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  • Kebra Negast | Ethiopian literary work | Britannica.com
    setting of the 14th century work Kebra Negast Glory of the Kings which relates the tradition of the transference of the Ark of the Covenant from Jerusalem to Aksum by King Menilek I legendary son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba Makeda According to tradition the Church of St FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES A Study of Composers Pop Culture Quiz Characters in Literature See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Kebra Negast Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Kebra Negast APA style Kebra Negast 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Kebra Negast Harvard style Kebra Negast 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Kebra Negast Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Kebra Negast accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Kebra Negast While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below

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  • Ark of the Covenant | religion | Britannica.com
    in the Holy of Holies inside the Tabernacle of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem and was seen only by the high priest of the Israelites on Yom Kippur the Day of Atonement The Levites priestly functionaries carried the Ark with them during the Hebrews wanderings in the wilderness Following the conquest of Canaan the Promised Land the Ark resided at Shiloh but from time to time it was 100 of

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  • Menilek I | legendary emperor of Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    is considered the daughter of a Chinese king and a peri According to Ethiopian tradition Sheba called Makeda bore Solomon a son Menilek I who founded the royal dynasty of Ethiopia FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Exploring French History Religion High and Mighty Quiz What s In A Name See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Menilek I Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Menilek I APA style Menilek I 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Menilek I Harvard style Menilek I 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Menilek I Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Menilek I accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Menilek I While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources

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  • Queen of Sheba | queen of Saba | Britannica.com
    the queen Tradition does not agree as to whether Solomon himself married Bilqīs or gave her in marriage to a Hamdānī tribesman She did however become a believer The story of Sheba which was probably derived from Jewish tradition also appears among the Persians where she is considered the daughter of a Chinese king and a peri According to Ethiopian tradition Sheba called Makeda bore Solomon a son Menilek I who founded the royal dynasty of Ethiopia Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 5 2014 You may also be interested in Abraha monarchy government Qurʾān Old Testament head of state Sabaʾ Keep exploring Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Famous People in History Mythology Legend and Folklore Editor Picks Our Favorite Childhood Books Editor Picks 9 Queer Writers You Should Read What made you want to look up Queen of Sheba To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Queen of Sheba Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Queen of Sheba APA style Queen of Sheba 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Queen of Sheba Harvard style Queen of Sheba 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Queen of Sheba Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Queen of Sheba accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Queen

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  • Africa | continent | Britannica.com
    on the west by the Atlantic Ocean on the north by the Mediterranean Sea on the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean and on the south by the mingling waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans Africa s total land area is approximately 11 724 000 square miles 30 365 000 square km and the continent measures about 5 000 miles 8 000 km from north to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Africa (2016-02-13)
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  • Addis Ababa | national capital, Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    located in the city are the Museum of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies operated by the university the National School of Music the National Library and Archives palaces of former emperors and governmental ministries Several international organizations have their headquarters in the city the most important are the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa both located in Africa Hall Addis Ababa s manufactures include textiles shoes food beverages wood products plastics and chemical products Most of Ethiopia s service industries are also located in the city Banking and insurance services are concentrated in Addis Ababa and the nation s major newspapers are published there The bulk of the export and import trade of Ethiopia is channeled through Addis Ababa on its way to or from the ports of Djibouti on the Gulf of Aden or Asseb Eritrea on the Red Sea The city is also the collection and distribution centre for much of the country s internal trade The Mercato located in the western part of the city is one of the largest open air markets in Africa The Piazza in the central city and Bole Road to the southeast feature more expensive European style shopping centres Addis Ababa is the hub of the nation s transportation network Several roads connect it to other major cities the only railway runs to Djibouti The city is also served by an international airport Formally designated recreational areas are limited but there are many open spaces suitable for recreational purposes A small zoo is located in a park near the university and the lake region which is a short drive to the south has facilities for boating waterskiing bathing and bird watching The most popular spectator sport is football soccer Basketball volleyball and other sports are also played chiefly by school teams Pop 1994 2 112 737 2006 est 2 973 000 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Africa eastern Africa Lalībela Aksum Aksum Hadar Ogaden Gonder Lake Tana Hārer Tigray Shewa Keep exploring Capitals Cities Fact or Fiction Hit the Road Quiz World Cities 7 Vestigial Features of the Human Body 8 Incredible Swimming Feats What made you want to look up Addis Ababa To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Addis Ababa Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Addis Ababa APA style Addis Ababa 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Addis Ababa Harvard style Addis Ababa 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Addis Ababa

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  • eastern Africa | region, Africa | Britannica.com
    them Thanks to the city s growing success from the end of the 18th century onward in turning itself into the main entrepôt for the trade in the area south of Mombasa Zanzibar soon rivaled Mombasa as the focal point for the whole coastline As such it was both developed and used by Sayyid Saʿīd ibn Sulṭān of Oman as the base for his growing ambitions Having won the succession to Muscat after an internecine struggle following his father s death in 1804 Saʿīd spent much of the next two decades establishing his authority there In this he was assisted by the British who were much concerned to safeguard their route to India which ran close to Muscat on its way past the Persian Gulf Then in 1822 he wrested Pemba from Mazrui control and by 1824 had installed a Muscat garrison in Pate as well thus bringing to an end the previous influence that the Mazrui had exercised Sensing the increasing threat from Muscat the Mazrui appealed to the British for assistance Though their application was formally denied a British naval officer Captain W F Owen on his own initiative raised a British flag of protection over Mombasa in 1824 Since the British had no desire formally to extend their authority to East Africa at this time let alone to break with their ally Saʿīd it was hauled down in 1826 This gave Saʿīd his opportunity and in 1828 1829 and 1833 he mounted assaults upon Mombasa But it was only when he successfully intervened in a dynastic dispute among the Mazrui which followed on the death of a liwali in 1835 that he was able in 1837 to fasten his control over Mombasa and to topple the Mazrui from their position His dominion along the whole coastline thus became assured and after over a century s interval the East African littoral once more found itself dominated by a single outside power Though this outcome owed much to the inability of the coastal towns to unite against an invader it owed much as well to the striking personality of Saʿīd himself to his investment in a navy to his force of Baloch soldiers with which he supplemented his Omani levies and to the support he received from the British It also stemmed from his intimate association with the major economic developments then taking place along the East African coast These began with a marked growth in the previously marginal slave trade particularly at first in the Kilwa region more especially from 1780 to 1810 as a result of French demand for slaves in Mauritius and Bourbon This was succeeded by the discovery that cloves could be successfully grown on Zanzibar and by the development of flourishing plantations British pressure on Saʿīd to end the export of slaves to Christian markets came to fruition in 1822 when he reluctantly signed what became known as the Moresby Treaty In the event however it made very little difference either on the coast or in the interior since slaves were being required in growing numbers for the plantations on both Zanzibar and Pemba and for export to the Persian Gulf and beyond Increasing commercial activity brought Sayyid Saʿīd sufficient wealth to buy ships and pay troops It also attracted to the East African coast migrant Indians who became heavily involved in the country s economic expansion and together with the Arabs who were beginning to make profits from their clove plantations Indians helped to finance the new upcountry trading caravans The increased economic activity that centred upon the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba served to enhance the importance of the smaller towns that stood on the mainland opposite It also attracted an influx of European traders of which the most important were the Americans They were the first Westerners to conclude a trade agreement with Saʿīd 1833 and the first also to establish a consul at Zanzibar 1837 Their prime achievement was to capture the cloth trade to East Africa so that cheap cotton cloth thenceforth came to be known there as Americani The British followed with a trade agreement in 1839 and a consul in 1841 The French made similar provisions in 1844 and some Germans from the Hanseatic towns moved in at about the same time British trade however never flourished and in fact died away but by 1856 the United States and France were both making purchases in East Africa of more than 500 000 a year while exports to India particularly British India were higher still Some of the main items of trade such as ivory were traditional but copal sesame cloves cowries hides and coconut oil were also important Because of this increased activity Saʿīd s economy in due course became less dependent upon the export of slaves and he therefore showed himself more ready than he might otherwise have been to accept the so called Hamerton Treaty of 1845 by which the export of slaves to his Arabian dominions was forbidden Since by this time the revenues from Saʿīd s East African territories had overtaken those he received from Oman it is understandable that in 1840 he should have transferred his own capital from Muscat to Zanzibar At his death in 1856 Zanzibar was firmly established as the East African coast s main centre from which major new incursions into the interior had begun to radiate extensively The interior before the colonial era The coast was never more than East Africa s fringe Beyond the harsh nyika or wilderness which lay immediately inland and was nowhere pierced by a long navigable river thornbush country extended to the south sometimes interspersed with pleasanter plains toward the centre while to the north cooler forested highlands ran into harsher country Westward lay the Great Rift Valley and beyond the regions of the great lakes whence the Nile ran northward through its usually impassable marshes Since there are no written records antedating the last century or so for this region its history has to be deduced from often uncertain linguistic cultural and anthropological evidence from oral traditions where they are available which at best is only for recent centuries and from archaeological findings Since investigations and analyses are still at a very early stage and since the first hypotheses have proved vulnerable to criticism the statements that follow must be only tentative Furthermore all accounts of tribal migration must allow for innumerable short run moves and may refer only to small if important minorities They must also take account of probable interactions with other peoples en route and often indeed of extensive absorption Above all care must be exercised over anachronistic concepts of tribe Moreover bolder categories such as Bantu are strictly only linguistic and must be treated with caution Two features of the pre 19th century period may be stressed first although it seems to have been in this part of Africa that humans first developed in the three or four most recent millennia the key innovations in human evolution seem to have occurred elsewhere second the extensive agricultural revolution in East Africa which took place during this time had the vital consequence that sizable populations grew up in areas of adequate rainfall which could not be easily brushed aside by subsequent alien invaders During the earlier stages of the Stone Age down to about 50 000 bce hand ax industries were established in the Rift Valley areas of Kenya and of Tanzania especially at Olduvai Gorge and along the Kagera River in Uganda During the Mesolithic period thence to c 10 000 bce new stone tool making techniques evolved and the use of fire was mastered Spreading to other parts of East Africa in the Neolithic period humans clustered into specialized hunting and gathering communities from which may have developed some still existing ways of life The largest number of relevant sites is close to the homeland of the Hadzapi the last contemporary hunters and gatherers and to that of the Sandawe who are physically and linguistically akin to the San of southern Africa Remnants of other hunting and gathering communities such as the Twa and Mbuti of western Uganda or at least the memory of them are found in many places Latterly they often lived in precisely those highland regions where agriculture and animal domestication in East Africa first occurred Food production and the keeping of cattle seem to have begun in the highland and Rift Valley regions of Kenya and of northern Tanzania in the 1st millennium bce and to have derived from peoples who were probably southern Cushites from Ethiopia Some traces of these interlopers remain among for example the Iraqw of Tanzania and it may be that the age old systems of irrigation found throughout this region owe their origins to this period as well Agriculture preceded the smelting of iron in these areas and hunting and gathering continued to be important for the domestic economy It looks as if in due course southern Cushites spread deep into what is now southern Tanzania but so far as has been ascertained food production did not develop in the period bce elsewhere in Tanzania nor in what is now Uganda The spread of ironworking and the Bantu migrations It is still far from clear when and whence iron smelting spread to the East African interior Certainly there was no swift or complete transfer from stone to iron At Engaruka for example in that same region of the Rift Valley in northern Tanzania a major Iron Age site which was both an important and concentrated agricultural settlement using irrigation seems to have been occupied for over a thousand years Significantly its styles of pottery do not seem to have been related to those that became widespread in the 1st millennium ce It is a reasonable assumption that its inhabitants were Cushitic speakers but it seems that its major period belongs to the middle of the 2nd millennium ce The major occurrences of the 1st millennium ce involved the spread of agriculture more particularly the cultivation of the banana to the remaining areas of East Africa Simultaneously or perhaps previously went the spread of ironworking and fairly certainly too the diffusion of Bantu languages except in the core of the Cushitic wedge and to the north of an east west line through Lake Kyoga If as seems probable proto Bantu languages had their origins in the eastern interior of West Africa it does not seem inconceivable that over a lengthy period of time some of its speakers probably carrying with them a knowledge of grain agriculture and conceivably a knowledge of ironworking should have diffused along the tributaries of the Congo River to the savanna country south of the Congo forest into what is now the region of Katanga Shaba in Congo Kinshasa Nor does it seem inconceivable that the banana originally an Indonesian plant particularly suitable in tropical conditions should have spread to that same region up the Zambezi valley certainly the Malayo Polynesian influences in Madagascar in the 1st millennium ce are well attested in other respects At all events the linguistic and archaeological arguments for a fairly rapid eastward and northward expansion during the 1st millennium ce from the Katanga area now have wide acceptance Bantu languages came to dominate most of this region many Cushitic speakers in what is now Tanzania seem to have switched over to them or to have been eliminated More varieties of banana developed in East Africa than anywhere else in the world Ironworking was soon prevalent and where rainfall soil nutrients and the absence of the tsetse fly allowed population growth increased decisively The early interlacustrine kingdoms Sometime before the middle of the 2nd millennium ce some of the most interesting developments were occurring in the interlacustrine area i e the region bounded by Lakes Victoria Kyoga Albert Edward and Tanganyika Vague accounts of rulerships in various parts of this area date from the first half of the 2nd millennium ce and it is at least possible that they existed though they may well have been judicial arbitrators or ritual leaders rather than more strictly political figures Whether they had their origins in roving Cushitic or Nilotic cattle keepers from the north or northeast as has been variously suggested is impossible to say though some such explanation would not be difficult to believe What seems certain is that about the middle of the present millennium a sudden cultural political climax was marked by a short lived though widely acknowledged dynasty of Chwezi rulers The Chwezi people are frequently associated with the great earthwork sites at Bigo Mubende Munsa Kibengo and Bugoma in western Uganda That at Mubende seems to have been a religious centre The largest is at Bigo where a ditch system more than 6 5 miles 10 5 km long some of it cut out of rock encloses a large grazing area on a riverbank It looks as if it comprised both a royal capital and a well defended cattle enclosure Its construction must certainly have required a considerable mobilization of labour which apart from indicating that it must have been the work of a substantial political power would support the view that the distinction between cultivators and a pastoral aristocracy which later became typical of this area is of very long standing Radioactive carbon dating suggests Bigo was occupied from the mid 14th to the early 16th century This correlates with the evidence of oral tradition that around the turn of the 15th century the Chwezi were supplanted in the north by Luo rulers of the Bito clan who provided the dynasties that ruled in Bunyoro Koki Buganda and parts of Busoga and that they were superseded to the south by various Hima rulers of the Hinda clan in Ankole Buhaya Busubi and around to the southeast of Lake Victoria Under these and the corresponding Nyiginya dynasty in Rwanda powerful traditional rulerships among the interlacustrine Bantu persisted after the middle of the 20th century Their relatively common experience was reinforced in the aftermath of the Chwezi dynasty by the prevalence among them of a variety of often commemorative Chwezi religious movements In some areas these took the form of spirit possession cults in others pantheons of deities were developed In various guises sometimes in support of the existing political order sometimes against it they spread into Bunyoro Buganda Busoga Ankole Buha Rwanda Burundi and even to Nyamwezi country in what is now Tanzania So extensive a diffusion of a basically common religious tradition in any other part of the East African interior before the much later arrival of Islam and Christianity was rare indeed The chieftainships of the southern savanna In northwestern Tanzania dynasties of a pre Chwezi kind apparently spread from the interlacustrine area during the middle centuries of the present millennium Ntemi as the office was called became prevalent among both the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi They the ntemi were probably as much ritual leaders as political rulers certainly they do not seem to have exercised before the 19th century a state authority that was characteristic of the later interlacustrine rulers By roughly the 16th century there may have been an extension of this style of chieftainship southward into southwestern Tanzania At all events the chiefly groups among the Nyamwanga the Nyika the Safwa the Ngonde the Kinga the Bena the Pangwa the Hehe and the Sangu have common traditions of origin and it seems clear that they are to be distinguished from their significantly different matrilineal neighbours in southern Tanzania Zambia and Congo Kinshasa There also seem to have been secondary movements of ntemi like institutions in the 18th century to Ugogo Safwa Kaguru Kilimanjaro and Usambara At the same time the development of chieftainships in these other areas of Tanzania may originally have occurred independently of influences from elsewhere Northeastern Bantu The spread of some Bantu to the northern coast of East Africa during the 1st millennium ce is supported by the memory of a settlement area named Shungwaya situated to the north of the Tana River Shungwaya appears to have had its heyday as a Bantu settlement area between perhaps the 12th and the 15th centuries after which it was subjected to a full scale invasion of Cushitic speaking Oromo peoples from the Horn of Africa There is controversy as to whether the ancestors of the present Kamba and Kikuyu of Kenya were from Shungwaya but it would seem that they probably broke away from there some time before the Oromo onslaught It has been suggested indeed that the Kikuyu spread through their present territories from 1400 to 1800 The old Cushitic wedge checked them from spreading farther westward This extended as it would seem to have done for two or more millennia past over both sides of the Kenyan and northern Tanzanian Rift Valley but in the middle of the present millennium it was subjected to one of the multiple waves of invading Nilotic peoples who were partly agriculturists and partly pastoralists that moved into much of the northern and northwestern parts of East Africa The Nilotic migrations The supersession of the Chwezi by Luo dynasties in the northern interlacustrine region at about the end of the 15th century resulted from the migrations of Nilotic peoples southward in this instance it has seemed from a cradleland in what are now Sudan and South Sudan For some 18 generations or so Bito rulers of Luo origin held sway over the kingdom of Bunyoro Kitara to the east of Lake Albert Though at first their dominion seems to have been widely extended they began to be rivaled in the 16th and 17th centuries by the rise of Buganda under its ruler or kabaka Working on interior lines and based upon a particularly fertile region Buganda developed a strength and cohesion that from the 18th century onward was to make it with Rwanda one of the two most formidable kingdoms of the region The

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  • Lalibela | Ethiopia | Britannica.com
    Ethiopian preeminence Restoration work in the 20th century indicated that some of the churches may have been used originally as fortifications and royal residences Amhara Amhara market Victor Englebert The churches attract thousands of pilgrims during the major holy day celebrations and are tended by Coptic priests The town also serves as a market centre for the Amhara people Pop 2007 est 15 363 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Africa Ethiopia eastern Africa Aksum Lake Tana Hadar Omo River Simien Mountains Lake Shala Awash River Amhara Plateau Bale Mountains Keep exploring Africa at Random Fact or Fiction Capitals Cities Fact or Fiction Hit the Road Quiz 6 Exotic Diseases That Could Come to a Town Near You The Canadian Football League 10 Claims to Fame What made you want to look up Lal ī bela To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Lalibela Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Lalibela Ethiopia APA style Lalibela 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Lalibela Ethiopia Harvard style Lalibela 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Lalibela Ethiopia Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Lalibela accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Lalibela Ethiopia While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there

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