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  • cement | building material | Britannica.com
    in a narrower sense the binding materials used in building and civil engineering construction Cements of this kind are finely ground powders that when mixed with water set to a hard mass Setting and hardening result from hydration which is a chemical combination of the cement compounds with water that yields submicroscopic crystals or a gel like material with a high surface area Because of their hydrating properties constructional cements

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/technology/cement-building-material (2016-02-13)
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  • cemetery | Britannica.com
    of adequate space for further burial within city limits had become a matter of public apprehension The vaults under the pavements of the churches and the small spaces of open ground surrounding them were crammed with coffins Many such buildings became direct sources of disease to those who frequented them In the churchyards coffins were placed tier above tier in the graves until they were within a few feet or sometimes even a few inches of the surface and the level of the ground was often raised to that of the lower windows of the church To make room for fresh interments the sextons had recourse to the surreptitious removal of bones and partially decayed remains and in some cases the contents of the graves were systematically transferred to pits adjacent to the site the gravediggers appropriating the coffin plates handles and nails to be sold as waste metal As a result of those practices the neighbourhoods of the churchyards were usually unhealthy and their sight intolerable In all the large towns those practices prevailed to a greater or lesser degree In London however because of the immense population and the consequent mortality they more readily attracted public attention and after more than one partial measure of relief had been passed the churchyards were with a few exceptions finally closed by law in 1855 Several London cemeteries had been established by private enterprise earlier but the Burial Acts of 1855 marked the start of general development of cemeteries in Great Britain and Ireland Burial within the limits of cities and towns was almost everywhere abolished and where it was still allowed it was surrounded by safeguards that made it practically innocuous Since 1860 churchyard burials have gradually been discontinued in many countries and have gone through a transition from single burial plots on private property to church graveyards to cemeteries and now to memorial parks where the graves are marked with flat metal markers instead of the customary gravestones One of the largest 19th century projects was England s Brookwood organized by the London Necropolis Company It had a private railway station in London and two in the cemetery its own telegraphic address and special areas for different religions nationalities social organizations and professions Perhaps the most famous of the type is California s Forest Lawn In the United States there continue to be public cemeteries cooperative cemeteries church cemeteries and large mutually owned cemeteries In addition to state county and municipal cemeteries the federal government operates a complex of national cemeteries in the United States and abroad for military servicemen and members of their families In the modern cemetery lots are sold by the government religious commercial or other organization that has charge A definite fee is charged for perpetual care and a charge is made for opening the grave and other duties performed by the sexton or superintendent Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 9 3 2015 You may also be interested in cairn catacomb barrow burial

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/cemetery (2016-02-13)
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  • Jerusalem | national capital, Israel | Britannica.com
    Hebrew Yerushalayim Arabic Bayt al Muqaddas or Al Quds Jerusalem Citadel Wayne McLean ancient city of the Middle East that since 1967 has been wholly under the rule of the State of Israel Long an object of veneration and conflict the holy city of Jerusalem has been governed both as a provincial town and a national capital by an extended series of dynasties and states In the early 20th century

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Jerusalem (2016-02-13)
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  • Kingsley, Sir Ben: still with Neeson and Kingsley from “Schindler’s List” | Encyclopedia Britannica
    s List Liam Neeson left and Ben Kingsley in Schindler s List 1993 and 1993 Universal City Studios and Amblin Entertainment Inc all rights reserved MEDIA FOR Oskar Schindler Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Oskar-Schindler/images-videos/Liam-Neeson-and-Ben-Kingsley-in-Schindlers-List/110350 (2016-02-13)
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  • Holocaust | European history | Britannica.com
    were also forced to perform hard labour on survival diets deprived of property and uprooted and interned in concentration camps Nazi expansion and the formation of ghettos Paradoxically at the same time that Germany tried to rid itself of its Jews via forced emigration its territorial expansions kept bringing more Jews under its control Germany annexed Austria in March 1938 and the Sudetenland now in the Czech Republic in September 1938 It established control over the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia now in the Czech Republic in March 1939 When Germany invaded Poland on September 1 1939 the Jewish question became urgent When the division of Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union was complete more than two million more Jews had come under German control For a time the Nazis considered shipping the Jews to the island of Madagascar off the southeast coast of Africa But as the seas became a war zone and the resources required for such a massive deportation scarce they discarded the plan as impractical Judenräte heads of Lodz getto Judenräte Gila Flam United States Holocaust Memorial Museum On September 21 1939 Reinhard Heydrich ordered the establishment of the Judenräte Jewish Councils comprising up to 24 men rabbis and Jewish leaders Heydrich s order made these councils personally responsible in the literal sense of the term for carrying out German orders When the Nazis sealed the Warsaw Ghetto the largest of German occupied Poland s 400 ghettos in the fall of 1940 the Jews then 30 percent of Warsaw s population were forced into 2 4 percent of the city s area The ghetto s population reached a density of over 200 000 persons per square mile 77 000 per square km and 9 2 per room Disease malnutrition hunger and poverty took their toll even before the first bullet was fired For the German rulers the ghetto was a temporary measure a holding pen for the Jewish population until a policy on its fate could be established and implemented For the Jews ghetto life was the situation under which they thought they would be forced to live until the end of the war They aimed to make life bearable even under the most trying circumstances When the Nazis prohibited schools they opened clandestine schools When the Nazis banned religious life it persisted in hiding The Jews used humour as a means of defiance so too song They resorted to arms only late in the Nazi assault Historians differ on the date of the decision to murder Jews systematically the so called final solution to the Jewish question There is debate about whether there was one central decision or a series of regional decisions in response to local conditions but in either case when Germany attacked the Soviet Union its former ally in June of 1941 the Nazis began the systematic killing of Jews The Einsatzgruppen Einsatzgruppen Library of Congress United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Entering conquered Soviet territories alongside the Wehrmacht the German armed forces were 3 000 men of the Einsatzgruppen deployment groups special mobile killing units Their task was to murder Jews Soviet commissars and Roma in the areas conquered by the army Alone or with the help of local police native anti Semitic populations and accompanying Axis troops the Einsatzgruppen would enter a town round up their victims herd them to the outskirts of the town and shoot them They killed Jews in family units Just outside Kiev Ukraine in the valley of Babi Yar an Einsatzgruppe killed 33 771 Jews on September 28 29 1941 In the Rumbula Forest outside the ghetto in Riga Latvia 25 000 28 000 Jews died on November 30 and December 8 9 Beginning in the summer of 1941 Einsatzgruppen killed more than 70 000 Jews at Ponary outside Vilna now Vilnius in Lithuania They slaughtered 9 000 Jews half of them children at the Ninth Fort adjacent to Kovno now Kaunas Lithuania on October 28 The mass shootings continued unabated with a first wave and then a second When the killing ended in the face of a Soviet counteroffensive special units returned to dig up the dead and burn their bodies to destroy the evidence of the crimes It is estimated that the Einsatzgruppen killed more than one million people most of whom were Jews Historians are divided about the motivations of the members of Einsatzgruppen Christopher Browning describes them as ordinary men in extraordinary circumstances in which conformity peer pressure careerism obedience to orders and group solidarity gradually overcame moral inhibitions Daniel Goldhagen sees them as willing executioners sharing Hitler s vision of genocidal anti Semitism and finding their tasks unpleasant but necessary Both concur that no Einsatzgruppe member faced punishment if he asked to be excused Individuals had a choice whether to participate or not Almost all chose to become killers The extermination camps Chelmno deportation of Jewish children Jacob Igra United States Holocaust Memorial Museum On January 20 1942 Reinhard Heydrich convened the Wannsee Conference at a lakeside villa in a Berlin suburb to organize the final solution to the Jewish question Around the table were 15 men representing government agencies necessary to implement so bold and sweeping a policy The language of the meeting was clear but the meeting notes were circumspect Another possible solution to the Jewish question has now taken the place of emigration i e evacuation to the east Practical experience is already being collected which is of the greatest importance in the relation to the future final solution of the Jewish question Participants understood evacuation to the east to mean deportation to killing centres Holocaust Majdanek extermination camp National Archive and Records Administration In early 1942 the Nazis built extermination camps at Treblinka Sobibor and Belzec in Poland The death camps were to be the essential instrument of the final solution The Einsatzgruppen had traveled to kill their victims With the extermination camps the process was reversed The victims traveled by train often in cattle cars

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Holocaust (2016-02-13)
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  • Schindler's Ark | work by Keneally | Britannica.com
    who acts in accord with his conscience despite the evil around him Controversy surrounded the FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Test Your Instrument Knowledge Paris at Random Synonyms vs Antonyms See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Schindler s Ark Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Schindlers Ark APA style Schindler s Ark 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Schindlers Ark Harvard style Schindler s Ark 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Schindlers Ark Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Schindler s Ark accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Schindlers Ark While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Schindlers-Ark (2016-02-13)
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  • Booker Prize | British literary award | Britannica.com
    The Old Devils Kingsley Amis 1987 Moon Tiger Penelope Lively 1988 Oscar and Lucinda Peter Carey 1989 The Remains of the Day Kazuo Ishiguro 1990 Possession A S Byatt 1991 The Famished Road Ben Okri 1992 Sacred Hunger Barry Unsworth The English Patient Michael Ondaatje 1993 Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha Roddy Doyle 1994 How Late It Was How Late James Kelman 1995 The Ghost Road Pat Barker 1996 Last Orders Graham Swift 1997 The God of Small Things Arundhati Roy 1998 Amsterdam Ian McEwan 1999 Disgrace J M Coetzee 2000 The Blind Assassin Margaret Atwood 2001 True History of the Kelly Gang Peter Carey 2002 Life of Pi Yann Martel 2003 Vernon God Little D B C Pierre 2004 The Line of Beauty Alan Hollinghurst 2005 The Sea John Banville 2006 The Inheritance of Loss Kiran Desai 2007 The Gathering Anne Enright 2008 The White Tiger Aravind Adiga 2009 Wolf Hall Hilary Mantel 2010 The Finkler Question Howard Jacobson 2011 The Sense of an Ending Julian Barnes 2012 Bring Up the Bodies Hilary Mantel 2013 The Luminaries Eleanor Catton 2014 The Narrow Road to the Deep North Richard Flanagan 2015 A Brief History of Seven Killings Marlon James In 1969 and 1970 the prize was awarded to a novel published in the year previous to that in which the prize was given In 1971 the prize was awarded to a novel published that same year between January and November Because the rule change precluded eligibility for novels published in 1970 the one off Lost Man Booker Prize was devised in 2010 to honour such a novel The winner decided by public vote was Troubles by J G Farrell Winners of the Man Asian Prize Winners of the Man Asian Prize are provided in the table Asian Literary Prize year author country of origin title of work 2007 Jiang Rong pseudonym of Lü Jiamin China Lanag tu teng Wolf Totem 2008 Miguel Syjuco Philippines Ilustrado 2009 Su Tong pseudonym of Tong Zhonggui China He an The Boat to Redemption 2010 Bi Feiyu China Yu mi Three Sisters 2011 Shin Kyung Sook South Korea Ŏmmarŭl put akhae Please Look After Mom 2012 Tan Twan Eng Malaysia The Garden of Evening Mists The Man Asian Literary Prize became the Asian Literary Prize after the Man Group withdrew sponsorship in 2012 Winners of the Man Booker International Prize Winners of the Man Booker International Prize are provided in the table Man Booker International Prize year author country of origin 2005 Ismail Kadare Albania 2007 Chinua Achebe Nigeria 2009 Alice Munro Canada 2011 Philip Roth United States 2013 Lydia Davis United States 2015 László Krasznahorkai Hungary Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 13 2015 You may also be interested in National Book Awards IMPAC Dublin Literary Award Costa Book Award Newdigate Prize Griffin Poetry Prize Governor General s Literary Awards Bollingen Prize Frost Medal Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize literature the arts Prix Goncourt Keep exploring British Culture and Politics Literary Favorites Fact

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Booker-Prize (2016-02-13)
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  • Thomas Keneally | Australian author | Britannica.com
    1993 tells the true story of Oskar Schindler a German industrialist who saved more than 1 300 Jews from the Nazis Like many of Keneally s protagonists Schindler is a rather ordinary man who acts in accord with his conscience despite the evil around him Controversy surrounded the book s receipt of the Booker Prize for fiction detractors argued that the work was mere historical reporting Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Peter Carey Hilary Mantel Colleen McCullough J G Farrell Patrick White Kate Grenville Richard Flanagan David Malouf Christina Stead Tim Winton Henry Handel Richardson Vance Palmer Keep exploring Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction Oceania Fact or Fiction Where the Kookaburras Live 11 Famous Movie Monsters 7 Quintessential National Spelling Bee Winning Words What made you want to look up Thomas Keneally To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Thomas Keneally Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Keneally APA style Thomas Keneally 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Thomas Keneally Harvard style Thomas Keneally 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Thomas Keneally Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Thomas Keneally accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Keneally While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Keneally (2016-02-13)
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