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  • rap | music | Britannica.com
    Rock and radio in the United States Rock and recording technology Rock and film Rock and theatre jazz Keep exploring Music Fact or Fiction Music Quiz A Music Lesson 9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens 5 Creepy Things from The Thousand and One Nights What made you want to look up rap To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES The Works of Edgar Allan Poe Super Bowl Cold Weather Games See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style rap Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com art rap APA style rap 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com art rap Harvard style rap 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com art rap Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v rap accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com art rap While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/art/rap (2016-02-13)
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  • Texas | history - geography - state, United States | Britannica.com
    publishing History Early history Settlement Revolution and the republic Annexation and statehood The modern period Texas constituent state of the United States of America It became the 28th state of the Union in 1845 Texas occupies the south central segment of the country and is the largest state in area except for Alaska The state extends nearly 1 000 miles 1 600 km from north to south and about the same distance from east to west Water delineates many of its borders The wriggling course of the Red River makes up the eastern two thirds of Texas s boundary with Oklahoma to the north while the remainder of the northern boundary is the Panhandle which juts northward forming a counterpart 100 of 8 332 words Quick Facts Images Videos 1 Excluding military abroad 2 Species not designated Capital Austin Population 1 2010 25 145 561 2014 est 26 956 958 Total area sq mi 268 597 Total area sq km 695 662 Governor Greg Abbott Republican State nickname Lone Star State Date of admission Dec 29 1845 State motto Friendship State bird northern mockingbird State flower 2 bluebonnet State song Texas Our Texas U S senators John Cornyn Republican Ted

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Texas-state (2016-02-13)
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  • Ku Klux Klan | hate organization, United States | Britannica.com
    preacher and promoter of fraternal orders who had been inspired by Thomas Dixon s book The Clansman 1905 and D W Griffith s film The Birth of a Nation 1915 The new organization remained small until Edward Y Clarke and Mrs Elizabeth Tyler brought to it their talents as publicity agents and fund raisers The revived Klan was fueled partly by patriotism and partly by a romantic nostalgia for the old South but more importantly it expressed the defensive reaction of white Protestants in small town America who felt threatened by the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and by the large scale immigration of the previous decades that had changed the ethnic character of American society This second Klan peaked in the 1920s when its membership exceeded 4 000 000 nationally and profits rolled in from the sale of its memberships regalia costumes publications and rituals A burning cross became the symbol of the new organization and white robed Klansmen participated in marches parades and nighttime cross burnings all over the country To the old Klan s hostility toward blacks the new Klan which was strong in the Midwest as well as in the South added bias against Roman Catholics Jews foreigners and organized labour The Klan enjoyed a last spurt of growth in 1928 when Alfred E Smith a Catholic received the Democratic presidential nomination During the Great Depression of the 1930s the Klan s membership dropped drastically and the last remnants of the organization temporarily disbanded in 1944 For the next 20 years the Klan was quiescent but it had a resurgence in some Southern states during the 1960s as civil rights workers attempted to force Southern communities compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 There were numerous instances of bombings whippings and shootings in Southern communities carried out in secret but apparently the work of Klansmen President Lyndon B Johnson publicly denounced the organization in a nationwide television address announcing the arrest of four Klansmen in connection with the slaying of a civil rights worker a white woman in Alabama The Klan was unable to stem the growth of a new racial tolerance in the South in the years that followed Though the organization continued some of its surreptitious activities into the late 20th century cases of Klan violence became more isolated and its membership had declined to a few thousand The Klan became a chronically fragmented mélange made up of several separate and competing groups some of which occasionally entered into alliances with neo Nazi and other right wing extremist groups Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 1 15 2016 You may also be interested in Boko Haram al Qaeda Kurdistan Workers Party PKK al Shabaab Abu Sayyaf Group ETA Tamil Tigers al Qaeda in Iraq AQI Red Army Faction RAF Irgun Zvai Leumi Black September Shining Path Keep exploring All American History Quiz American History and Politics History Buff Quiz 9 U S Presidents with the Most Vetoes Editor Picks 9 Queer Writers You

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Ku-Klux-Klan (2016-02-13)
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  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) | American organization | Britannica.com
    memorable contribution to the civil rights struggle The group s efforts became all the more dramatic when its nonviolent demonstrations were met by vicious responses from whites CORE volunteers were assaulted teargassed and jailed and some demonstrators were killed Farmer himself survived a Ku Klux Klan murder plot and once escaped Louisiana state troopers by hiding inside a coffin housed in a hearse His leadership contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Under the influence of Roy Innis who became CORE s national director in 1968 the organization s political orientation began to change moving in a direction that he characterized as pragmatic but that many others saw as increasingly conservative Some accused Innis and CORE of being of overly sympathetic to the interests of big business Farmer was critical of Innis s centralization of control and of the organization s failure to conduct annual conferences By the beginning of the 21st century CORE s program emphases included worker training and equal employment opportunity crime victim assistance and community oriented crisis intervention The organization maintains its headquarters in New York City Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC National Urban League Black Panther Party Nation of Islam National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP American Colonization Society Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC National Association of Colored Women s Clubs NACWC National Council of Negro Women NCNW Niagara Movement Union League American Missionary Association AMA Keep exploring All American History Quiz American History and Politics History Buff Quiz The Axial Age 5 Fast Facts 9 Noteworthy Bog Bodies and what they tell us What made you want to look up Congress of Racial Equality CORE To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Congress of Racial Equality CORE Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Congress of Racial Equality APA style Congress of Racial Equality CORE 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Congress of Racial Equality Harvard style Congress of Racial Equality CORE 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Congress of Racial Equality Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Congress of Racial Equality CORE accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Congress of Racial Equality While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link

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  • Chinese Communist Party (CCP) | political party, China | Britannica.com
    with several other CCP leaders over the course of China s future economic and social development launched the Cultural Revolution and there followed a period of turbulent struggles between the CCP s radical wing under Mao and the more pragmatic wing led by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Liu Deng and several other pragmatist leaders fell from power during the Cultural Revolution An uneasy truce between radicals and pragmatists held from 1971 until 1976 when Zhou Enlai and Mao himself died Almost immediately the radical group known as the Gang of Four including Mao s widow were arrested and soon afterward the frequently purged and frequently rehabilitated Deng Xiaoping reappeared and assumed paramount power The Cultural Revolution was formally ended and the program of the Four Modernizations of industry agriculture science technology and defense was adopted Restrictions on art and education were relaxed and revolutionary ideology was de emphasized After Mao s death Hua Guofeng was party chairman until 1981 when Deng s protege Hu Yaobang took over the post Hu was replaced as the party general secretary the post of chairman was abolished in 1982 by another Deng protégé Zhao Ziyang in 1987 Zhao was succeeded by Jiang Zemin in 1989 and Hu Jintao was elected general secretary in 2002 Hu was then followed as general secretary by Xi Jinping who was elected to the post in 2012 Party structure With more than 85 million members the CCP is one of the largest political parties in the world It is a monolithic monopolistic party that dominates the political life of China It is the major policy making body in China and it sees that the central provincial and local organs of government carry out those policies The CCP s structure is as follows Once every five years or so a National Party Congress of some 2 000 delegates the number varies meets in plenary session to elect a Central Committee of about 200 full members which in turn meets at least once annually The Central Committee elects a Political Bureau Politburo of about 20 25 full members that body is the ruling leadership of the CCP The Political Bureau s Standing Committee of about six to nine of its most authoritative members is the highest echelon of leadership in the CCP and in the country as a whole In practice power flows from the top down in the CCP The CCP s Secretariat is responsible for the day to day administrative affairs of the CCP The general secretary of the Secretariat is formally the highest ranking official of the party The CCP has a commission for detecting and punishing abuses of office by party members and it also has a commission by which it retains control over China s armed forces The CCP has basic level party organizations in cities towns villages neighbourhoods major workplaces schools and so on The main publications of the CCP are the daily newspaper Renmin Ribao English language version People s Daily and the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Chinese-Communist-Party (2016-02-13)
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  • Fourteenth Amendment | United States Constitution | Britannica.com
    state or the members of the legislature thereof is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state being twenty one years of age and citizens of the United States or in any way abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crime the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty one years of age in such state No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress or elector of President and Vice President or hold any office civil or military under the United States or under any state who having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress or as an officer of the United States or as a member of any state legislature or as an executive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the United States shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof But Congress may by a vote of two thirds of each House remove such disability The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by law including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion shall not be questioned But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave but all such debts obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions of this article Among those legislators responsible for introducing the amendment s provisions were Rep John A Bingham of Ohio Sen Jacob Howard of Michigan Rep Henry Demig of Connecticut Sen Benjamin G Brown of Missouri and Rep Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania The Congressional Joint Resolution proposing the amendment was submitted to the states for ratification on June 16 1866 On July 28 1868 having been ratified by the requisite number of states it entered into force However its attempt to guarantee civil rights was circumvented for many decades by the post Reconstruction era black codes Jim Crow laws and the separate but equal ruling of Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 6 5 2015 You may also be interested in Supreme Court of the United States First Amendment Fifth Amendment Eighth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Second Amendment Bill of Rights Nineteenth Amendment Twenty fifth Amendment Fourth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment Twelfth Amendment Keep exploring All American History Quiz American History and Politics History Buff Quiz Editor Picks Our Favorite Harry Potter Characters 6 Fictional Languages You Can Really Learn What made you want to look up Fourteenth Amendment To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets

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  • Khmer Rouge | political group, Cambodia | Britannica.com
    propped up by Vietnamese aid and expertise The Khmer Rouge retreated to remote areas and resumed guerrilla warfare this time operating from bases near the border with Thailand and obtaining aid from China In 1982 they formed a fragile coalition under the nominal leadership of Sihanouk with two noncommunist Khmer groups opposed to the Vietnamese backed central government The Khmer Rouge was the strongest partner in this coalition which carried on guerrilla warfare until 1991 The Khmer Rouge opposed the United Nations sponsored peace settlement of 1991 and the multiparty elections in 1993 and they continued guerrilla warfare against the noncommunist coalition government formed after those elections Isolated in the remote western provinces of the country and increasingly dependent on gem smuggling for their funding the Khmer Rouge suffered a series of military defeats and grew weaker from year to year In 1995 many of their cadres accepted an offer of amnesty from the Cambodian government and in 1996 one of their leading figures Ieng Sary defected along with several thousand guerrillas under his command and signed a peace agreement with the government The disarray within the organization intensified in 1997 when Pol Pot was arrested by other Khmer Rouge leaders and sentenced to life imprisonment Pol Pot died in 1998 and soon afterward the surviving leaders of the Khmer Rouge defected or were imprisoned Talks aimed at bringing the Khmer Rouge s surviving leaders to trial began almost immediately after the movement s demise After years of wrangling and delay the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia commonly called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal was established in 2006 as a joint operation between the United Nations and the government of Cambodia The first indictments were handed down in 2007 and the first trial against Kaing Guek Eav better known as Duch the former commander of a notorious Khmer Rouge prison got under way in 2009 In 2010 Duch was convicted of war crimes and of crimes against humanity and was sentenced to prison Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 6 2015 You may also be interested in Chinese Communist Party CCP FARC Naxalite Hoa Hao Liberation of Labour Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Nazi Party Auschwitz Black Panther Party Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU Organization of American States OAS Nationalist Party Keep exploring World Organizations Fact or Fiction Exploring Asia Fact or Fiction Destination Asia Fact or Fiction The Six Deadliest Earthquakes since 1950 8 Famous Duels and 1 Almost Duel What made you want to look up Khmer Rouge To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Khmer Rouge Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia

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  • FARC | Colombian militant group | Britannica.com
    the Colombian Communist Party Partido Comunista de Colombia PCC the FARC is the largest of Colombia s rebel groups estimated to possess some 10 000 armed soldiers and thousands of supporters largely drawn from Colombia s rural areas The FARC supports a redistribution of wealth from the wealthy to the poor and opposes the influence that multinational corporations and foreign governments particularly the United States have had on Colombia The

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