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  • Mount Fuji | mountain, Japan | Britannica.com
    Ocean coast in Yamanashi and Shizuoka ken prefectures of central Honshu about 60 miles 100 km west of the Tokyo Yokohama metropolitan area It is a volcano that has been dormant since its last eruption in 1707 but is still generally classified as active by geologists The mountain is the major feature of Fuji Hakone Izu National Park 1936 and it is at the centre of a UNESCO World Heritage

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Mount-Fuji (2016-02-13)
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  • Aksum | Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    Church of St Mary of Zion contains the Ark of the Covenant Over the centuries however the church has been destroyed and rebuilt several times the present structure dates from the 17th century Emperor Haile Selassie I built the new Church of St Mary of Zion near the old one in 1965 An airport a hospital a health centre and a community centre serve the town Pop 2006 est 47 300 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Africa Addis Ababa eastern Africa Lalībela Aksum Hadar Ogaden Gonder Lake Tana Hārer Tigray Shewa Keep exploring Journey Around the World Capitals Cities Fact or Fiction World Tour Trivia with a Capital Tea 5 Things You Didn t Know About Tea 9 Unsportsmanlike Sportsmen What made you want to look up Aksum To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Aksum Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Aksum Ethiopia APA style Aksum 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Aksum Ethiopia Harvard style Aksum 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Aksum Ethiopia Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Aksum accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Aksum Ethiopia While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Aksum-Ethiopia (2016-02-13)
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  • Blue Nile River | river, Africa | Britannica.com
    may also be interested in Sudan Atbara River Gash River Tekezē River Dinder River Rahad River Africa Nile River Jubba River White Nile River Sobat River Awash River Keep exploring Africa at Random Fact or Fiction Hit the Road Quiz It s All in the Name 12 Peculiar Phobias 8 Incredible Swimming Feats What made you want to look up Blue Nile River To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Cuisine of India A Study of Food Fact or Fiction Let s Move Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Blue Nile River Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Blue Nile River APA style Blue Nile River 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Blue Nile River Harvard style Blue Nile River 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Blue Nile River Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Blue Nile River accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Blue Nile River While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Blue-Nile-River (2016-02-13)
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  • Black Panther Party | American organization | Britannica.com
    an enemy of the U S government Hoover had pledged that 1969 would be the last year of the Black Panther Party and devoted the resources of the FBI through COINTELPRO toward that end In a protracted program against the Black Panther Party COINTELPRO used agent provocateurs sabotage misinformation and lethal force to eviscerate the national organization The FBI s campaign culminated in December 1969 with a five hour police shoot out at the Southern California headquarters of the Black Panther Party and an Illinois state police raid in which Chicago Black Panther leader Fred Hampton was killed The measures employed by the FBI were so extreme that years later when they were revealed the director of the agency publicly apologized for wrongful uses of power Davis Angela AP In the early 1970s radical scholar and activist Angela Davis became widely associated with the Black Panthers though it seems likely that she never actually became a standing member of the party Davis did however have strong connections with the party and taught political education classes for it She initially gained notoriety in 1970 when then governor of California Ronald Reagan led the Board of Regents in refusing to renew Davis s appointment as lecturer in philosophy at the University of California Los Angeles because of her politics and her association with communists At about the same time Davis became involved in the case of three African American inmates at Soledad Prison who had been accused of murdering a guard She became deeply involved with one of the inmates George Jackson whose younger brother s attempt on August 7 1970 to win Jackson s release by taking hostages in the Marin county courthouse went violently awry Four deaths resulted and when at least one of the guns proved to be registered to Davis she fled charges of conspiracy kidnapping and murder going underground and entering the FBI s Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list before being captured some eight weeks later after becoming a cause célèbre for the radical Left Ultimately she was acquitted of all the charges against her by an all white jury Cleaver Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Camera Press Archive Photos From the mid 1970s through the 80s the activities of the Black Panther Party all but ceased Although COINTELPRO contributed to its demise the dissolution of the party s leadership also contributed to the downfall of the organization Assata Shakur went into exile in Cuba Kathleen Cleaver earned a law degree and took an appointment as a professor After returning from exile in Cuba Newton was killed in a drug dispute in August 1989 perishing in an alley in West Oakland not far from where he and Seale had founded the first Black Panther Party chapter Eldridge Cleaver designed clothes in the 1970s and 80s before joining the anticommunist Unification Church en route to becoming a born again Christian and a registered member of the Republican Party Legacy From its founding in 1966 the influence of the Black Panther

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party (2016-02-13)
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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    orbiting at the outer edge of Earth s atmosphere that day had detected infrasonics very low frequency sound waves from the quake The sudden horizontal and vertical thrusting of the Pacific Plate which has been slowly advancing under the Eurasian Plate near Japan displaced the water above and spawned a series of highly destructive tsunami waves A wave measuring some 33 feet high inundated the coast and flooded parts of the city of Sendai including its airport and the surrounding countryside According to some reports one wave penetrated some 6 miles 10 km inland after causing the Natori River which separates Sendai from the city of Natori to the south to overflow Damaging tsunami waves struck the coasts of Iwate prefecture just north of Miyagi prefecture and Fukushima Ibaraki and Chiba the prefectures extending along the Pacific coast south of Miyagi In addition to Sendai other communities hard hit by the tsunami included Kamaishi and Miyako in Iwate Ishinomaki Kesennuma and Shiogama in Miyagi and Kitaibaraki and Hitachinaka in Ibaraki As the floodwaters retreated back to the sea they carried with them enormous quantities of debris as well as thousands of victims caught in the deluge Large stretches of land were left submerged under seawater particularly in lower lying areas scientific modeling depiction of the tsunami wave height model for the Pacific Ocean following the March 11 2011 earthquake off Sendai Japan NOAA Center for Tsunami Research The earthquake triggered tsunami warnings throughout the Pacific basin The tsunami raced outward from the epicentre at speeds that approached about 500 miles 800 km per hour It generated waves 11 to 12 feet 3 3 to 3 6 metres high along the coasts of Kauai and Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands chain and 5 foot 1 5 metre waves along the island of Shemya in the Aleutian Islands chain Several hours later 9 foot 2 7 metre tsunami waves struck the coasts of California and Oregon in North America Finally some 18 hours after the quake waves roughly 1 foot 0 3 metre high reached the coast of Antarctica and caused a portion of the Sulzberger Ice Shelf to break off its outer edge Images quizzes Lists 1 2 3 4 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 4 2015 You may also be interested in Kōbe earthquake of 1995 Tokyo Yokohama earthquake of 1923 kamikaze of 1274 and 1281 World War II World War I Treaty of Versailles Tokugawa Ieyasu Russian Civil War Douglas MacArthur Pearl Harbor attack Russo Japanese War Abe Shinzo Keep exploring Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction History Buff Quiz Journey Around the World Riding Freedom 10 Milestones in U S Civil Rights History What made you want to look up Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011 (2016-02-13)
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  • Open Door policy | United States-China [1899, 1900] | Britannica.com
    was becoming increasingly interested in China where American textile manufacturers had found markets for cheap cotton goods The 1899 Open Door notes provided that 1 each great power should maintain free access to a treaty port or to any other vested interest within its sphere 2 only the Chinese government should collect taxes on trade and 3 no great power having a sphere should be granted exemptions from paying harbour dues or railroad charges The replies from the various countries were evasive but Hay interpreted them as acceptances In reaction to the presence of European armies in northern China to suppress the Boxer Rebellion 1900 Hay s second circular of 1900 stressed the importance of preserving China s territorial and administrative integrity Hay did not ask for replies but all the powers except Japan expressed agreement with those principles Japan violated the Open Door principle with its presentation of Twenty one Demands to China in 1915 The Nine Power Treaty after the Washington Conference 1921 22 reaffirmed the principle however The crisis in Manchuria Northeast China brought about by the Mukden Incident of 1931 and the war between China and Japan that broke out in 1937 led the United States to adopt a rigid stand in favour of the Open Door policy including escalating embargoes on exports of essential commodities to Japan notably oil and scrap metal The embargoes are cited as one of the main reasons Japan went to war with the United States in late 1941 Japan s defeat in World War II 1945 and the communist victory in China s civil war 1949 which ended all special privileges to foreigners made the Open Door policy meaningless Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 17 2015 You may also be interested in Barack Obama Napoleon I George W Bush Adolf Hitler Franklin D Roosevelt Ronald Reagan Sir Winston Churchill John F Kennedy Alexander the Great Joseph Stalin Richard Nixon Vladimir Ilich Lenin Keep exploring Exploring Korea and China Fact or Fiction USA Facts Give Us Liberty 9 U S Presidents with the Most Vetoes Brain Games 8 Philosophical Puzzles and Paradoxes What made you want to look up Open Door policy To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Open Door policy Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Open Door policy APA style Open Door policy 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Open Door policy Harvard style Open Door policy 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Open Door policy Chicago

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Open-Door-policy (2016-02-13)
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  • Jim Crow law | United States [1877-1954] | Britannica.com
    New Orleans competent to raise a constitutional question since as he explained they practiced almost entirely in the police courts Tourgée and Martinet considered several possibilities They could have a black passenger buy a ticket outside Louisiana and then travel into the state thus raising a challenge to the law under the commerce clause They might have a fair skinned person of mixed race attempt to enter the ladies car but there they ran into the problem as Martinet noted that she might not be refused admission In New Orleans he wrote to Tourgée people of tolerably fair complexion even if unmistakably colored enjoy here a large degree of immunity from the accursed prejudice But Tourgée wanted someone who was an octoroon a person who was of not more than one eighth colored blood because he believed the winning strategy would be to expose the ambiguities in the definition of race How did the law or a train conductor determine the race of a passenger It is a question Tourgée told his colleague that the Supreme Court may as well take up if for nothing else to let the court sharpen its wits on Martinet agreed and in New Orleans he began talking to sympathetic railroad officials who wanted the law overturned for their own financial reasons It would not do if their test passenger was merely excluded from boarding or even thrown off the train he would have to be arrested so that a real case existed and he could claim injury in federal court One railway informed him that it did not enforce the law while another said that though it opposed the statute as too costly it did not want to go against it publicly Then the Louisville Nashville line agreed to a test case As it happened for reasons neither Martinet nor Tourgée expected their test case fizzled On February 24 1892 21 year old Daniel Desdunes purchased a first class ticket on the Louisville Nashville from New Orleans to Mobile Alabama and took a seat in the whites only car He was arrested according to the plan and charged with a criminal violation of the Separate Car Act Tourgée Martinet and the local attorney James Walker filed a plea of jurisdiction arguing that since Desdunes was a passenger in interstate commerce he had the right and privilege to travel free from any governmental regulation save that of the Congress Tourgée also introduced his claim that the determination of race was a complex question of both science and law and so could not be delegated to a train official The lawyers assumed that their plea would be denied Desdunes would be convicted and then they would appeal Then on April 19 1892 the presiding judge Robert Marr suddenly disappeared and no one knew what had happened to him While Desdunes s attorney tried to figure out what to do next on May 25 the Louisiana Supreme Court handed down its decision in Louisiana ex rel Abbott

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law (2016-02-13)
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  • Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    end of the Birmingham campaign in an effort to draw together the multiple forces for peaceful change and to dramatize to the country and to the world the importance of solving the U S racial problem King joined other civil rights leaders in organizing the historic March on Washington On August 28 1963 an interracial assembly of more than 200 000 gathered peaceably in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial to demand equal justice for all citizens under the law Here the crowds were uplifted by the emotional strength and prophetic quality of King s famous I Have a Dream speech in which he emphasized his faith that all men someday would be brothers Johnson Lyndon B signing the Civil Rights Act Lyndon B Johnson Library and Museum photograph Cecil Stoughton The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced as King had hoped a strong effect on national opinion and resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities as well as in employment That eventful year was climaxed by the award to King of the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in December I accept this award today with an abiding faith in America and an audacious faith in the future of mankind said King in his acceptance speech I refuse to accept the idea that the isness of man s present nature makes him morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal oughtness that forever confronts him Challenges of the final years Martin Luther King Jr Bettmann Corbis The first signs of opposition to King s tactics from within the civil rights movement surfaced during the March 1965 demonstrations in Selma Alabama which were aimed at dramatizing the need for a federal voting rights law that would provide legal support for the enfranchisement of African Americans in the South King organized an initial march from Selma to the state capitol building in Montgomery but did not lead it himself The marchers were turned back by state troopers with nightsticks and tear gas He was determined to lead a second march despite an injunction by a federal court and efforts from Washington to persuade him to cancel it Heading a procession of 1 500 marchers black and white he set out across Pettus Bridge outside Selma until the group came to a barricade of state troopers But instead of going on and forcing a confrontation he led his followers to kneel in prayer and then unexpectedly turned back This decision cost King the support of many young radicals who were already faulting him for being too cautious The suspicion of an arrangement with federal and local authorities vigorously but not entirely convincingly denied clung to the Selma affair The country was nevertheless aroused resulting in the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Throughout the nation impatience with the lack of greater substantive progress encouraged the growth of black militancy Especially in the slums of the large Northern cities King s religious philosophy of nonviolence was increasingly questioned The rioting in the Watts district of Los Angeles in August 1965 demonstrated the depth of unrest among urban African Americans In an effort to meet the challenge of the ghetto King and his forces initiated a drive against racial discrimination in Chicago at the beginning of the following year The chief target was to be segregation in housing After a spring and summer of rallies marches and demonstrations an agreement was signed between the city and a coalition of African Americans liberals and labour organizations calling for various measures to enforce the existing laws and regulations with respect to housing But this agreement was to have little effect the impression remained that King s Chicago campaign was nullified partly because of the opposition of that city s powerful mayor Richard J Daley and partly because of the unexpected complexities of Northern racism Malcolm X Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr 1964 Library of Congress Washington D C digital file no 3d01847u In Illinois and Mississippi alike King was now being challenged and even publicly derided by young black power enthusiasts Whereas King stood for patience middle class respectability and a measured approach to social change the sharp tongued blue jean clad young urban radicals stood for confrontation and immediate change In the latter s eyes the suit wearing calm spoken civil rights leader was irresponsibly passive and old beyond his years King was in his 30s more a member of the other side of the generation gap than their revolutionary leader Malcolm X went so far as to call King s tactics criminal Concerning nonviolence it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks In the face of mounting criticism King broadened his approach to include concerns other than racism On April 4 1967 at Riverside Church in New York City and again on the 15th at a mammoth peace rally in that city he committed himself irrevocably to opposing U S involvement in the Vietnam War Once before in early January 1966 he had condemned the war but official outrage from Washington and strenuous opposition within the black community itself had caused him to relent He next sought to widen his base by forming a coalition of the poor of all races that would address itself to economic problems such as poverty and unemployment It was a version of populism seeking to enroll janitors hospital workers seasonal labourers and the destitute of Appalachia along with the student militants and pacifist intellectuals His endeavours along these lines however did not engender much support in any segment of the population Meanwhile the strain and changing dynamics of the civil rights movement had taken a toll on King especially in the final months of his life I m frankly tired of marching I m tired of going to jail he admitted

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr (2016-02-13)
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