released and the number of camps was drastically reduced See also Gulag Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 11 2016 You may also be interested in punishment law capital punishment government prison corporal punishment workhouse parole probation sanction house arrest shunning Keep exploring Wartime Germany Fact or Fiction Ancient Greece Amendments to the U S Constitution All in the Family 8 Famous Sets of Siblings 9 Noteworthy Bog Bodies and what they tell us What made you want to look up concentration camp To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style concentration camp Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic concentration camp

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  • Argentina | history - geography | Britannica.com
    000 to 22 000 feet 4 900 to 6 700 metres and is interrupted by high plateaus punas and basins ranging in elevation from about 10 000 to 13 400 feet 3 000 to 4 080 metres The mountains gradually decrease in size and elevation southward from Bolivia South America s highest mountain Aconcagua 22 831 feet 6 959 metres lies in the Northwest together with a number of other peaks that reach over 21 000 feet 6 400 metres Some of these mountains are volcanic in origin To the southeast where the parallel to subparallel ranges become lower and form isolated compact units trending north south the flat valleys between are called bolsones basins This southeastern section of the Northwest is often called the Pampean Sierras a complex that has been compared to the Basin and Range region of the western United States It is characterized by west facing escarpments and gentler east facing backslopes particularly those of the spectacular Sierra de Córdoba The Pampean Sierras have variable elevations beginning at 2 300 feet 700 metres in the Sierra de Mogotes in the east and rising to 20 500 feet 6 250 metres in the Sierra de Famatina in the west The Gran Chaco The western sector of the North region the Gran Chaco extends beyond the international border at the Pilcomayo River into Paraguay where it is called the Chaco Boreal Northern Chaco by Argentines The Argentine sector between the Pilcomayo River and the Bermejo River is known as the Chaco Central Argentines have named the area southward to latitude 30 S where the Pampas begin the Chaco Austral Southern Chaco The Gran Chaco in Argentina descends in flat steps from west to east but it is poorly drained and has such a challenging combination of physical conditions that it remains one of the least inhabited parts of the country It has a subtropical climate characterized by some of Latin America s hottest weather is largely covered by thorny vegetation and is subject to summer flooding Mesopotamia East of the Gran Chaco in a narrow depression 60 to 180 miles 100 to 300 km wide lies Mesopotamia which is bordered to the north by the highlands of southern Brazil The narrow lowland stretches for 1 000 miles 1 600 km southward finally merging with the Pampas south of the Río de la Plata Its designation as Mesopotamia Greek Between the Rivers reflects the fact that its western and eastern borders are two of the region s major rivers the Paraná and the Uruguay The northeastern part Misiones province between the Alto Upper Paraná and Uruguay rivers is higher in elevation than the rest of Mesopotamia but there are several small hills in the southern part The Pampas Pampa is a Quechua Indian term meaning flat plain As such it is widely used in southeastern South America from Uruguay where grass covered plains commence south of the Brazilian Highlands to Argentina In Argentina the Pampas broaden out west of the Río de la Plata to meet the Andean forelands blending imperceptibly to the north with the Chaco Austral and southern Mesopotamia and extending southward to the Colorado River The eastern boundary is the Atlantic coast The largely flat surface of the Pampas is composed of thick deposits of loess interrupted only by occasional caps of alluvium and volcanic ash In the southern Pampas the landscape rises gradually to meet the foothills of sierras formed from old sediments and crystalline rocks Patagonia Los Glaciares National Park Chad Ehlers Stone Getty Images This region consists of an Andean zone also called Western Patagonia and the main Patagonian plateau south of the Pampas which extends to the tip of South America The surface of Patagonia descends east of the Andes in a series of broad flat steps extending to the Atlantic coast Evidently the region s gigantic landforms and coastal terraces were created by the same tectonic forces that formed the Andes and the coastline is cuffed along its entire length as a result The cliffs are rather low in the north but rise in the south where they reach heights of more than 150 feet 45 metres The landscape is cut by eastward flowing rivers some of them of glacial origin in the Andes that have created both broad valleys and steep walled canyons Patagonia includes a region called the Lake District which is nestled within a series of basins between the Patagonian Andes and the plateau There are volcanic hills in the central plateau west of the city of Río Gallegos These hills and the accompanying lava fields have dark soils spotted with lighter coloured bunchgrass which creates a leopard skin effect that intensifies the desolate windswept appearance of the Patagonian landscape A peculiar type of rounded gravel called grava patagónica lies on level landforms including isolated mesas Glacial ice in the past extended beyond the Andes only in the extreme south where there are now large moraines Drainage Iguaçu Falls Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The largest river basin in the area is that of the Paraguay Paraná Río de la Plata system It drains an area of some 1 2 million square miles 3 2 million square km which includes northern Argentina the whole of Paraguay eastern Bolivia most of Uruguay and a large part of Brazil In Argentina the principal river of this system is the Paraná formed by the confluence of the Paraguay and Alto Paraná rivers The Río de la Plata often called the River Plate is actually the estuary outlet of the system formed by the confluence of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers its name meaning River of Silver was coined in colonial times before explorers found that there was neither a single river nor silver upstream from its mouth Other tributaries of this system are the Iguazú Iguaçu Pilcomayo Bermejo Salado and Carcarañá Just above its confluence with the Alto Paraná the Iguazú River plunges over the escarpment of the Brazilian massif creating Iguazú Falls

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