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  • leprosy | Britannica.com
    the mucous membranes of the nose throat and eyes It is caused by the leprosy bacillus Mycobacterium leprae Destruction of the peripheral nerves by the bacillus leads to a loss of sensation which together with progressive tissue degeneration may result in the extremities becoming deformed and eroded In almost all cultures throughout history leprosy has aroused dread and loathing about the prospect of incurable disease and a lifetime of progressive

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/leprosy (2016-02-13)
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  • syphilis | disease | Britannica.com
    person and it can also be acquired by an unborn fetus through infection in the mother A related group of infections collectively known as treponematosis or nonvenereal syphilis is not spread by sexual contact and is localized in warm parts of the world where crowded conditions and poor health care favour its development Treponema pallidum ASM Science Source Photo Researchers The causative organism of venereal syphilis is a slender coiled

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/syphilis (2016-02-13)
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  • Immigration Act | United States [1924] | Britannica.com
    quota limiting the number of immigrants to 164 000 annually 150 000 after July 1 1927 it discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Nineteenth Amendment and Women s Suffrage Presidents of the United States Quiz Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Immigration Act Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Immigration Act United States 1924 APA style Immigration Act 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Immigration Act United States 1924 Harvard style Immigration Act 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Immigration Act United States 1924 Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Immigration Act accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Immigration Act United States 1924 While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Immigration-Act-United-States-1924 (2016-02-13)
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  • sterilization | medicine | Britannica.com
    to reach the tubes Once in place the coils are expanded to block the tubes Over a period of time scar tissue develops around the implants with complete blockage and permanent sterilization taking place within three to six months The procedure requires only local anesthesia Male sterilization is performed in an operation known as vasectomy In this procedure each vas deferens through which sperm is transmitted is severed through a small incision in the scrotum This method gained popularity as a form of contraception beginning in the 1950s Today it is a common procedure in many countries for permanent sterilization Compared with tubal ligation in females vasectomy involves less risk to the subject and is simpler and less expensive However because it involves an incision and stitches it is more invasive than the Essure procedure for females Because a sterilized individual may at some point desire restored fertility the chief drawback of sterilization as a contraceptive means has been its irreversibility Some tubal closures have been reversed using microsurgical techniques but the procedure is difficult and expensive It has had only limited success at restoring a woman s fertility because other damage associated with the original sterilization may prevent successful conception Surgical reversal of vasectomy is somewhat more successful achieving success about 80 percent of the time but the conception rate following such reversal remains low Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 9 2015 You may also be interested in medicine science surgery abortion LASIK photorefractive keratectomy PRK radial keratotomy RK cesarean section hysterectomy coronary artery bypass angioplasty mastectomy Keep exploring Human Health Fact or Fiction Human Health Science Quiz 8 Animals That Suck Blood 9 of the World s Deadliest Mammals What made you want to look up sterilization To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style sterilization Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic sterilization medicine APA style sterilization 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic sterilization medicine Harvard style sterilization 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic sterilization medicine Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v sterilization accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic sterilization medicine While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/sterilization-medicine (2016-02-13)
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  • California | history - geography - state, United States | Britannica.com
    publishing History Exploration Settlement U S colonization and acquisition The Gold Rush The Civil War and after California since c 1900 California constituent state of the United States of America It was admitted as the 31st state of the union on September 9 1850 and by the early 1960s it was the most populous U S state No version of the origin of California s name has been fully accepted but there is wide support for the contention that it derived from an early 16th century Spanish novel Las sergas de Esplandián The Adventures of Esplandián that described a paradisiacal island full of gold and precious stones called California The influence of the Spanish settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries is evident in 100 of 11 638 words Quick Facts Images Videos 1 Excluding military abroad Capital Sacramento Population 1 2010 37 253 956 2014 est 38 802 500 Total area sq mi 163 695 Total area sq km 423 967 Governor Jerry Brown Democrat State nickname Golden State Date of admission Sept 9 1850 State motto Eureka I Have Found It State bird California valley quail State flower California poppy State song I Love You California U S

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/California-state (2016-02-13)
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  • Virginia | history - geography - state, United States | Britannica.com
    Virginia c 1900 50 Virginia since the mid 20th century Virginia constituent state of the United States of America one of the original 13 colonies It is bordered by Maryland to the northeast the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast North Carolina and Tennessee to the south Kentucky to the west and West Virginia to the northwest The state capital is Richmond Virginia was nicknamed the Old Dominion for its loyalty to the exiled Charles II of England during the Puritan Commonwealth and Protectorate 1653 59 It has one of the longest continuous histories among the American states dating from the settlement of Jamestown in the early 17th century It was 100 of 7 433 words Quick Facts Images Videos 1 Excluding military abroad 2 Original state date shown is that of ratification of Constitution Capital Richmond Population 1 2010 8 001 024 2014 est 8 326 289 Total area sq mi 42 775 Total area sq km 110 787 Governor Terry McAuliffe Democrat State nickname Mother of Presidents The Old Dominion Date of admission June 25 1788 2 State motto Sic Semper Tyrannis Thus Always to Tyrants State bird northern cardinal State flower flowering dogwood State song no official state

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Virginia-state (2016-02-13)
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  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. | United States jurist | Britannica.com
    evident A fresh voice was speaking in his words The life of the law has not been logic it has been experience The felt necessities of the time the prevalent moral and political theories intuitions of public policy avowed or unconscious even the prejudices which judges share with their fellow men have had a good deal more to do than the syllogism in determining the rules by which men should be governed The law embodies the story of a nation s development through many centuries and it cannot be dealt with as if it contained only the axioms and corollaries of a book of mathematics In order to know what it is we must know what it has been and what it tends to become We must alternately consult history and existing theories of legislation But the most difficult labor will be to understand the combination of the two into new products at every stage The substance of the law at any given time pretty nearly corresponds so far as it goes with what is then understood to be convenient but its form and machinery and the degree to which it is able to work out desired results depend very much upon its past In January 1882 Holmes was made Weld Professor of Law a chair established for him at Harvard Law School In December of the same year he accepted appointment to the Supreme Judicial Court of the State of Massachusetts knowing the judgeship was his destiny and the function through which he could most influence the development of law He was to sit on that bench for 20 years becoming its chief justice in 1899 In 1902 Pres Theodore Roosevelt appointed him associate justice of the United States Supreme Court He sat on that court to a more advanced age than did any other man retiring on Jan 12 1932 soon before his 91st birthday Fanny Holmes devoted witty wise tactful and perceptive died on April 30 1929 Holmes wrote to his intimate friend the English jurist Sir Frederick Pollock For sixty years she made life poetry for me and at 88 one must be ready for the end I shall keep at work and interested while it lasts though not caring very much for how long He died two days before his 94th birthday Justice of the Supreme Court In that long span of years on the Supreme Court he became acknowledged as one of the most notable jurists of the age in the opinion of many the foremost Often he has been called The Great Dissenter because of the brilliance of his dissenting opinions but the phrase gives a falsely negative emphasis and his penetration and originality are seen as fully in the opinions in which he expressed or concurred in the majority view of the court as in those in which he was in dissent Holmes believed that the making of laws is the business of legislative bodies not of courts and that within constitutional

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Oliver-Wendell-Holmes-Jr (2016-02-13)
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  • Casti Connubii | papal encyclical | Britannica.com
    About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Casti Connubii Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Casti Connubii APA style Casti Connubii 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Casti Connubii Harvard style Casti Connubii 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Casti Connubii Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Casti Connubii accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Casti Connubii While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind Encyclopaedia Britannica articles are written in

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