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  • Counterintelligence Program | United States government program | Britannica.com
    From Earth to Space Henry VIII and His Wives See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Counterintelligence Program Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Counterintelligence Program APA style Counterintelligence Program 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Counterintelligence Program Harvard style Counterintelligence Program 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Counterintelligence Program Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Counterintelligence Program accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Counterintelligence Program While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Counterintelligence-Program (2016-02-13)
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  • Chicago | Illinois, United States | Britannica.com
    of tourists come each year just to view the architecture The reconstruction of the city after the Great Fire of 1871 initiated a pattern of building innovation that expanded in the late 1880s with a wave of new office structures that were dubbed skyscraper s a term reputedly coined in Chicago but which New York also claims The steel frames of skyscrapers removed height limitations previously imposed by solid load bearing masonry walls and allowed the use of large expanses of glass terra cotta facing and other types of curtain walls A generation of 1920s era Art Deco office towers may be found principally in the LaSalle Street financial district while the influence of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe the German born Chicago architect of great worldwide influence can be seen in the 1950s 80s generation of International style buildings Scores of major structures have been constructed since the early 1970s The 110 story 1 450 foot 442 metre Willis formerly Sears Tower 1974 remains one of the tallest in the world Also ranking among the country s tallest buildings are the 100 story John Hancock Center 1969 the 98 story Trump International Hotel and Tower 2009 the 83 story Aon Center originally Amoco Building 1974 the 61 story AT T Corporate Center 1989 and the 65 story 311 South Wacker Building 1990 Dozens of newer postmodern designs continue to remake the skyline As Chicago grew rapidly in the 1880s places that were once rural quickly became part of the city In 1869 public health advocates who called for Chicago to purify its air with a green crown of trees joined with real estate interests to badger the state government into creating a ring of major parks linked together by broad boulevards Growth led to a patchwork of neighbourhood green spaces In 1934 the city consolidated 22 smaller park administrations to create the Chicago Park District which operates more than 500 parks covering some 7 000 acres 2 800 hectares Beyond the city county forest preserve districts and the federal government have set aside thousands of acres of natural woodlands and have re created prairies A major outdoor gallery for the people the city s parks and public plazas feature dozens of monuments and sculptures Nineteenth century works in bronze honour such figures as Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S Grant immigrants have commemorated heroes and cultural figures including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Hans Christian Andersen The philanthropist Kate Sturges Buckingham donated one of the world s largest fountains Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain dedicated 1927 which graces Grant Park just east of downtown Beginning in the 1960s Chicago acquired contemporary sculptures by Alexander Calder Claes Oldenburg Henry Moore Marc Chagall Richard Hunt and others The most famous is the Pablo Picasso sculpture in Daley Center Plaza fabricated of steel designed to weather and once described by an unappreciative alderman as six stories of rusting boiler plate Like all cities Chicago is still deeply affected by the physical artifacts of its history The street pattern is basically an extension of the first city plan of 1830 It is a grid layout eight blocks to a mile with major commercial streets around the perimeters of each square mile 2 5 square km Not all streets conform some having evolved from meandering Native American trails radiating outward from the river mouth and others having paths determined by the presence of the river and the lake Chicago can perhaps be thought of as a fragmented city with the river branches major streets railroad embankments and more recently expressways dividing it into a diversity of neighbourhoods and housing types There are lakefront high rises including Lake Point Tower once among the tallest apartment buildings in the country and now only one of many such structures in its increasingly fashionable district east of Michigan Avenue in sharp contrast to thousands of smaller stone front or brick flats farther inland Constantly improving public transportation and seemingly unlimited supplies of affordable land have long made single family housing in the city relatively attainable for many Outlying neighbourhoods still consist of tens of thousands of bungalows built narrow and deep to fit city lots Many of these homes were built in massive subdivisions where developers replicated the same basic house dozens of times Chicago sprawls in all directions from the curving lakefront The vast public transportation and expressway networks have allowed the metropolitan area popularly called Chicagoland to stretch from Kenosha Wis around the south end of the lake through northwestern Indiana to the Michigan state line Early suburban development gave the appearance of a wagon wheel On the outer rim is a broad arc of older industrial cities Waukegan Elgin St Charles Geneva Aurora Joliet and Chicago Heights that were once independent of Chicago these cities formed part of a ring that informally defined the outer boundary of the metropolitan area until the latter part of the 20th century Immediately surrounding the city are such communities as Evanston Oak Park Cicero and Blue Island all of which resisted annexation by their larger neighbour Connecting the hub and rim are a number of other older residential suburbs that developed as part of spokelike strings of towns extending outward from the city along several commuter rail lines The wheel pattern gradually broke down after World War II when automobile commuting on a growing network of expressways allowed new subdivisions to displace the farms that lay between the spokes of the older rail commuting suburbs After 1960 the presence of O Hare International Airport spurred businesses and light industry to concentrate in the northwest suburbs New high technology research facilities and offices developed after 1970 along the Silicon Prairie corridor stretching west of the city As a result the formerly quiet village of Naperville has been transformed into a sprawling technoburb with one of the largest populations in the state Conversely some of the older suburbs have replicated the inner city pattern of aging structures obsolete industrial buildings and social

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Chicago (2016-02-13)
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  • Angela Davis | American activist | Britannica.com
    daughter of Alabama schoolteachers Davis studied at home and abroad 1961 67 before becoming a doctoral candidate at the University of California San Diego under the Marxist professor Herbert Marcuse Because of her political opinions and despite an excellent record as an instructor at the university s Los Angeles campus the California Board of Regents in 1970 refused to renew her appointment as lecturer in philosophy In 1991 however 100

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Angela-Davis (2016-02-13)
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  • Ronald Reagan | president of United States | Britannica.com
    died June 5 2004 Los Angeles California 40th president of the United States 1981 89 noted for his conservative Republicanism his fervent anticommunism and his appealing personal style characterized by a jaunty affability and folksy charm The only movie actor ever to become president he had a remarkable skill as an orator that earned him the title the Great Communicator His policies have been credited with contributing to the demise

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Ronald-Reagan (2016-02-13)
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  • California University of Pennsylvania | university, California, Pennsylvania, United States | Britannica.com
    Pennsylvania Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania Edinboro University of Pennsylvania Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania Kutztown University of Pennsylvania Clarion University of Pennsylvania University of California University of Texas Keep exploring World Organizations Fact or Fiction Islam World Wars From Box Office to Ballot Box 10 Celebrity Politicians 6 Fictional Languages You Can Really Learn What made you want to look up California University of Pennsylvania To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Open Books World Religions Quiz Important Locations in U S History See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style California University of Pennsylvania Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic California University of Pennsylvania APA style California University of Pennsylvania 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic California University of Pennsylvania Harvard style California University of Pennsylvania 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic California University of Pennsylvania Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v California University of Pennsylvania accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic California University of Pennsylvania While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word

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  • Los Angeles | California, United States | Britannica.com
    City layout People Economy Agriculture Manufacturing Finance and other services Transportation Communications media The entertainment industry Administration and society Government Planning and housing Municipal services Health and welfare Education Cultural life Theatre Music and dance Literature Architecture Museums Sports and recreation History Spanish colonial outpost The early American era Inventing a city From the aqueduct to the 1920s The 1920s and 30s World War II and the postwar years The contemporary city Los Angeles Los Angeles Los Angeles and vicinity Encyclopædia Britannica Inc city seat of Los Angeles county southern California U S It is the second most populous city and metropolitan area after New York City in the United States The city sprawls across a broad coastal plain situated between mountains and the Pacific Ocean the much larger Los Angeles county which encompasses the city contains some 90 other incorporated cities including Beverly Hills Pasadena and Long Beach The county also encompasses two of the Channel Islands Santa Catalina and San Clemente Mount San Antonio familiarly known as Mount Baldy or Old Baldy 10 046 feet 3 062 metres high more than 100 of 12 778 words Images Videos About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Los-Angeles-California (2016-02-13)
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  • Cleaver, Eldridge; Cleaver, Kathleen | Encyclopedia Britannica
    left and his wife Kathleen Camera Press Archive Photos MEDIA FOR Black Panther Party Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when

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  • Cuba | history - geography | Britannica.com
    the Sierra de Trinidad The Cordillera de Guaniguanico in the far west stretches from southwest to northeast for 110 miles 180 km and comprises the Sierra de los Órganos and the Sierra del Rosario the latter attaining 2 270 feet 692 metres at Guajaibón Peak Much of central western Cuba is punctuated by spectacularly shaped vegetation clad hillocks called mogotes Serpentine highlands distinguish northern and central La Habana and Matanzas provinces as well as the central parts of Camagüey and Las Tunas The plains covering about two thirds of the main island have been used extensively for sugarcane and tobacco cultivation and livestock raising The coastal basins of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo and the extensive Cauto River valley lie in the southeast The Cauto lowland adjoins a series of coastal plains that continue across the island from east to west including the Southern Plain Júcaro Morón Plain Zapata Peninsula Zapata Swamp Southern Karst and Colón Plain and Southern Alluvial Plain Cuba s most extensive swamps cover the Zapata Peninsula and surround the Bay of Pigs Bahía de Cochinos The Las Villas Plain of the North Las Villas Plain of the Northeast and Northern Plain stretch across much of the opposite coast Cuba s approximately 3 570 miles 5 745 km of irregular picturesque coastline are characterized by many bays sandy beaches mangrove swamps coral reefs and rugged cliffs There are also some spectacular caverns in the interior notably the 16 mile 26 km long Cave of Santo Tomás in the Sierra Quemado of western Cuba The main island is surrounded by a submerged platform covering an additional 30 000 square miles 78 000 square km Among the extensive cays and archipelagoes ringing the main island are Los Colorados to the northwest Sabana and Camagüey both off the north central coast the Jardines de la Reina Queen s Gardens near the south central coast and Canarreos near the southwest coast Juventud Island Isla de la Juventud Isle of Youth formerly called Pinos Island Isla de los Pinos Isle of Pines is the second largest of the Cuban islands covering 850 square miles 2 200 square km It is technically a part of the Canarreos Archipelago Hills dotted with groves of pine and palm characterize much of the island s northwest and southeast Sand and clay plains cover parts of the north a gravel bed takes up most of the southern part of the island and bogs dominate the coasts and sparsely inhabited interior Drainage Cuban rivers are generally short with meagre flow of the nearly 600 rivers and streams two fifths discharge to the north the remainder to the south The Zapata Peninsula is the most extensive of Cuba s many coastal wetlands The main island s heaviest precipitation and largest rivers are in the southeast where the Cauto at 230 miles 370 km the country s longest river lies between the Sierra Maestra and the smaller Sierra del Cristal The Cauto and its tributaries notably the Salado drain the

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