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  • Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) | Britannica.com
    be interested in American Colonization Society Union League Mafia Underground Railroad Radical Republican Freedmen s Bureau Congress of Racial Equality CORE Planned Parenthood Federation of America American Indian Movement Kansas Nebraska Act Council on Foreign Relations CFR General Federation of Women s Clubs International GFWC Keep exploring USA Facts Journey Around the World A Study of History Who What Where and When There s a Riot Goin On Riots in U S History Part Two 5 Harvest Festivals Around the World What made you want to look up Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Southeast Asia Fact or Fiction Who Wrote It Soldiers in Petticoats Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Universal Negro Improvement Association APA style Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Universal Negro Improvement Association Harvard style Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Universal Negro Improvement Association Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Universal Negro Improvement Association While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Universal-Negro-Improvement-Association (2016-02-13)
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  • Nation of Islam | religious organization | Britannica.com
    the Nation he accepted orthodox Islam after going on the hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca Before he could fully articulate his new views however several members of the Nation killed him in 1965 In the remaining decade of Elijah Muhammad life the movement was increasingly plagued by violence between members and former members In 1973 for example Nation members invaded the Hanafi Muslim Center in Washington D C founded by Hammas Abdul Khaalis a former Nation leader and attacked his family killing his children and leaving his wife paralyzed Elijah Muhammad left the movement to his son Wallace who assumed leadership of the Nation upon Elijah death in 1975 and later took the name Warith Deen Mohammed Wallace who had been deeply influenced by Malcolm X and orthodox Islam soon initiated a transformation of the Nation changing its name to World Community of al Islam in the West and again in 1978 to the American Muslim Mission and gradually dropping its racial and nationalist doctrines as well as its belief in Fard as Allah The changes culminated in 1985 with his formal resignation as head of the American Muslim Mission and his dissolution of the organization The majority of former members followed him into the larger Muslim community where he remained a widely respected leader The move toward orthodoxy was rejected by some former members including Elijah Muhammad brother John Muhammad and national leader Silis Muhammad They formed two new organizations both called the Nation of Islam that continued the teachings of Elijah Muhammad Of even greater significance were the actions of Louis Farrakhan originally Louis Eugene Wolcott the successor of Malcolm X as leader of the New York Temple and the Nation most prominent spokesman at the time of Elijah Muhammad death Although given a national post by Mohammed Farrakhan disagreed with Mohammed changes and in 1978 he left to found a third Nation of Islam A talented orator Farrakhan began his organization with only a few thousand adherents but soon reestablished a national movement He published Elijah Muhammad books started a periodical The Final Call and eventually purchased Elijah Muhammad former mosque in Chicago and refurbished it as the new headquarters of the Nation of Islam He also expanded the movement internationally opening centres in England and Ghana He gained notice outside the African American community in 1984 when he aligned himself with the U S presidential campaign of Jesse Jackson though he was criticized for anti Semitic remarks that included an attack on antebellum Jewish slaveholders Farrakhan steadily gained nationwide support for his encouragement of African American business and his efforts to reduce drug abuse and poverty By the 1990s he had emerged as a prominent African American leader as demonstrated by the success in 1995 of the Million Man March in Washington D C which he helped to organize Farrakhan toned down his racial rhetoric and moved the group toward orthodox Islam after a bout with prostate cancer in 2000 An estimated 10 000 to 50

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Nation-of-Islam (2016-02-13)
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  • racism | Britannica.com
    that there is a causal link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality intellect morality and other cultural behavioral features and that some races are innately superior to others In North America and apartheid South Africa racism dictated that different races should be segregated from one another that they should have their own distinct communities and develop their own institutions such as churches schools and hospitals and that it

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/racism (2016-02-13)
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  • capitalism | Britannica.com
    feudalism in which most of the means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets A brief treatment of capitalism follows For full treatment see economic systems Market systems Although the continuous development of capitalism as a system dates only from the 16th century antecedents of capitalist institutions existed in the ancient world and flourishing pockets of capitalism were present

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/capitalism (2016-02-13)
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  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) | United States government agency | Britannica.com
    in cases where federal laws may have been violated unless another agency of the federal government has been specifically delegated that duty by statute or executive fiat As part of the Department of Justice the FBI reports the results of its investigations to the attorney general of the United States and his assistants in Washington D C and to the United States attorneys offices in the country s federal judicial

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Federal-Bureau-of-Investigation (2016-02-13)
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  • J. Edgar Hoover | United States government official | Britannica.com
    the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI from 1924 until his death in 1972 built that agency into a highly effective if occasionally controversial arm of federal law enforcement Hoover studied law at night at George Washington University where he received a bachelor of laws degree in 1916 and a master of laws degree in the following year He entered the Department of Justice as a file reviewer in 1917 and

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/J-Edgar-Hoover (2016-02-13)
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  • Sacramento | California, United States | Britannica.com
    was dredged in the early 20th century which provided ships seasonal access to the sea a newer canal opened in 1963 to San Francisco Bay made Sacramento a year round deepwater port After the Gold Rush heyday Sacramento s population grew steadily until the first decades of the 20th century when it began to increase more rapidly People were drawn to the region s expanding agriculture related industries and from the 1940s its military installations now closed The city began annexing much of the land surrounding it including the city of North Sacramento in 1964 increasing its area sevenfold between 1940 and 2000 in that same period Sacramento s population nearly quadrupled Citizens of European ancestry long the great majority of the city s population now constitute less than half Hispanics represent the fastest growing component accounting for more than one fifth the total there are also significant groups of African Americans and people of Asian ancestry The contemporary city California State Capitol age fotostock SuperStock Sacramento is the centre of the region s extensive agricultural production primarily dairy products poultry beef cattle fruits and vegetables especially grapes pears and tomatoes wheat rice and corn maize The city s traditional economic base of government and other services and agriculture has been expanded to include electronics manufacturing computer software production tourism and the manufacture of metal products and scientific instruments Other industries include food processing especially almonds printing and publishing aerospace and the manufacture of wood products Sacramento has an international airport located just northwest of the city California State University Sacramento library DevinCook The Roman golden domed Corinthian State Capitol constructed 1860 74 in the heart of the city is surrounded by 40 acres 15 hectares of parkland and includes a museum California State University Sacramento was established in 1947 Sacramento City College in 1916 American River College in 1955 and Cosumnes River College in 1970 Cultural institutions include professional ballet and opera companies and several music and theatre groups Old Sacramento the city s revitalized historic district along the river contains the California State Railroad Museum the Crocker Art Museum and a variety of shops and restaurants The Delta King a paddle wheel steamboat has been converted to a hotel moored at the riverfront Nearby are the former Governor s Mansion 1877 and the Leland Stanford Mansion 1857 both now state historic parks Central Valley Ann Cantelow Shutterstock com Notable annual events are the Camellia Festival March the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee May and the California State Fair July Sleep Train formerly Arco Arena 1988 north of downtown is the home of the Kings men s professional basketball team Folsom Lake northeast of the city formed in 1955 by damming the American River supplies the region with water and is a popular state recreation area Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises a collection of several refuge areas spread out to the northwest of the city In addition the Sacramento region is a gateway to the Sierra Nevada and Lake Tahoe

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Sacramento-California (2016-02-13)
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  • Second Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com
    self defense is applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment s due process clause However despite the use of person in the Fourteenth Amendment s due process clause the McDonald plurality opinion did not extend to noncitizens Clarence Thomas s fifth and decisive vote only extended the Second Amendment right recognized in Heller to citizens Thomas wrote Because this case does not involve a claim brought by a noncitizen I express no view on the difference if any between my conclusion and the plurality with respect to the extent to which States may regulate firearm possession by noncitizens Thomas further came to this conclusion because he thought the Second Amendment should be incorporated through the Fourteenth Amendment s privileges or immunities clause which only recognizes the rights of citizens The relatively narrow holdings in the McDonald and Heller decisions left many Second Amendment legal issues unsettled including the constitutionality of many federal gun control regulations whether the right to carry or conceal a weapon in public was protected and whether noncitizens are protected through the equal protection clause Origins and historical antecedents The origins of the Second Amendment can be traced to ancient Roman and Florentine times but its English origins developed in the late 16th century when Queen Elizabeth I instituted a national militia where individuals of all classes were required by law to take part in defending the realm Although Elizabeth s attempt to establish a national militia failed miserably the ideology of the militia would be used as a political tool up to the mid 18th century The political debate over the establishment and control of the militia was a contributing factor in both the English Civil Wars 1642 51 and the Glorious Revolution 1688 89 Despite recognition in the early 21st century by the Supreme Court that the Second Amendment protected armed individual self defense in the home many constitutional historians disagreed with the court that the Second Amendment protected anything but the right to participate in a militia force as the means of defending their liberties For over two centuries there was a consensus that the Second Amendment protected only the right of individuals to keep and bear Arms in order to take part in defending their liberties as a militia force However by the late 20th century the popular consensus had shifted many believing that the Second Amendment was framed to protect armed self defense in the home In England following the Glorious Revolution the Second Amendment s predecessor was codified in the British Bill of Rights in 1689 under its Article VII which proclaimed that the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law Often misinterpreted as a right to defend one s person home or property the allowance to have arms ensured that Parliament could exercise its sovereign right of self preservation against a tyrannical crown by arming qualified Protestants as a militia The framers of the U S Constitution

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Second-Amendment (2016-02-13)
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