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  • Eldridge Cleaver | American author and activist | Britannica.com
    Cleaver returned voluntarily to the United States in 1975 The charges against him were dropped in 1979 when he pled guilty to assault in connection with the 1968 shoot out and was put on five years probation In his later years Cleaver proclaimed himself a born again Christian and a Republican engaged in various business ventures and struggled with an addiction to cocaine Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 1 20 2016 You may also be interested in Bill Cosby Langston Hughes Solomon Northup Henry Louis Gates Jr Maya Angelou Toni Morrison Zora Neale Hurston Richard Wright James Baldwin August Wilson Alice Walker Gwendolyn Brooks Keep exploring Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction The United States Fact or Fiction Name That Author 5 Harvest Festivals Around the World 9 Mysterious Disappearances of People Other Than Amelia Earhart What made you want to look up Eldridge Cleaver To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Eldridge Cleaver Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Eldridge Cleaver APA style Eldridge Cleaver 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Eldridge Cleaver Harvard style Eldridge Cleaver 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Eldridge Cleaver Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Eldridge Cleaver accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Eldridge Cleaver While every effort

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  • Republican Party | political party, United States [1854-present] | Britannica.com
    Truman to the presidency on Roosevelt s death in 1945 and Truman s narrow election over New York Governor Thomas E Dewey in 1948 kept the Republicans out of the White House for two decades Although most Republicans in the 1930s vehemently opposed Roosevelt s New Deal social programs by the 1950s the party had largely accepted the federal government s expanded role and regulatory powers In 1952 the Republican Party nominated as its presidential candidate World War II supreme Allied commander Dwight D Eisenhower who easily defeated Democrat Adlai E Stevenson in the general election Despite Eisenhower s centrist views the Republican platform was essentially conservative calling for a strong anticommunist stance in foreign affairs reductions in government regulation of the economy lower taxes for the wealthy and resistance to federal civil rights legislation though Eisenhower did dispatch federal troops to Arkansas in 1957 to enforce the court ordered racial integration of a high school in Little Rock he also signed the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 The party retained the traditional support of both big and small business and gained new support from growing numbers of middle class suburbanites and perhaps most significantly white Southerners who were upset by the prointegration policies of leading Democrats including President Truman who had ordered the integration of the military Eisenhower was reelected in 1956 but in 1960 Richard M Nixon Eisenhower s vice president lost narrowly to Democrat John F Kennedy The Republicans were in severe turmoil at their 1964 convention where moderates and conservatives battled for control of the party Ultimately the conservatives secured the nomination of Senator Barry M Goldwater who lost by a landslide to President Lyndon B Johnson Kennedy s vice president and successor By 1968 the party s moderate faction regained control and again nominated Nixon who narrowly won the popular vote over Hubert H Humphrey Johnson s vice president Many Southern Democrats abandoned the party to vote for the anti integration candidate George C Wallace Importantly the 1964 and 1968 elections signaled the death of the Democratic Solid South as both Goldwater and Nixon made significant inroads there In 1964 5 of the 6 states won by Goldwater were in the South in 1968 11 Southern states voted for Nixon and only 1 voted for Humphrey Although Nixon was reelected by a landslide in 1972 Republicans made few gains in congressional state and local elections and failed to win control of Congress In the wake of the Watergate scandal Nixon resigned the presidency in August 1974 and was succeeded in office by Gerald R Ford the first appointed vice president to become president Ford lost narrowly to Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976 In 1980 Ronald W Reagan the charismatic leader of the Republican Party s conservative wing defeated Carter and helped the Republicans to regain control of the Senate which they held until 1987 Reagan introduced deep tax cuts and launched a massive buildup of U S military forces His personal popularity and an economic recovery contributed to his 49 state victory over Democrat Walter F Mondale in 1984 His vice president George Bush continued the Republicans presidential success by handily defeating Democrat Michael S Dukakis in 1988 During Bush s term the Cold War came to an end after communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe In 1991 Bush led an international coalition that drove Iraqi armies out of Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War Congress continued to be controlled by the Democrats however and Bush lost his bid for reelection in 1992 to another Southern Democrat Bill Clinton Partly because of Clinton s declining popularity in 1993 94 the Republicans won victories in the 1994 midterm elections that gave them control of both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954 They promptly undertook efforts to overhaul the country s welfare system and to reduce the budget deficit but their uncompromising and confrontational style led many voters to blame them for a budget impasse in 1995 96 that resulted in two partial government shutdowns Clinton was reelected in 1996 though the Republicans retained control of Congress In 2000 Texas Governor George W Bush son of the former president recaptured the presidency for the Republicans receiving 500 000 fewer popular votes than Democrat Al Gore but narrowly winning a majority of the electoral vote 271 266 after the Supreme Court of the United States ordered a halt to the manual recounting of disputed ballots in Florida Bush was only the second son of a president to assume the nation s highest office The Republicans also won a majority in both chambers of Congress though the Democrats gained effective control of the Senate in 2001 following the decision of Republican Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont to became an independent A surge in Bush s popularity following the September 11 attacks of 2001 enabled the Republicans to recapture the Senate and to make gains in the House of Representatives in 2002 In 2004 Bush was narrowly reelected winning both the popular and electoral vote and the Republicans kept control of both houses of Congress In the 2006 midterm elections however the Republicans fared poorly hindered largely by the growing opposition to the Iraq War and the Democrats regained control of both the House and the Senate In the general election of 2008 the Republican presidential nominee John McCain was defeated by Democrat Barack Obama and the Democrats increased their majority in both houses of Congress The following year the Republican National Committee elected Michael Steele as its first African American chairman With a gain of some 60 seats a swing not registered since 1948 Republicans recaptured control of the House and dramatically reduced the Democrats majority in the Senate in the 2010 midterm election The election which was widely seen as a referendum on the Obama administration s policy agenda was marked by anxiety over the struggling economy especially the high unemployment rate and by the upsurge of the Tea

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  • transnational social movement | Britannica.com
    are difficult to mobilize and hard to maintain In this view the international women s labour and antiglobalization movements may be the only true transnational social movements Hence transnational contention is usually undertaken by members of transnational networks that are linked to national movements The efforts of transnational social movements international nongovernmental organizations and transnational advocacy networks raise a number of political issues First because international organizations have little coercive power at their disposal they must rely on soft enforcement mechanisms involving information persuasion and moral pressure In turn these empower and favour transnational social movement actors who have traditionally demonstrated great skill in the strategic use of information Second because political opportunities political dimensions that advance or constrain collective action differ at the national and international levels the dynamic interactions between these levels becomes a critical factor in the analysis of transnational social movement activity Third as national social movement organizations extend their patterns of cooperation and influence across borders in response to the transfer of decision making power from states to international bodies interstate cooperation evolves or intensifies in reaction to movement transnationalization for instance in the area of protest policing States may therefore reassert certain powers as a consequence of transnational activism Jörg Balsiger Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 8 15 2014 You may also be interested in hippie woman suffrage hip hop secularism skinhead Pan Africanism satyagraha abolitionism women s movement social movement gay rights movement Pan Arabism Keep exploring Camels Fact or Fiction Aitch Two Oh Easy Pickings 10 Chicago Writers Editor Picks My Favorite Frogs of the Tropics What made you want to look up transnational social movement To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style transnational social movement Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic transnational social movement APA style transnational social movement 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic transnational social movement Harvard style transnational social movement 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic transnational social movement Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v transnational social movement accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic transnational social movement While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content

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  • untouchable | Hindu social class | Britannica.com
    they were eaters of beef and of the scavenging village pigs and chickens Much confusion arose on this issue because the unassimilated hill tribes never accepted their relegation to the ranks of the untouchables nor did they seem to realize that their status was decided on a purely behavioral basis Until the adoption of the new constitutions in independent India and Pakistan the untouchables were subjected to many social restrictions which increased in severity from north to south in India In many cases they were segregated in hamlets outside the town or village boundary They were forbidden entry to many temples to most schools and to wells from which higher castes drew water Their touch was seen as seriously polluting to people of higher caste involving much remedial ritual In southern India even the sight of some untouchable groups was once held to be polluting and they were forced to live a nocturnal existence These restrictions led many untouchables to seek some degree of emancipation through conversion to Christianity Islam or Buddhism The modern constitution of India formally recognized the plight of the untouchables by legally establishing their ethnic subgroups as Scheduled Castes a population of some 170 million in the early 21st century In addition the designation Scheduled Tribes about 85 million was given to the indigenous peoples of the country who fall outside of the Indian social hierarchy Besides banning untouchability the constitution provides these groups with specific educational and vocational privileges and grants them special representation in the Indian parliament In support of these efforts the Untouchability Offenses Act 1955 provides penalties for preventing anyone from enjoying a wide variety of religious occupational and social rights on the grounds that he or she is from a Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe Despite such measures the traditional divisions between pure and polluted caste groups persist in some levels of Indian society making full emancipation of these groups slow to come about Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in caste social structure jati Satnami sect Brahman Kshatriya Maratha varna Bania pariah Mahar mlechchha Keep exploring William Shakespeare The Prose and the Playwright Nautical Exploration and Aviation Fact or Fiction Economics News 5 Wacky Facts about the Births and Deaths of U S Presidents 7 Women Warriors What made you want to look up untouchable To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style untouchable Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic untouchable APA style untouchable 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic untouchable Harvard style untouchable 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica

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  • India | history - geography | Britannica.com
    mountain system The new mountains together with vast amounts of sediment eroded from them were so heavy that the Indian Australian Plate just south of the range was forced downward creating a zone of crustal subsidence Continued rapid erosion of the Himalayas added to the sediment accumulation which was subsequently carried by mountain streams to fill the subsidence zone and cause it to sink more India s present day relief features have been superimposed on three basic structural units the Himalayas in the north the Deccan peninsular plateau region in the south and the Indo Gangetic Plain lying over the subsidence zone between the two Further information on the geology of India is found in the article Asia The Himalayas Himalayas jayk67 Fotolia The Himalayas from the Sanskrit words hima snow and alaya abode the loftiest mountain system in the world form the northern limit of India That great geologically young mountain arc is about 1 550 miles 2 500 km long stretching from the peak of Nanga Parbat 26 660 feet 8 126 metres in the Pakistani administered portion of the Kashmir region to the Namcha Barwa peak in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China Between those extremes the mountains fall across India southern Tibet Nepal and Bhutan The width of the system varies between 125 and 250 miles 200 and 400 km Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir India Nagin Lake Gerald Cubitt Within India the Himalayas are divided into three longitudinal belts called the Outer Lesser and Great Himalayas At each extremity there is a great bend in the system s alignment from which a number of lower mountain ranges and hills spread out Those in the west lie wholly within Pakistan and Afghanistan while those to the east straddle India s border with Myanmar Burma North of the Himalayas are the Plateau of Tibet and various Trans Himalayan ranges only a small part of which in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state in the Indian administered portion of Kashmir are within the territorial limits of India Because of the continued subduction of the Indian peninsula against the Eurasian Plate the Himalayas and the associated eastern ranges remain tectonically active As a result the mountains are still rising and earthquakes often accompanied by landslides are common Several since 1900 have been devastating including one in 1934 in what is now Bihar state that killed more than 10 000 people In 2001 another tremor the Bhuj earthquake farther from the mountains in Gujarat state was less powerful but caused extensive damage taking the lives of more than 20 000 people and leaving more than 500 000 homeless Still others notably the 2005 quake in Pakistani administered Kashmir and the 2015 temblor in Nepal principally affected those regions but also caused widespread damage and hundreds of deaths in adjacent parts of India The relatively high frequency and wide distribution of earthquakes likewise have generated controversies about the safety and advisability of several hydroelectric and irrigation projects The Outer Himalayas the Siwalik Range The southernmost of the three mountain belts are the Outer Himalayas also called the Siwalik or Shiwalik Range Crests in the Siwaliks averaging from 3 000 to 5 000 feet 900 to 1 500 metres in elevation seldom exceed 6 500 feet 2 000 metres The range narrows as it moves east and is hardly discernible beyond the Duars a plains region in West Bengal state Interspersed in the Siwaliks are heavily cultivated flat valleys dun s with a high population density To the south of the range is the Indo Gangetic Plain Weakly indurated largely deforested and subject to heavy rain and intense erosion the Siwaliks provide much of the sediment transported onto the plain The Lesser Himalayas To the north of the Siwaliks and separated from them by a fault zone the Lesser Himalayas also called the Lower or Middle Himalayas rise to heights ranging from 11 900 to 15 100 feet 3 600 to 4 600 metres Their ancient name is Himachal Sanskrit hima snow and acal mountain The mountains are composed of both ancient crystalline and geologically young rocks sometimes in a reversed stratigraphic sequence because of thrust faulting The Lesser Himalayas are traversed by numerous deep gorges formed by swift flowing streams some of them older than the mountains themselves which are fed by glaciers and snowfields to the north The Great Himalayas Kanchenjunga saps Fotolia The northernmost Great or Higher Himalayas in ancient times the Himadri with crests generally above 16 000 feet 4 900 metres in elevation are composed of ancient crystalline rocks and old marine sedimentary formations Between the Great and Lesser Himalayas are several fertile longitudinal vales in India the largest is the Vale of Kashmir an ancient lake basin with an area of about 1 700 square miles 4 400 square km The Great Himalayas ranging from 30 to 45 miles 50 to 75 km wide include some of the world s highest peaks The highest in the range Mount Everest at 29 035 feet 8 850 metres see Researcher s Note Height of Mount Everest is on the China Nepal border but India also has many lofty peaks Notable among those is Kanchenjunga 28 169 feet 8 586 metres on the border of Nepal and the state of Sikkim which is the world s third tallest peak and India s highest point Other high mountains in India include Nanda Devi 25 646 feet 7 817 metres Kamet 25 446 feet 7 755 metres and Trisul 23 359 feet 7 120 in Uttarakhand The Great Himalayas lie mostly above the line of perpetual snow and thus contain most of the Himalayan glaciers Associated ranges and hills Ladakh Range Courtesy of Iffat Fatima In general the various regional ranges and hills run parallel to the Himalayas main axis Those are especially prominent in the northwest where the Zaskar Range and the Ladakh and Karakoram ranges all in Jammu and Kashmir state run to the northeast of the Great

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  • rhetoric | Britannica.com
    century it has undergone a shift of emphasis from the speaker or writer to the auditor or reader This article deals with rhetoric in both its traditional and its modern forms For information on applications of rhetoric see the articles broadcasting communication and propaganda Rhetoric in literature The nature and scope of rhetoric Traditional and modern rhetoric The traditional rhetoric is limited to the insights and terms developed by rhetors

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  • National Liberation Front (NLF) | political organization, Vietnam | Britannica.com
    Unified Communist Party of Nepal Maoist Korean Workers Party KWP Italian Popular Party Frelimo Communist Party of Cuba Keep exploring All American History Quiz American History and Politics History Buff Quiz There s a Riot Goin On Riots in U S History Part One 9 Infamous Assassins and the World Leaders They Dispatched What made you want to look up National Liberation Front NLF To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Abraham Lincoln Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction History Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style National Liberation Front NLF Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic National Liberation Front political organization Vietnam APA style National Liberation Front NLF 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic National Liberation Front political organization Vietnam Harvard style National Liberation Front NLF 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic National Liberation Front political organization Vietnam Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v National Liberation Front NLF accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic National Liberation Front political organization Vietnam While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click

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  • The Bahamas | history - geography - islands, West Indies | Britannica.com
    major settlements of Freeport and West End Andros 2 300 square miles 6 000 square km the largest island of The Bahamas Abaco or Great Abaco 372 square miles 963 square km and Eleuthera 187 square miles 484 square km the site of one of the early attempts at colonization Relief and soils Bahamas The Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The Bahamas occupies an irregular submarine tableland that rises out of the depths of the Atlantic Ocean and is separated from nearby lands to the south and west by deepwater channels Extensive areas of flatland generally a few feet in elevation are the dominant topographic features of the major islands the Bimini group 9 square miles 23 square km for example has a maximum elevation of only 20 feet 6 metres A number of islands fronting the Atlantic have a range or series of ranges of hills on the northeastern side that parallel the longer axes of the islands These ranges are formed of sand washed ashore and blown inland by the trade winds The newer hills adjacent to the seashore are normally sand dunes Solidity increases toward the interior where the particles become cemented to form Bahama limestone Eleuthera and Long Island 230 square miles 596 square km have the greatest number of hills exceeding 100 feet 30 metres The highest point in The Bahamas Mount Alvernia at 206 feet 63 metres is on Cat Island 150 square miles 388 square km Beneath the soil the islands are composed of limestone rock and skeletal remains of coral fossils and other marine organisms There are no rivers but several islands particularly New Providence San Salvador 63 square miles 163 square km and Great Inagua have large lakes There is abundant fresh water on Andros Island Quick Facts Images Audio quizzes Lists Official name The Commonwealth of The Bahamas Form of government constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses Senate 16 House of Assembly 38 Head of state British Monarch Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General Dame Marguerite Pindling Head of government Prime Minister Perry Christie Capital Nassau Official language English Official religion none Monetary unit Bahamian dollar B Population 2014 est 374 000 Expand Total area sq mi 5 382 Total area sq km 13 939 Urban rural population Urban 2011 84 3 Rural 2011 15 7 Life expectancy at birth Male 2007 71 years Female 2007 77 years Literacy percentage of population age 15 and over literate Male 2005 95 Female 2005 96 7 GNI per capita U S 2012 21 280 1 2 3 4 5 6 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in North America Atlantic Ocean West Indies Cuba Puerto Rico New Providence Island Grand Bahama Island United States Jamaica Dominican Republic Trinidad and Tobago Barbados Keep exploring Countries of the World The Country Quiz Journey Around the World 10 Incredible Uses for Eggs The Bahamas Table of Contents What made you want to look up The Bahamas To From Subject Comments

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