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  • revolutionary group | politics | Britannica.com
    History See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style revolutionary group Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic revolutionary group APA style revolutionary group 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic revolutionary group Harvard style revolutionary group 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic revolutionary group Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v revolutionary group accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic revolutionary group While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/revolutionary-group (2016-02-13)
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  • African Americans | people | Britannica.com
    Booker T Washington The impact of World War I and African American migration to the North The Garvey movement and the Harlem Renaissance African American life during the Great Depression and the New Deal World War II The civil rights movement Urban upheaval A new direction Political progress Other contributions to American life Television and film Literature Music Sports African Americans Obama Barack Obamas waving to the crowd at election night rally in Chicago s Grant Park 2008 Jae C Hong AP one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States African Americans are mainly of African ancestry but many have nonblack ancestors as well African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves people who were brought from their African homelands by force to work in the New World Their rights were severely limited and they were long denied a rightful share in the economic social and political progress of the United States Nevertheless African Americans have made basic and lasting contributions to American history and culture DuSable Museum of African American History Great Museums Television A Britannica Publishing Partner At the turn of the 21st century more than half the 100 of 9 018 words

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/African-American (2016-02-13)
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  • Black Panther Party | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Memorial in Washington D C during the Revolutionary People s Constitutional Convention in 1970 Prints and Photographs Division Library of Congress Washington D C digital file no LC USZ62 128087 MEDIA FOR Black Panther Party Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party/images-videos/The-Black-Panther-Party-displaying-a-banner-on-the-steps/186728 (2016-02-13)
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  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka | law case | Britannica.com
    which prohibits the states from denying equal protection of the laws to any person within their jurisdictions The decision declared that separate educational facilities for white and African American students were inherently unequal It thus rejected as inapplicable to public education the separate but equal doctrine advanced by the Supreme Court in Plessy v Ferguson 1896 according to which laws mandating separate public facilities for whites and African Americans do

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Brown-v-Board-of-Education-of-Topeka (2016-02-13)
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  • poverty | sociology | Britannica.com
    means to satisfy their basic needs In this context the identification of poor people first requires a determination of what constitutes basic needs These may be defined as narrowly as those necessary for survival or as broadly as those reflecting the prevailing standard of living in the community The first criterion would cover only those people near the borderline of starvation or death from exposure the second would extend to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/poverty (2016-02-13)
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  • Watts Riots of 1965 | American history | Britannica.com
    radical cult Others suggested that police community relations in South Central Los Angeles had long been uneasy and that those tensions had exploded into rioting Finally many federal officials and some reporters explained the riots as a protest against the poverty and hopelessness of life in the inner city and they described the challenges of joblessness and the lack of basic services in South Central Los Angeles That interpretation of the riots dovetailed effectively with President Lyndon B Johnson s war on poverty programs which were then being introduced in cities across the country The war on poverty thus seemed to be a response to the Watts Riots and the riots seemed to demonstrate the need for the war on poverty Despite that apparent synergy South Central Los Angeles was slow to recover from the damage done during the riots In later years some media reports suggested that the blight of the area was entirely due to the riots ignoring the fact that the community s poverty and lack of infrastructure had long predated the violence Nevertheless today the Watts Riots are typically viewed as the community s angry response to deprivation and neglect and they remain a vivid collective memory particularly in Los Angeles but also nationally Jill A Edy EB Editors Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 8 24 2015 You may also be interested in Los Angeles Riots of 1992 Zoot Suit Riots University of California Los Angeles 1984 Olympic Games University of Southern California USC O J Simpson trial Los Angeles County Museum of Art LACMA Paul R Williams The Actors Studio John Wooden Tom Bradley Antonio Villaraigosa Keep exploring The United States Fact or Fiction Come Together Sweet Tooth Fact or Fiction 8 Incredible Swimming Feats Britannica Brush ups 12 Greek Gods and Goddesses What made you want to look up Watts Riots of 1965 To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Watts Riots of 1965 Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Watts Riots of 1965 APA style Watts Riots of 1965 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Watts Riots of 1965 Harvard style Watts Riots of 1965 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Watts Riots of 1965 Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Watts Riots of 1965 accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Watts Riots of 1965 While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Watts-Riots-of-1965 (2016-02-13)
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  • Newtown, Huey P. | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Huey P Newton Camera Press Archive Photos MEDIA FOR Black Panther Party Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when sending the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Black-Panther-Party/images-videos/Huey-P-Newton/13214 (2016-02-13)
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  • Malcolm X | American Muslim leader | Britannica.com
    number of members fluctuated however and the influence of the organization refracted through the public persona of Malcolm X always greatly exceeded its size Malcolm X Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr 1964 Library of Congress Washington D C digital file no 3d01847u An articulate public speaker a charismatic personality and an indefatigable organizer Malcolm X expressed the pent up anger frustration and bitterness of African Americans during the major phase of the civil rights movement from 1955 to 1965 He preached on the streets of Harlem and spoke at major universities such as Harvard University and the University of Oxford His keen intellect incisive wit and ardent radicalism made him a formidable critic of American society He also criticized the mainstream civil rights movement challenging Martin Luther King Jr s central notions of integration and nonviolence Malcolm argued that more was at stake than the civil right to sit in a restaurant or even to vote the most important issues were black identity integrity and independence In contrast to King s strategy of nonviolence civil disobedience and redemptive suffering Malcolm urged his followers to defend themselves by any means necessary His biting critique of the so called Negro provided the intellectual foundations for the Black Power and black consciousness movements in the United States in the late 1960s and 70s see black nationalism Through the influence of the Nation of Islam Malcolm X helped to change the terms used to refer to African Americans from Negro and coloured to black and Afro American Final years In 1963 there were deep tensions between Malcolm and Eiljah Muhammad over the political direction of the Nation Malcolm urged that the Nation become more active in the widespread civil rights protests instead of just being a critic on the sidelines Muhammad s violations of the moral code of the Nation further worsened his relations with Malcolm who was devastated when he learned that Muhammad had fathered children by six of his personal secretaries two of whom filed paternity suits and made the issue public Malcolm brought additional bad publicity to the Nation when he declared publicly that Pres John F Kennedy s assassination was an example of chickens coming home to roost a violent society suffering the consequences of violence In response to the outrage this statement provoked Elijah Muhammad ordered Malcolm to observe a 90 day period of silence and the break between the two leaders became permanent Malcolm X Robert Parent Time Life Pictures Getty Images Malcolm left the Nation in March 1964 and in the next month founded Muslim Mosque Inc During his pilgrimage to Mecca that same year he experienced a second conversion and embraced Sunni Islam adopting the Muslim name el Hajj Malik el Shabazz Renouncing the separatist beliefs of the Nation he claimed that the solution to racial problems in the United States lay in orthodox Islam On the second of two visits to Africa in 1964 he addressed the Organization of African Unity known as

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Malcolm-X (2016-02-13)
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