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  • Aksum | Britannica.com
    obelisks Obelisks in Northern Stelae Park Aksum Ethiopia You may also be interested in Media for Africa Media for Addis Ababa Media for eastern Africa Media for Lalībela Keep Exploring Swords Fact or Fiction Canadian Football League 9 Unsportsmanlike Sportsmen 7 Drugs that Changed the World The Human Body The Human Eye About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MEDIA FOR

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  • View History: Aksum | Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    History Culture Language Religion Surabhi Sinha Oct 23 2013 Added photograph Amy Tikkanen May 31 2013 Added information on the re erection of the stolen obelisk Kathleen Kuiper Oct 27 2008 Media added EB Editors Jul 10 2008 View Changes Revised By Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See

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  • Feedback: Aksum | Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    for improving this article Let us know We d also like to know what sources you ve found that support the changes you d like to see Your feedback has been submitted successfully There was a problem submitting your feedback Please try again later Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th

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  • Tablet, Chapel of the | Encyclopedia Britannica
    the Church of St Mary of Zion Aksum Eth Martin Gray National Geographic Getty Images MEDIA FOR Aksum Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully

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  • Adwa | Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    About Coffee 10 Incredible Uses for Eggs What made you want to look up Adwa To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Sweet Tooth Fact or Fiction Association Football Viruses Bacteria and Diseases See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Adwa Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Adwa APA style Adwa 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Adwa Harvard style Adwa 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Adwa Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Adwa accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Adwa While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Adwa (2016-02-13)
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  • Aksum: obelisks | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Stelae Park Aksum Ethiopia Jialiang Gao www peace on earth org MEDIA FOR Aksum Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Aksum-Ethiopia/images-videos/Obelisks-in-Northern-Stelae-Park-Aksum-Ethiopia/144036 (2016-02-13)
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  • obelisk | pillar | Britannica.com
    stone During the time of the Roman emperors many obelisks were transported from Egypt to what is now Italy At least a dozen went to the city of Rome itself including one now in the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano that was originally erected by Thutmose III reigned 1479 1426 bce at Karnak With a height of 105 feet 32 metres and a square base with sides of 9 feet 2 7 metres that tapers to a square top with sides of 6 feet 2 inches 1 88 metres it weighs approximately 230 tons and is the largest ancient obelisk extant Cleopatra s Needle Library of Congress Washington D C Digital File Number cph 3a49369 Late in the 19th century the government of Egypt divided a pair of obelisks giving one to the United States and the other to Great Britain One now stands in Central Park New York City and the other on the Thames embankment in London Although known as Cleopatra s Needles they have no historical connection with the Egyptian queen They were dedicated at Heliopolis by Thutmose III and bear inscriptions to him and to Ramses II reigned c 1279 c 1213 bce Carved from the typical red granite they stand 69 feet 6 inches 21 2 metres high have a rectangular base that is 7 feet 9 inches by 7 feet 8 inches 2 36 metres by 2 33 metres and weigh 180 tons The quarrying and erecting of these pillars is a measure of the mechanical genius and the unlimited manpower available to the ancient Egyptians Washington Monument Stanford Apseloff A well known example of a modern obelisk is the Washington Monument which was completed in Washington D C in 1884 It towers 555 feet 169 metres and contains an observatory and interior elevator and stairs Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in religion Egyptian religion Middle Eastern religion mummy Arabian religion Mesopotamian religion ancient Iranian religion mortuary temple Syrian and Palestinian religion ka ba Anatolian religion Keep exploring Art Architecture Fact or Fiction Architecture and Building Materials Fact or Fiction Ultimate Art Quiz 7 Celebrities You Didn t Know Were Inventors 9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens What made you want to look up obelisk To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style obelisk Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com technology obelisk APA style obelisk 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com technology obelisk Harvard style obelisk 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com technology obelisk Chicago Manual

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  • city | Britannica.com
    the role of the merchant was central in catalyzing the long distance trade of commodities and staple goods Before the year 1000 contacts with rich Byzantine and Islamic areas in the Levant had revitalized the mercantile power in Venice which grew wealthy from its command of the profitable route to the Holy Land during the Crusades Meanwhile merchant communities had attached themselves to the more accessible castle towns and dioceses in northern Italy and on the main routes to the Rhineland and Champagne They later appeared along the rivers of Flanders and northern France and on the west east road from Cologne to Magdeburg see Hanseatic League In all of these towns trade was the key to their growth and development It was no coincidence that the 12th and 13th centuries which saw the founding of more new towns than any time between the fall of Rome and the Industrial Revolution also witnessed a singular upsurge toward civic autonomy Throughout western Europe towns acquired various kinds of municipal institutions loosely grouped under the designation commune Broadly speaking the history of the medieval towns is that of the rising merchant classes seeking to free their communities from lordly jurisdiction and to secure their government to themselves Wherever monarchical power was strong the merchants had to be content with a municipal status but elsewhere they created city states Taking advantage of renewed conflict between popes and emperors they allied with local nobility to establish communal self government in the largest cities of Lombardy Tuscany and Liguria In Germany the city councils sometimes usurped the rights of higher clergy and nobility Freiburg im Breisgau obtained its exemplary charter of liberties in 1120 The movement spread to Lübeck and later to associated Hanse towns on the Baltic and North seas touching even the Christian colonial towns east of the Elbe and Saale rivers In the 13th century the great towns of Bruges Ghent and Ypres creditors of the counts of Flanders virtually governed the entire province In France revolutionary uprisings directed against nobility and clergy sometimes established free communes but most communities were content with a franchise from their sovereign despite their limitations compared with the relative liberty of English boroughs after the Norman Conquest Finally the corporate freedom of the towns brought emancipation to individuals When bishops in the older German cities treated newcomers as serfs the emperor Henry V affirmed the principle Stadtluft macht frei German City air brings freedom in charters for Speyer and Worms such new towns founded on the lands of lay and clerical lords offered freedom and land to settlers who took up residence for more than a year and a day In France the villes neuves new towns and bastides medieval French towns laid out on a rectangular grid likewise conferred rights on servile persons In the 14th century the growth of urban centres subsided as Europe suffered a series of shocks that included famine from 1315 to 1317 the emergence of the Black Death which spread across Europe starting in 1347 and a period of political anarchy and economic decline that continued through the 15th century Turkish encroachments on the routes to Asia worsened conditions in town and country alike Europe turned inward upon itself and except for a few large centres activity in the marketplace was depressed At a time when local specialization and interregional exchange required more liberal trade policies craft protectionism and corporate particularism in the cities tended to hobble the course of economic growth The artisan and labouring classes moreover grew strong enough to challenge the oligarchical rule of the wealthy burghers and gentry through disruptions such as the Revolt of the Ciompi 1378 while social warfare peaked in peasant uprisings typified by the Jacquerie 1358 but these tended to be short lived revolts that failed to bring enduring social change The era of decline was relieved some argue by the slow process of individual emancipation and the cultural efflorescence of the Renaissance which effectively grew out of the unique urban environment of Italy and was strengthened by a high regard for the Classical heritage These values laid the intellectual basis for the great age of geographic and scientific discovery exemplified in the new technologies of gunpowder mining printing and navigation Not before the triumph of princely government in fact did political allegiance economic interests and spiritual authority again become centred in a viable unit of organization the absolutist nation state The city and the nation state The virtue of absolutism in the early modern period lay in its ability to utilize the new technologies on a large scale Through the centralization of power economy and belief it brought order and progress to Europe and provided a framework in which individual energies could once more be channeled to a common end While the nation stripped the cities of their remaining pretensions to political and economic independence heretofore symbolized in their walls and tariff barriers it created larger systems of interdependence in which territorial division of labour could operate National wealth also benefited from the new mercantilist policies but all too often the wealth generated by cities was captured by the state in taxes and then dissipated either in war or by supporting the splendour of court life and the Baroque glory of palaces and churches Only in colonial areas notably the Americas did the age of expansion see the development of many new cities and it is significant that the capitals and ports of the colonizing nations experienced their most rapid growth during these years Under absolutist regimes however a few large political and commercial centres grew at the expense of smaller outlying communities and the rural hinterlands By the 18th century the mercantile classes had grown increasingly disenchanted with monarchical rule Merchants resented their lack of political influence and assured prestige and they objected to outmoded regulations that created barriers to commerce especially those that hindered their efforts to link commercial operations with improved production systems such as factories Eventually the

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