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  • World Heritage site | Britannica.com
    diversity of habitats rare wildlife Macquarie Island Australia unique geological landforms Rennell Island Solomon Islands unique island ecosystem Shark Bay Australia rare marine and terrestrial life forms Tasmanian Wilderness Australia diversity of habitats rare wildlife Te Wahipounamu South West New Zealand New Zealand Fiordland Mount Aspiring Mount Cook and Westland national parks Uluru Ayers Rock Australia national park sandstone monolith Europe site country notes Acropolis of Athens Greece complex of monuments Alhambra Spain Moorish palace and fortress Altamira Spain prehistoric cave paintings Amiens Cathedral France Gothic style Arles France Roman Romanesque monuments Auschwitz Poland Nazi concentration camp Avebury England prehistoric megalith group Bergen Norway Hanseatic wharf Bern Switzerland medieval city centre Canterbury England cathedral and abbey Chartres Cathedral France Gothic architecture Cologne Cathedral Germany Gothic architecture Delphi Greece remains of sanctuary complex Derbent Russia ancient city fortifications Eyzies de Tayac caves France prehistoric rock dwellings decorated grottoes Ferrara Italy Renaissance architecture Florence Italy historic city centre Fontainebleau France royal château and gardens Giant s Causeway Northern Ireland coastal rock formations Granada Spain Moorish Andalusian structures Hadrian s Villa Italy imperial residence Hadrian s Wall England Roman fortification Herculaneum Italy ruins of Vesuvius destroyed town Istanbul Turkey numerous historic sites Kew Gardens England botanical gardens Kraków Poland medieval city centre Kremlin Russia historical political and religious centre Lascaux France prehistoric cave paintings Lübeck Germany Hanseatic architecture Luxembourg city Luxembourg fortifications and old city Metéora Greece Orthodox Christian monasteries Mont Saint Michel France medieval village and abbey Naples Italy historic city centre Olympia Greece ruins of ancient sacred city Palatine Chapel Aachen Cathedral Germany imperial chapel of Charlemagne Carolingian and Gothic styles Paris France banks of Seine River adjacent monuments Pompeii Italy ruins of Vesuvius destroyed town Porto Portugal historic city centre Prague Czech Republic historic city centre Red Square Russia historical political and religious centre Reims Cathedral France High Gothic architecture Rhodes Greece medieval city centre Rila Monastery Bulgaria cradle of Bulgarian national revival Saint Petersburg Russia historic city centre and monuments Salzburg Austria historic city centre Samos Greece ancient port and temple remains Santiago Spain old city and pilgrimage route Segovia Spain old town and Roman aqueduct Speyer Cathedral Germany burial site of German emperors Romanesque architecture Split Croatia ruins of the Palace of Diocletian other monuments Stabiae Italy ancient town Stonehenge England prehistoric megalith group Tallinn Estonia historic city centre Toledo Spain historic structures Torre Annunziata Italy ruins of Vesuvius destroyed town Transylvania Romania Saxon fortified churches villages Úbeda Spain Renaissance architecture Vatican City Vatican City seat of Roman Catholic Church Venice Italy island city and surrounding lagoon Versailles France royal palace and park Vienna Austria historic and cultural centre Vilnius Lithuania historic centre Visby Sweden historic Hanseatic town Wartburg Germany castle Westminster Abbey England Neo Gothic palace historic abbey North America site country notes Banff Canada national park Rocky Mountains Belize Barrier Reef Belize marine ecosystem Carlsbad Caverns United States national park Guadalupe Mountains Chaco Culture United States national historical park Pueblo ruins Chichén Itzá Mexico Mayan Toltec

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/World-Heritage-site (2016-02-13)
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  • dependency | international relations | Britannica.com
    Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Lives of Famous Writers Fact or Fiction ABCs of English Literary Hodgepodge See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style dependency Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic dependency APA style dependency 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic dependency Harvard style dependency 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic dependency Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v dependency accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic dependency While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/dependency (2016-02-13)
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  • Pacific Ocean | Britannica.com
    body of salt water extending from the Antarctic region in the south to the Arctic in the north and lying between the continents of Asia and Australia on the west and North and South America on the east Of the three oceans that extend northward from the Antarctic continent the Pacific is by far the largest occupying about a third of the surface of the globe Its area excluding adjacent

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Pacific-Ocean (2016-02-13)
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  • Pitcairn Island | island, Pacific Ocean | Britannica.com
    places The official languages are English and Pitkern a mixture of Tahitian and 18th century English Adamstown the chief settlement is on the north coast near Bounty Bay one of the few places where longboats can land The islanders subsist on fish garden produce and crops including sweet potatoes sugarcane taro oranges bananas and coffee There is also some beekeeping The sale of postage stamps coins and local products such as honey to passing ships and via online shopping sites brings cash income as does tourism The island also receives significant budgetary aid from the British government Deposits of manganese iron copper gold silver and zinc have been discovered offshore Absentee landownership and a declining population as islanders emigrate to New Zealand are ongoing problems The Seventh day Adventist Church has been the primary religious tradition since 1887 but church attendance decreased significantly in the late 20th century The island had limited contact with the outside world until residents obtained Internet access in 2002 In 1898 the settlement was placed under the jurisdiction of the British high commissioner for the western Pacific In 1952 administrative responsibility was transferred to the governor of the British crown colony of Fiji When Fiji became independent in 1970 the British high commissioner in New Zealand was appointed governor of Pitcairn administering it with the aid of a locally elected island council In 1999 British police began an investigation into cases of alleged child sexual abuse on the island after an underage girl accused two island men of rape The investigation uncovered a substantial history of instances of abuse there that involved a large number of residents as offenders or victims In October 2004 seven men were tried on more than 50 counts of various sexual offenses and six were found guilty Additional trials held several years later resulted in two further convictions of men who no longer lived on the island In 2010 the island enacted a new constitution whose provisions included the codification of residents rights and freedoms and the creation of the position of attorney general appointed by the governor Land area Pitcairn Henderson Ducie and Oeno islands 13 7 square miles 35 5 square km Pop 2008 66 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in New Zealand Papua New Guinea Hawaii Fiji Pacific Islands Tonga New Caledonia Vanuatu Melanesian culture Guam French Polynesia Palau Keep exploring Oceania Fact or Fiction British Culture and Politics Hit the Road Quiz Food for Thought The Origins of 6 Favorite Foods 8 Incredible Swimming Feats What made you want to look up Pitcairn Island To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Pitcairn-Island (2016-02-13)
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  • Chile | history - geography | Britannica.com
    Plate was overridden by the South American Plate In the Cenozoic Era beginning about 65 million years ago active volcanism and the injection of effusive rocks laid down the paleovolcanic materials rhyolites and dacites that contain the rich copper iron silver molybdenum and manganese ores of Chile Also of Cenozoic origin are the coal deposits of central Chile Later in the Cenozoic Era the uplift of the Andes continued accompanied by further outbursts of volcanism This active tectonism led to the separation of the Andes from the older coastal ranges and the formation of the intermediate depression At the beginning of the Quaternary Period about 2 6 million years ago the Andes had reached a higher elevation than at present During the global cooling that occurred from the beginning of the Quaternary the higher summits were covered by ice masses whose glacier tongues descended into the intermediate depression Rich sediments were washed down the glacial valleys and deposited into the longitudinal depression The numerous lakes in the Lake District of south central Chile are remnants of the ice melting that began some 17 000 years ago Since the advent of the Holocene Epoch 11 700 years ago the Chilean Andes have not changed significantly but they still experience uplift and episodic volcanic eruptions Licancábur ESO NAOJ NRAO The Andes of northern Chile to latitude 27 S are wide and arid with heights generally between 16 500 and 19 500 feet 5 000 and 6 000 metres Most of the higher summits are extinct volcanoes such as the Llullaillaco 22 109 feet Licancábur 19 409 feet and Ojos del Salado 22 614 feet After the last glaciation the melting waters collected in shallow lakes in the intermediate elevated basins Today these salt lake basins salares the most noted of which is the Atacama Salt Flat are evaporating to the point of disappearing Farther south the mountains decrease somewhat in height but in central Chile between latitudes 32 and 34 30 S they heighten again with peaks reaching 21 555 feet at Mount Tupungato and 17 270 feet at Maipo Volcano All of these summits are capped by eternal snow that feeds the numerous rivers of central Chile Winter sports are pursued in the Andes near Santiago Chile Llaima volcano Contunico ZDF Enterprises GmbH Mainz Most of the highest mountains between 34 30 and 42 S are volcanoes ranging between 8 700 and 11 500 feet Some of them are extinct while others are still active Among them are Copahue Llaima Osorno and the highest Mount Tronador at an elevation of 11 453 feet Their perfect conical shapes reflecting on the quiet waters in the Lake District provide some of the most splendid scenery in temperate South America In southern Chile below latitude 42 S the Andes lose elevation and their summits become more separated as a consequence of the Quaternary glacial erosion Nordenskjold Lake Art Wolfe Getty Images Farther south is Chilean Patagonia a loosely defined area that includes the subregion

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Chile (2016-02-13)
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  • Mount Fuji | Britannica.com
    Fuji Hakone Izu National Park Yamanashi prefecture central Honshu Cherry cherry trees near Mount Fuji Japan Cherry trees near Mount Fuji Japan Lake Sai Lake Sai on the northern slope of Mount Fuji Yamanashi prefecture Japan Mount Fuji Mount Fuji with Lake Kawaguchi in the foreground Chūbu region central Honshu Shinkansen Japan s Shinkansen bullet train passing on a bridge with Mount Fuji in the You may also be interested

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Mount-Fuji/images-videos (2016-02-13)
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  • Japan: Fuji, Mount | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Fuji Shizuoka prefecture Japan with Mount Fuji rising in the background Corbis RF MEDIA FOR Mount Fuji Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Mount-Fuji/images-videos/Field-of-green-tea-growing-near-Fuji-Shizuoka-prefecture-Japan/97222 (2016-02-13)
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  • Japan | history - geography | Britannica.com
    scarps and flexure slopes that descend in step formation to the adjacent lowlands Coalescing alluvial fans cone shaped deposits of alluvium that run together are formed where rivers emerge from the mountains When the rivers are large enough to extend their courses to the sea low deltaic plains develop in front of the fans this occurs most frequently where the rivers empty into shallow and sheltered bays as in the deltas of Kantō Kwanto Nōbi and Ōsaka In most places however fan surfaces plunge directly into the sea and are separated by low sandy beach ridges Dissected plains are common Intense disturbances have caused many former alluvial fans deltas and sea bottoms to be substantially uplifted to form flat topped uplands such as those found in the Kantō Plain Frequently the uplands have been overlain with volcanic ash as in the Kantō and Tokachi plains Geologic framework Fuji Mount Earl and Nazima Kowall Corbis Japan is one of the world s most geologically unstable areas The country experiences some 1 000 tremors annually most of them minor though major quakes as in Tokyo Yokohama in 1923 and Kōbe in 1995 cause considerable loss of life and widespread destruction Violent volcanic eruptions occur frequently and at least 60 volcanoes have been active within historical time Volcanoes born since 1900 include Shōwa Volcano on Hokkaido and Myōjin Rock off the Beyoneisu or Bayonnaise Rocks in the Pacific Among the major eruptions since 1980 are those of Mounts O 1983 and Mihara 1986 in the Izu Islands and Mount Unzen 1991 in Kyushu The country s abundant hot springs are mostly of volcanic origin Many of the gigantic volcanoes are conical in shape e g Mount Fuji while others form steep lava domes e g Mounts Dai and Unzen Conspicuous shield volcanoes broad gently sloping volcanic cones are rare and extensive lava plateaus are lacking One of the characteristics of the volcanic areas is the prevalence of calderas large circular basin shaped volcanic depressions especially in the northeast and southwest many of which are filled with water such as Lakes Kutcharo Towada and Ashi The cause of this instability indeed the reason for Japan s existence is the tectonic movement of several of the Earth s major crustal plates in the vicinity of the archipelago Most important is the subduction sinking of the Pacific Plate in the north and the Philippine Plate in the south beneath the Eurasian Plate upon which Japan lies The movements of these plates have formed six mountain arcs off the northeastern coast of Asia from northeast to southwest the Chishima Range of the Kuril Islands the Karafuto Sakhalin Mountain system of Hokkaido the Northeast Southwest and Shichito Mariana ranges of Honshu and the Ryukyu Island formations The major physiographic regions Hotaka Mount T Okuda Aspect Picture Library London These mountain arcs in turn generally correspond to Japan s major physiographic regions the four regions of Japan proper Hondo Hokkaido Northeastern Tōhoku Central Chūbu and Southwestern and the Ryukyu and Bonin archipelagoes The Hokkaido Region was formed by the coalescence of the Chishima and Karafuto arcs The backbone of the region is aligned north to south The Chishima arc enters Hokkaido as three volcanic chains with elevations above 6 000 feet 1 800 metres these are arranged in ladder formation and terminate in the heart of the region Chief components of the mountain system are the Kitami Mountains in the north and the Hidaka Range in the south Towada Lake Asao Fujita Bon The Northeastern Region nearly coincides with the northeastern mountain arc and stretches from southwest Hokkaido to central Honshu Several rows of mountains lowlands and volcanic zones are closely oriented to the general trend of the insular arc of this region which is convex toward the Pacific Ocean The Kitakami and Abukuma ranges on the east coast are somewhat oblique to the general trend they are chiefly composed of older rocks and plateaulike landforms survive in the centre In the western zone the formations conform to the general trend and are composed of a basement complex overlain by thick accumulations of young rocks that have been subjected to mild folding The Ōu Mountains capped with towering volcanoes that form the main part of the East Japan Volcanic Belt are separated from the coastal ranges by the Kitakami Abukuma lowlands to the east and by a row of basins in the west Hida Range Σ64 The Central Region of central and western Honshu is dominated by the coalescence of the Northeast Southwest and Shichito Mariana mountain arcs near Mount Fuji The trend of the mountains lowlands and volcanic zones intersects the island almost at right angles The most notable physical feature is the Fossa Magna a great rift lowland that traverses the widest portion of Honshu from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific It is partially occupied by mountains and volcanoes of the southern part of the East Japan Volcanic Belt Intermontane basins are sandwiched between the lofty partially glaciated central mountain knots of the Akaishi Kiso and Hida ranges which together form the Japanese Alps to the west and the Kantō Range to the east The shallow structural basin of the Kantō Plain which stretches to the east of the Kantō Range is the most extensive lowland of Japan the immense metropolis of Tokyo spreads out from its centre covering a vast area of the plain Okayama coast of the Inland Sea Centphoto FPG The Southwestern Region which includes western Honshu Chūgoku as well as Shikoku and northern Kyushu generally coincides with the southwestern mountain arc and the general trend of highlands and lowlands is roughly convex toward the Sea of Japan The region is divided into the Inner Zone formed by complex faulting and the Outer Zone formed by warping The Inner Zone is chiefly composed of ancient granites rocks of Paleozoic age 250 to 540 million years old and geologically more recent volcanic rocks which are arranged in complicated juxtaposition The Outer Zone consisting

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Japan (2016-02-13)
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