archive-com.com » COM » B » BRITANNICA.COM

Total: 1375

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • View History: eugenics | genetics | Britannica.com
    Eugenics Grace Young Oct 07 2011 Add new Web site How Stuff Works Science Eugenics Grace Young Oct 07 2011 Add new Web site ThinkQuest Eugenics Grace Young Oct 07 2011 New illustration added Kara Rogers Jan 15 2009 Added new Web site How Stuff Works Science Eugenics Shiveta Singh Dec 29 2008 Bibliography revised Kara Rogers Apr 06 2007 Article thoroughly revised Kara Rogers Apr 06 2007 View Changes

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/eugenics-genetics/article-history (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Sir Francis Galton | British scientist | Britannica.com
    of human intelligence He was knighted in 1909 Early life Galton s family life was happy and he gratefully acknowledged that he owed much to his father and mother But he had little use for the conventional classical and religious teaching he received in school and church Indeed he later confessed in a letter to Charles Darwin that the traditional biblical arguments had made him wretched His parents had planned

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-Galton (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Charles Darwin | British naturalist | Britannica.com
    that animals shared all the human mental faculties One talk on the mind as the product of a material brain was officially censored for such materialism was considered subversive in the conservative decades after the French Revolution Darwin was witnessing the social penalties of holding deviant views As he collected sea slugs and sea pens on nearby shores he was accompanied by Robert Edmond Grant a radical evolutionist and disciple of the French biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck An expert on sponges Grant became Darwin s mentor teaching him about the growth and relationships of primitive marine invertebrates which Grant believed held the key to unlocking the mysteries surrounding the origin of more complex creatures Darwin encouraged to tackle the larger questions of life through a study of invertebrate zoology made his own observations on the larval sea mat Flustra and announced his findings at the student societies The young Darwin learned much in Edinburgh s rich intellectual environment but not medicine he loathed anatomy and pre chloroform surgery sickened him His freethinking father shrewdly realizing that the church was a better calling for an aimless naturalist switched him to Christ s College Cambridge in 1828 In a complete change of environment Darwin was now educated as an Anglican gentleman He took his horse indulged his drinking shooting and beetle collecting passions with other squires sons and managed 10th place in the Bachelor of Arts degree in 1831 Here he was shown the conservative side of botany by a young professor the Reverend John Stevens Henslow while that doyen of Providential design in the animal world the Reverend Adam Sedgwick took Darwin to Wales in 1831 on a geologic field trip Fired by Alexander von Humboldt s account of the South American jungles in his Personal Narrative of Travels Darwin jumped at Henslow s suggestion of a voyage to Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America aboard a rebuilt brig HMS Beagle Darwin would not sail as a lowly surgeon naturalist but as a self financed gentleman companion to the 26 year old captain Robert Fitzroy an aristocrat who feared the loneliness of command Fitzroy s was to be an imperial evangelical voyage he planned to survey coastal Patagonia to facilitate British trade and return three savages previously brought to England from Tierra del Fuego and Christianized Darwin equipped himself with weapons books Fitzroy gave him the first volume of Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell and advice on preserving carcasses from London Zoo s experts The Beagle sailed from England on December 27 1831 Images Videos quizzes Lists 1 2 3 4 5 6 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 5 1 2015 You may also be interested in Alexander von Humboldt Alfred Russel Wallace James D Dana Jean Baptiste Lamarck John Ray Sir Joseph Banks Étienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire H W Bates Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg John Bartram David Douglas Ynes Enriquetta Julietta Mexia Keep exploring Earth Fact or Fiction Chemistry and Biology Fact

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Darwin (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • natural selection | biology | Britannica.com
    brief treatment of natural selection follows For full treatment see evolution The concept of natural selection In natural selection those variations in the genotype that increase an organism s chances of survival and procreation are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less advantageous ones Evolution often occurs as a consequence of this process Natural selection may arise from differences in survival in fertility in rate

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/natural-selection (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • social Darwinism | Britannica.com
    early 20th centuries the weak were diminished and their cultures delimited while the strong grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak Social Darwinists held that the life of humans in society was a struggle for existence ruled by survival of the fittest a phrase proposed by the British philosopher and scientist Herbert Spencer Bagehot Walter Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum photograph J R Freeman

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/social-Darwinism (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • World War I | Facts & History | Britannica.com
    officials should take part on Serbian soil in proceedings against organizations hostile to Austria Hungary Though Serbia offered to submit the issue to international arbitration Austria Hungary promptly severed diplomatic relations and ordered partial mobilization Home from his cruise on July 27 William learned on July 28 how Serbia had replied to the ultimatum At once he instructed the German Foreign Office to tell Austria Hungary that there was no longer any justification for war and that it should content itself with a temporary occupation of Belgrade But meanwhile the German Foreign Office had been giving such encouragement to Berchtold that already on July 27 he had persuaded Franz Joseph to authorize war against Serbia War was in fact declared on July 28 and Austro Hungarian artillery began to bombard Belgrade the next day Russia then ordered partial mobilization against Austria Hungary and on July 30 when Austria Hungary was riposting conventionally with an order of mobilization on its Russian frontier Russia ordered general mobilization Germany which since July 28 had still been hoping in disregard of earlier warning hints from Great Britain that Austria Hungary s war against Serbia could be localized to the Balkans was now disillusioned insofar as eastern Europe was concerned On July 31 Germany sent a 24 hour ultimatum requiring Russia to halt its mobilization and an 18 hour ultimatum requiring France to promise neutrality in the event of war between Russia and Germany Both Russia and France predictably ignored these demands On August 1 Germany ordered general mobilization and declared war against Russia and France likewise ordered general mobilization The next day Germany sent troops into Luxembourg and demanded from Belgium free passage for German troops across its neutral territory On August 3 Germany declared war against France In the night of August 3 4 German forces invaded Belgium Thereupon Great Britain which had no concern with Serbia and no express obligation to fight either for Russia or for France but was expressly committed to defend Belgium on August 4 declared war against Germany Austria Hungary declared war against Russia on August 5 Serbia against Germany on August 6 Montenegro against Austria Hungary on August 7 and against Germany on August 12 France and Great Britain against Austria Hungary on August 10 and on August 12 respectively Japan against Germany on August 23 Austria Hungary against Japan on August 25 and against Belgium on August 28 Romania had renewed its secret anti Russian alliance of 1883 with the Central Powers on February 26 1914 but now chose to remain neutral Italy had confirmed the Triple Alliance on December 7 1912 but could now propound formal arguments for disregarding it first Italy was not obliged to support its allies in a war of aggression second the original treaty of 1882 had stated expressly that the alliance was not against England On September 5 1914 Russia France and Great Britain concluded the Treaty of London each promising not to make a separate peace with the Central

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-I (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • science | Britannica.com
    Fiction 6 Animals We Ate Into Extinction 10 of the World s Most Dangerous Fish What made you want to look up science To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Paper Fact or Fiction Ants Fact or Fiction The Night Sky Galaxies and Constellations See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style science Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic science APA style science 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic science Harvard style science 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic science Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v science accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic science While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/science (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Galton, Sir Francis | Encyclopedia Britannica
    detail of an oil painting by G Graef 1882 in the National Portrait Gallery London Courtesy of The National Portrait Gallery London MEDIA FOR eugenics Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/eugenics-genetics/images-videos/Sir-Francis-Galton-detail-of-an-oil-painting-by-G/10929 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive



  •