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  • Black Panther Party -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
    came into the national spotlight in May 1967 when a small group of its members led by its chair Seale marched fully armed into the California state legislature in Sacramento Emboldened by the view that African Americans had a constitutional right to bear arms based on the Second Amendment of the U S Constitution the Black Panther Party marched on the body as a protest against the pending Mulford Act The Black Panther Party viewed the legislation a gun control bill as a political maneuver to thwart the organization s effort to combat police brutality in the Oakland community The images of gun toting Black Panthers entering the Capitol were supplemented later that year with news of Newton s arrest after a shoot out with police in which an officer was killed With this newfound publicity the Black Panther Party grew from an Oakland based organization into an international one with chapters in 48 states in North America and support groups in Japan China France England Germany Sweden Mozambique South Africa Zimbabwe Uruguay and elsewhere In addition to challenging police brutality the Black Panther Party launched more than 35 Survival Programs and provided community help such as education tuberculosis testing legal aid transportation assistance ambulance service and the manufacture and distribution of free shoes to poor people Of particular note was the Free Breakfast for Children Program that spread to every major American city with a Black Panther Party chapter to the chagrin of Hoover the government adopted it as a federal program that survived into the 21st century Notwithstanding the social services the Black Panther Party provided the FBI declared the group a communist organization and an enemy of the U S government Hoover had pledged that 1969 would be the last year of the Black Panther Party and devoted the resources of the FBI through COINTELPRO toward that end In a protracted program against the Black Panther Party COINTELPRO used agent provocateurs sabotage misinformation and lethal force to eviscerate the national organization The FBI s campaign culminated in December 1969 with a five hour police shoot out at the Southern California headquarters of the Black Panther Party and an Illinois state police raid in which Chicago Black Panther leader Fred Hampton was killed The measures employed by the FBI were so extreme that years later when they were revealed the director of the agency publicly apologized for wrongful uses of power Angela Davis 1974 AP In the early 1970s radical scholar and activist Angela Davis became widely associated with the Black Panthers though it seems likely that she never actually became a standing member of the party Davis did however have strong connections with the party and taught political education classes for it She initially gained notoriety in 1970 when then governor of California Ronald Reagan led the Board of Regents in refusing to renew Davis s appointment as lecturer in philosophy at the University of California Los Angeles because of her politics and her association with communists

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/print/article/68134 (2016-02-13)
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  • Black Panther Party | Britannica.com
    liberation school run by Newtown Huey P Huey P Newton Seale Bobby Bobby Seale Davis Angela Angela Davis 1974 Cleaver Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Eldridge Cleaver left and his wife Kathleen You may also be interested in Media for Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Media for Fourteenth Amendment Media for Khmer Rouge Media for FARC Keep Exploring Famous Stories Beloved Characters Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Our Days Are Numbered

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party/images-videos (2016-02-13)
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  • View History: Black Panther Party | American organization | Britannica.com
    Panther Party History and Memory Project Surabhi Sinha Nov 27 2014 Article thoroughly revised and updated Garrett Albert Duncan André Munro Feb 12 2014 Add new Web site Spartacus Educational The Black Panthers Surabhi Sinha Jan 01 2014 Add new Web site Marxists Internet Archive Black Panther Party Parul Jain Nov 07 2011 Added new Web site History Learning Site The Black Panthers Shiveta Singh Jan 03 2008 View Changes

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party/article-history (2016-02-13)
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  • Black Panther Party: Newton and Seale near party headquarters | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Panther Party national chairman Bobby Seale left and defense minister Huey Newton AP MEDIA FOR Black Panther Party Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party/images-videos/Black-Panther-Party-national-chairman-Bobby-Seale-and-defense-minister/8943 (2016-02-13)
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  • Oakland | California, United States | Britannica.com
    Bobby Seale ran unsuccessfully for mayor in 1973 four years later Lionel Wilson became the city s first black mayor Efforts to rejuvenate the city began in the early 1970s bolstered by the completion in 1972 of the Bay Area Rapid Transit BART light rail link to San Francisco Over the next three decades much of the city centre was rebuilt and many run down neighbourhoods were gentrified Oakland s population rebounded in the 1980s and surpassed the 1950 level in the 1990s Although the city s African Americans remained the largest component of the population their numbers began to decline and those for Hispanics increased to more than one fifth of the total Oakland s revitalization was dealt a setback on October 17 1989 when a strong earthquake caused significant damage to the Bay Bridge and caused a section of a major highway along the bay a portion of it double decked to collapse repairs on these were completed by the late 1990s The contemporary city Oakland s economy is now highly diversified Although industry food processing light manufacturing and high technology is important most economic activity is focused on business services health care transportation retail trade and other services The city s deepwater port on an estuary between Alameda Island and the bay shore covers 19 miles 31 km of waterfront in outer middle and inner harbours Metropolitan Oakland International Airport fronts the bay to the southwest Oakland is the site of several institutions of higher education including Mills College 1852 Holy Names University 1868 and California College of the Arts 1907 the Berkeley campus of the University of California is just to the north The city has a symphony orchestra and ballet and numerous dance and theatre companies Notable museums include the Oakland Museum with exhibits of art history and natural science Chabot Space and Science Center in the eastern hills and the Western Aerospace Museum near the airport Jack London Square an area of restaurants shops and other attractions along the inner harbour near downtown honours the American writer who lived in the city during his youth a bar Jack London frequented Heinold s First and Last Chance Saloon 1883 has been designated a national literary landmark The USS Potomac a yacht dubbed the Floating White House used during the administration of President Franklin D Roosevelt is docked at the square s wharf Farther inland is the Pardee Home 1869 built by an early civic leader and preserved as a museum Lake Merritt a saltwater lagoon near the central business district is a wildfowl refuge surrounded by parkland To the east is Morcom Rose Garden a popular venue for weddings Knowland Park in the far south contains Oakland Zoo and a series of regional parks stretches along the eastern hills The city is the home of the Golden State Warriors basketball Oakland Raiders gridiron football and Oakland Athletics baseball professional sports teams Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in San Francisco Monterey

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Oakland-California (2016-02-13)
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  • Huey P. Newton | American activist | Britannica.com
    sentenced to a six month jail term for misappropriating public funds intended for a Panther founded Oakland school In August of that year he was found shot dead on a street in Oakland Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 10 2015 You may also be interested in Bobby Seale Eldridge Cleaver Warren Aloysious Kimbro Barack Obama Abraham Lincoln Martin Luther King Jr Muhammad Ali Dwight D Eisenhower Tiger Woods Malcolm X LeBron James Jackie Robinson Keep exploring Famous People in History Famous American Faces Fact or Fiction The United States Fact or Fiction Cruel and Unusual Punishments 15 Types of Torture 7 Winter Solstice Celebrations From Around the World What made you want to look up Huey P Newton To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Huey P Newton Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Huey P Newton APA style Huey P Newton 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Huey P Newton Harvard style Huey P Newton 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Huey P Newton Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Huey P Newton accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Huey P Newton While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Huey-P-Newton (2016-02-13)
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  • Bobby Seale | American activist | Britannica.com
    in 1973 finishing second As the Black Panther Party faded from public view Seale took on a quieter role working to improve social services in black neighbourhoods and to improve the environment Seale s writings include such diverse works as Seize the Time 1970 a history of the Black Panther movement and Barbeque n with Bobby 1988 a cookbook Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 11 18 2014 You may also be interested in Warren Aloysious Kimbro Eldridge Cleaver Huey P Newton Mumia Abu Jamal Mary Frances Berry Abigail Hopper Gibbons Charlotte Forten Grimké Samuel Cotton Derrick Albert Bell Jr Matthew James Perry Jr Benjamin F Chavis Jr Barack Obama Keep exploring Famous People in History Journey Around the World History Buff Quiz Riding Freedom 10 Milestones in U S Civil Rights History 12 Clues to Help Non Canadians Understand the 2015 Canadian Election What made you want to look up Bobby Seale To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Bobby Seale Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Bobby Seale APA style Bobby Seale 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Bobby Seale Harvard style Bobby Seale 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Bobby Seale Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Bobby Seale accessed February 12 2016 http www

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Bobby-Seale (2016-02-13)
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  • Marxism | Britannica.com
    developed by Karl Marx and to a lesser extent by Friedrich Engels in the mid 19th century It originally consisted of three related ideas a philosophical anthropology a theory of history and an economic and political program There is also Marxism as it has been understood and practiced by the various socialist movements particularly before 1914 Then there is Soviet Marxism as worked out by Vladimir Ilich Lenin and modified

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Marxism (2016-02-13)
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