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  • Year In Review: Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    business in Business Overview Year In Review 2011 classical music in Performing Arts Year In Review 2011 economic impact in The Elusive Economic Recovery Year In Review 2011 geophysics in Earth Sciences Year In Review 2011 Japanese literature in Literature Year In Review 2011 Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami Year In Review 2011 United States in United States in 2011 Britannica Stories

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  • Contributors: Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    Species of 2014 Year In Review 2014 New Species of 2015 Year In Review 2015 Adélie penguin back arc basin Emma Lucy Braun Chengjiang fossil site Chile earthquake of 2010 Jiangshanian Stage chinstrap penguin Cyclone Pam Willi Dansgaard Sylvia Alice Earle Floian Stage Gorstian Stage Elizabeth Holmes Homerian Stage Kenneth Lacovara lynx Magellanic penguin Mária Telkes Daniel G Nocera North Atlantic Oscillation NAO Francisco J Ayala r selected species Hosain Rahman David Malcolm Raup Sandbian Stage Snares penguin Telychian Stage Teshekpuk Lake Phillip Vallentine Tobias volcanic winter Superstorm Sandy Lake Vostok Barbados threadsnake Mary Barra brown tree snake Dapingian Stage Margaret Bryan Davis Howard Dean Elysia chlorotica Fortunian Stage great Indian bustard Michelle J Howard Humboldt penguin hypsometry Donald C Johanson Leslie Lamport erect crested penguin Novarupta ocean acidification ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC regolith Russell Errol Train Joe Trippi Fiordland penguin Hurricane Andrew bedrock Beer s law coevolution Perry Chen derecho desertification emperor penguin Endangered Species Act soil liquefaction frugivore Guzhangian Stage gyre Hadean Eon India Pakistan heat wave of 2015 Inge Lehmann maritime continent Farley McGill Mowat pliosaur Rhuddanian Stage Wilkins Ice Shelf Mary Anning Anthropocene Epoch Lee Berger bilby Capitanian Stage Brontosaurus common clown fish Galapagos penguin Gelasian Stage Ionian Stage K selected species Katian Stage Katla Keeling Curve Daniel Lieberman Ted Ligety Andrew Mason polar vortex Roadian Stage rockhopper penguin Sheinwoodian Stage Michael Stonebraker George John Armelagos black panther blue penguin coral bleaching Coral Triangle Eyjafjallajökull volcano gentoo penguin heat wave Hurricane Irene kimberlite eruption kipunji Andreas and Wolfgang Linger Linger brothers Little Ice Age LIA medieval warm period MWP National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA National Weather Service NWS Paibian Stage royal penguin Alexander Theodore Shulgin Sichuan earthquake of 2008 Super Outbreak of 2011 urban sprawl invasive species Wordian Stage World Oceans Day Wuchiapingian Stage yellow eyed penguin Aeronian Stage African penguin aftershock Thomas Julian Ahrens Australopithecus sediba Changhsingian Stage Charrier coffee crurotarsan Dreadnoughtus Drumian Stage Hirnantian Stage James Lovelock Ludfordian Stage Nepal earthquake of 2015 New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 12 Margaret Morse Nice Tahina palm Tangshan earthquake of 1976 Tarantian Stage vervet Jeanne Villepreux Power Christchurch earthquakes of 2010 2011 Ruth Myrtle Patrick Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 The Brontosaurus Returns Year In Review 2015 Martins Dukurs Marcel Hirscher Managing Endangered Species Year In Review 2015 Super Typhoon Haiyan Erciş Van earthquake of 2011 king penguin macaroni penguin Steve Easterbrook Kenneth Pletcher Senior Editor Geography Encyclopædia Britannica Pletcher holds an M A in Japanese studies from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign As part of his master s program he spent an academic year studying in Kobe Japan He also received a B A from the same institution in political science with a minor in Asian studies He has been at Britannica since 1979 Contributions The Troubled 2014 Everest Climbing Season Year In Review 2014 The Shanghai Expo Year In Review 2010 Super Typhoon Haiyan Scourges Southeastern Asia in 2013 Year In Review 2013 Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami Year

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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
    houses boats cars trucks and other debris along with them As the extent of the destruction became known it became clear how many thousands of people were missing including in some cases half or more of a locality s population Among those who initially were unaccounted for were people on a ship that was washed away by the tsunami and passengers on several trains reported as missing in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures The ship was later found and the people on board rescued and all trains were located as well Ultimately the official total for the number of those confirmed dead or listed as missing from the disaster was about 18 500 although other estimates gave a final toll of at least 20 000 Of those fewer than 100 were from prefectures other than Iwate Miyagi and Fukushima Miyagi prefecture suffered the greatest losses with some 10 800 killed or missing and another 4 100 injured The great majority of those killed overall were drowning victims of the tsunami waves In addition more than half of the victims were age 65 years or older Although nearly all of the deaths and much of the destruction was caused by the tsunami waves along Japan s Pacific coastline the earthquake was responsible for considerable damage over a wide area Notable were fires in several cities including a petrochemical plant in Sendai a portion of the city of Kesennuma in Miyagi prefecture northeast of Sendai and an oil refinery at Ichihara in Chiba prefecture near Tokyo In Fukushima Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures thousands of homes were completely or partially destroyed by the temblor and aftershocks Infrastructure also was heavily affected throughout eastern Tōhoku as roads and rail lines were damaged electric power was knocked out and water and sewerage systems were disrupted In Fukushima a dam burst close to the prefectural capital Fukushima city Northern Japan s nuclear emergency Two of the damaged containment buildings at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant northeastern Tokyo Electric Power Co Kyodo News AP Of significant concern following the main shock and tsunami was the status of several nuclear power stations in the Tōhoku region The reactors at the three nuclear power plants closest to the quake s epicentre were shut down automatically following the temblor which also cut the main power to those plants and their cooling systems However inundation by the tsunami waves damaged the backup generators at some of those plants most notably at the Fukushima Daiichi Number One plant situated along the Pacific coast in northeastern Fukushima prefecture about 60 miles 100 km south of Sendai With power gone the cooling systems failed in three reactors within the first few days of the disaster and their cores subsequently overheated leading to partial meltdowns of the fuel rods Some plant workers however attributed at least one partial meltdown to coolant pipe bursts caused by the earthquake s ground vibrations Melted material fell to the bottom of the containment vessels in reactors 1 and 2 and burned sizable holes through the floor of each vessel which partially exposed the nuclear material in the cores Explosions resulting from the buildup of pressurized hydrogen gas in the outer containment buildings enclosing reactors 1 2 and 3 along with a fire touched off by rising temperatures in spent fuel rods stored in reactor 4 led to the release of significant levels of radiation from the facility in the days and weeks following the earthquake Workers sought to cool and stabilize the damaged reactors by pumping seawater and boric acid into them Because of concerns over possible radiation exposure Japanese officials established an 18 mile 30 km no fly zone around the facility and an area of 12 5 miles 20 km around the plant was evacuated The evacuation zone was later extended to the 18 mile no fly radius within which residents were asked to leave or remain indoors The appearance of increased levels of radiation in some local food and water supplies prompted officials in Japan and overseas to issue warnings about their consumption At the end of March seawater near the Daiichi facility was discovered to have been contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine 131 The contamination stemmed from the exposure of pumped in seawater to radiation inside the facility this water later leaked into the ocean through cracks in water filled trenches and tunnels between the facility and the ocean In mid April Japanese nuclear regulators elevated the severity level of the nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi facility from 5 to 7 the highest level on the scale created by the International Atomic Energy Agency placing the Fukushima accident in the same category as the Chernobyl accident which had occurred in the Soviet Union in 1986 Radiation levels remained high in the evacuation zone and it was thought that the area might be uninhabitable for decades However several months after the accident government officials announced that radiation levels in five towns located just beyond the original 12 5 mile evacuation zone had declined enough that they could allow residents to return to their homes Although some people did come back others stayed away concerned about the amount of radioactive materials still in the soil Attempts were made in several of those areas to remove contaminated soil In December 2011 Japanese Prime Minister Noda Yoshihiko declared the Fukushima Daiichi facility stable after the cold shutdown of its reactors had been completed In the years following the accident numerous leaks at the facility occurred at the site where contaminated reactor cooling water was stored A significant leak occurred in August 2013 that was severe enough to prompt Japan s Nuclear Regulation Authority to classify it as a level 3 nuclear incident Relief and rebuilding efforts Members of the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force in rescue and recovery operations in Matt Dunham AP In the first hours after the earthquake Japanese Prime Minister Kan Naoto moved to set up an emergency command centre in Tokyo and

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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    buildings at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Japanese Members of the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force in rescue and recovery operations Sendai United States government officials visiting U S government officials right visiting a temporary shelter near Sendai Miyagi Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami Soldiers in Japan s Self Defense Force rescue a resident of Kesennuma in Miyagi Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami Houses are engulfed in flames while tsunami waves flood the Natori River and devastate Japan s Deadly Earthquake and Tsunami Aerial view of the destruction in Sendai Miyagi prefecture Japan three days Ōtsuchi 2011 earthquake and tsunami Stranded ferryboat amid piles of debris in Ōtsuchi Iwate prefecture Japan after Photograph A man being rescued from floating debris on March 13 2011 off the coast of Futaba Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 aerial view Aerial view of damage to Ōtsuchi Iwate prefecture Japan after the March 11 Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 aerial view Aerial view showing the extent of damage to Ōtsuchi Iwate prefecture Japan Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Sendai Airport Sendai Airport Natori Miyagi prefecture Japan on March 13 2011 showing the Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 satellite False colour satellite images illustrating the differences in water level in Ishinomaki Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 rescue efforts An American rescue team from Virginia U S searching for survivors of the March Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 aftermath A mother and daughter standing in the wreckage of their home destroyed by the Photograph U S Navy personnel from Misawa Aomori prefecture Japan help a Japanese official Japan earthquake of 2011 relief efforts U S sailors aboard the USS Ronald Reagan off the coast of Japan loading Fukushima accident A man is checked

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  • View History: Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    Kenneth Pletcher Mar 09 2012 Measurements of the shifting seafloor updated statements noting that earthquake driven coolant pipe bursts may have caused partial meltdown of at least one reactor at Fukushima and that the Fukushima facility was now stable added John P Rafferty Dec 21 2011 Article revised and updated Kenneth Pletcher John P Rafferty Oct 06 2011 Information on casualties and refugees updated for the six month mark since the disaster mention added of evacuees from the zone around the nuclear plant Kenneth Pletcher Sep 09 2011 Added mention of the effect of the tsunami in Antarctica and updated figures for casualties and those still homeless Kenneth Pletcher Aug 10 2011 Information on total casualties from the tsunami and number of people in shelters updated with latest statistical data Kenneth Pletcher Jun 24 2011 Article revised and updated Kenneth Pletcher John P Rafferty May 27 2011 Text describing the damage to the containment vessel of reactor 1 added figures related to the number of deaths and to the number of refugees updated Kenneth Pletcher John P Rafferty May 13 2011 The number of dead or missing from the 2011 earthquake and tsunami and of those still in shelters updated with figures from the end of April Kenneth Pletcher Apr 29 2011 Paragraph added describing the severity level of the nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi facility Information on repair of infrastructure also updated Kenneth Pletcher John P Rafferty Apr 15 2011 Text noting the occurrence two aftershocks exceeding magnitude 7 0 added In addition the release of radioactive cooling water into the ocean and the number of remaining refugees updated Kenneth Pletcher John P Rafferty Apr 08 2011 Updated the dead and missing toll the number of homeless and the situation with radiation levels near the stricken nuclear reactors

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  • Feedback: Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Britannica.com
    you have other ideas for improving this article Let us know We d also like to know what sources you ve found that support the changes you d like to see Your feedback has been submitted successfully There was a problem submitting your feedback Please try again later Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History

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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Northern Japan's nuclear emergency | Britannica.com
    the end of March seawater near the Daiichi facility was discovered to have been contaminated with high levels of radioactive iodine 131 The contamination stemmed from the exposure of pumped in seawater to radiation inside the facility this water later leaked into the ocean through cracks in water filled trenches and tunnels between the facility and the ocean In mid April Japanese nuclear regulators elevated the severity level of the nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi facility from 5 to 7 the highest level on the scale created by the International Atomic Energy Agency placing the Fukushima accident in the same category as the Chernobyl accident which had occurred in the Soviet Union in 1986 Radiation levels remained high in the evacuation zone and it was thought that the area might be uninhabitable for decades However several months after the accident government officials announced that radiation levels in five towns located just beyond the original 12 5 mile evacuation zone had declined enough that they could allow residents to return to their homes Although some people did come back others stayed away concerned about the amount of radioactive materials still in the soil Attempts were made in several of those areas to remove contaminated soil In December 2011 Japanese Prime Minister Noda Yoshihiko declared the Fukushima Daiichi facility stable after the cold shutdown of its reactors had been completed In the years following the accident numerous leaks at the facility occurred at the site where contaminated reactor cooling water was stored A significant leak occurred in August 2013 that was severe enough to prompt Japan s Nuclear Regulation Authority to classify it as a level 3 nuclear incident Images quizzes Lists Previous Page 1 2 3 4 Next Page Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 4 2015 You may also be interested in Kōbe earthquake of 1995 Tokyo Yokohama earthquake of 1923 kamikaze of 1274 and 1281 World War II World War I Treaty of Versailles Tokugawa Ieyasu Russian Civil War Douglas MacArthur Pearl Harbor attack Russo Japanese War Abe Shinzo Keep exploring Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction History Buff Quiz Journey Around the World 7 Alphabet Soup Agencies that Stuck Around What made you want to look up Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Please select the sections you want to print Select All Table of contents Introduction The earthquake and tsunami Aftermath of the disaster Relief and rebuilding efforts Related articles affected areas The earthquake and tsunami in pictures Cancel MLA style Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc

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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Relief and rebuilding efforts | Britannica.com
    the ongoing situation at the Fukushima plant resulting in temporary power outages and rolling blackouts The loss of businesses and factories from earthquake and tsunami damage as well as the uncertainties surrounding the power supply severely reduced the region s manufacturing output in the months following the disaster Industries most affected included those producing semiconductors and other high technology items and automobiles By late summer however the economy was again growing briskly as many of the affected businesses were able to resume at least limited production In the first months of 2012 industrial output essentially reached the level it had been at before the disaster In 2011 first the Kan and then the Noda administration proposed and pushed through the legislature three disaster related supplemental budgets The third and largest of these approved in November provided some 155 billion the bulk of the funds earmarked for reconstruction in devastated areas In addition in February 2012 the government established a cabinet level Reconstruction Agency to coordinate rebuilding efforts in the Tōhoku area The agency was scheduled to be in operation for 10 years the length of time it was projected to completely restore the region In early 2015 the agency reported that nearly all the disaster debris had been removed In addition it noted that work had started on about three fourths of the planned coastal infrastructure e g seawall construction in the affected areas and was at least under way on nearly all the higher ground sites designated for rebuilding away from low lying coastal areas Related articles affected areas For coverage of some of the places affected by the earthquake and tsunami see the following Britannica articles Fukushima prefecture Ibaraki prefecture Iwate prefecture Miyagi prefecture Hachinohe Hitachinaka Ichihara Iwaki Ishinomaki Kamaishi Kesennuma Kitaibaraki Miyako Sendai Shiogama The earthquake and tsunami in pictures Images of the aftermath of the severe earthquake and resulting tsunami in northern Japan in 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 A ferryboat washed inland by the tsunami in Ōtsuchi Rescuers attempting to reach a tsunami victim in Futaba Members of the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force conducting rescue and recovery operations in Ōfunato Aerial view of the damage to Ōtsuchi Aerial view showing the inland extent of damage to Ōtsuchi from the tsunami Debris and water covering much of Sendai Airport Satellite images of Ishinomaki Japan from Aug 8 2008 top and March 14 2011 indicating the rise in water level caused by the March 11 2011 tsunami An American rescue team searching for survivors in Ōfunato A mother and daughter standing in the wreckage of their home in Ōfunato U S Navy personnel helping to salvage fishing gear in Aomori prefecture following the earthquake and tsunami U S sailors aboard a ship off the coast of Japan loading relief supplies onto a helicopter for delivery to victims of the earthquake and tsunami A man being checked for radiation exposure in Fukushima prefecture John P Rafferty Kenneth Pletcher Images quizzes Lists Previous Page 1 2

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