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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011: Honshu island coast, March 11, 2011 | Encyclopedia Britannica
    of the northeastern coast of Honshu Japan following the offshore earthquake and resultant tsunami there on March 11 2011 Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Dylan McCord U S Navy photo MEDIA FOR Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Citation MLA

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011/images-videos/Aerial-view-of-damage-to-a-portion-of-the-northeastern/154567 (2016-02-13)
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  • earthquake | geology | Britannica.com
    after the San Andreas Fault ruptured in 1906 generating the great San Francisco earthquake According to the theory a tectonic earthquake occurs when strains in rock masses have accumulated to a point where the resulting stresses exceed the strength of the rocks and sudden fracturing results The fractures propagate rapidly through the rock usually tending in the same direction and sometimes extending many kilometres along a local zone of weakness In 1906 for instance the San Andreas Fault slipped along a plane 430 km 270 miles long Along this line the ground was displaced horizontally as much as 6 metres 20 feet As a fault rupture progresses along or up the fault rock masses are flung in opposite directions and thus spring back to a position where there is less strain At any one point this movement may take place not at once but rather in irregular steps these sudden slowings and restartings give rise to the vibrations that propagate as seismic waves Such irregular properties of fault rupture are now included in the modeling of earthquake sources both physically and mathematically Roughnesses along the fault are referred to as asperities and places where the rupture slows or stops are said to be fault barriers Fault rupture starts at the earthquake focus a spot that in many cases is close to 5 15 km under the surface The rupture propagates in one or both directions over the fault plane until stopped or slowed at a barrier Sometimes instead of being stopped at the barrier the fault rupture recommences on the far side at other times the stresses in the rocks break the barrier and the rupture continues Earthquakes have different properties depending on the type of fault slip that causes them as shown in the figure The usual fault model has a strike that is the direction from north taken by a horizontal line in the fault plane and a dip the angle from the horizontal shown by the steepest slope in the fault The lower wall of an inclined fault is called the footwall Lying over the footwall is the hanging wall When rock masses slip past each other parallel to the strike the movement is known as strike slip faulting Movement parallel to the dip is called dip slip faulting Strike slip faults are right lateral or left lateral depending on whether the block on the opposite side of the fault from an observer has moved to the right or left In dip slip faults if the hanging wall block moves downward relative to the footwall block it is called normal faulting the opposite motion with the hanging wall moving upward relative to the footwall produces reverse or thrust faulting All known faults are assumed to have been the seat of one or more earthquakes in the past though tectonic movements along faults are often slow and most geologically ancient faults are now aseismic that is they no longer cause earthquakes The actual faulting associated with an earthquake

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/earthquake-geology (2016-02-13)
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  • tsunami | water wave | Britannica.com
    the roofs of houses in Alexandria Egypt while also ruining nearby croplands by inundating them with salt water One of the most destructive tsunamis in recorded history took place on December 26 2004 after an earthquake of magnitude 9 1 displaced the ocean floor off the Indonesian island of Sumatra Two hours later waves as high as 9 metres 30 feet struck the eastern coasts of India and Sri Lanka some 1 200 km 750 miles away Within seven hours of the quake waves washed ashore on the Horn of Africa more than 3 000 km 1 800 miles away on the other side of the Indian Ocean More than 200 000 people were killed most of them on Sumatra but thousands of others in Thailand India and Sri Lanka and smaller numbers in Malaysia Myanmar Bangladesh Maldives Somalia and other locations see Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 On March 11 2011 seafloor displacement resulting from a magnitude 9 0 earthquake in the Japan Trench of the Pacific Ocean created a large tsunami that devastated much of the eastern coast of Japan s main island of Honshu Waves measuring as much as 10 metres 33 feet high struck the city of Sendai and other low lying coastal regions of Miyagi prefecture as well as coastal areas in the prefectures of Iwate Fukushima Ibaraki and Chiba Several hours later waves measuring 3 3 to 3 6 metres 11 to 12 feet were detected in the Hawaiian Islands chain and waves measuring about 2 7 metres 9 feet high washed ashore along the West Coast of the United States see Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Other tsunamis of note include those that followed the spectacular explosive eruption of the Krakatoa Krakatau volcano on August 26 and 27 1883 and the Chile earthquake of 1960 A series of blasts from Krakatoa submerged the island of Rakata between Sumatra and Java created waves as high as 35 metres 115 feet in many East Indies localities and killed more than 36 000 people The largest earthquake ever recorded magnitude 9 5 took place in 1960 off the coast of Chile and it caused a tsunami that killed approximately 2 000 people in Chile 61 people 15 hours later in Hawaii and 122 people 22 hours later in Japan Tsunami warning systems Chile earthquake of 1960 tsunami Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The hazards presented by tsunamis have brought many countries in the Pacific basin to establish tsunami warning systems A warning may begin with an alert by a geological society that an earthquake large enough to disturb the ocean s surface for instance magnitude 7 0 or higher has occurred Meteorological agencies may then report unusual changes in sea level and then the warning centre may combine this information with data on the depth and features of the ocean floor in order to estimate the path magnitude and arrival time of the tsunami Depending on the distance from the seismic disturbance government authorities may have several

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/tsunami (2016-02-13)
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  • Tohoku | region, Japan | Britannica.com
    and cool easterly winds during the growing season The highly indented coast of the Kitakami Range is subject to destructive tsunamis ocean waves caused by earthquakes including the devastating series of earthquake generated tsunamis in March 2011 that laid waste to much of the region s eastern coastline Fukushima prefecture paddy fields Brian Adler Tōhoku depends chiefly on agriculture and is often referred to as the rice granary of Japan Fruit is also grown and cattle are raised During the 1950s dams were constructed in the mountains of Tōhoku to form a hydropower generation area Primary industries include forestry mining and fishing The region is known for such traditional manufactures as lacquerware iron and copper utensils toys and textiles During the late 1970s industrial agglomerations began forming in cities such as Hachinohe Akita Sendai and Kōriyama Communications were improved by the Seikan Tunnel a submarine tunnel between Aomori and Hokkaido completed in 1988 and the northward extension of the Shinkansen bullet train which began service to Aomori city in 2010 Tourism has grown rapidly based on several national parks and other scenic areas and numerous hot springs Urban growth has been comparatively slow however Area 25 825 square miles 66 886 square km Pop 2010 9 335 636 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 27 2015 You may also be interested in Honshu Japan Emperors and Empresses Regnant of Japan list of prime ministers of Japan Asia Fukushima accident Tokyo Yokohama Metropolitan Area Sendai Fukushima Miyagi Akashi Strait Bridge Iwate Keep exploring Hit the Road Quiz It s All in the Name World Tour Food for Thought The Origins of 6 Favorite Foods 6 Common Infections We Wish Never Existed What made you want to look up T ō hoku To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Tohoku Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Tohoku APA style Tohoku 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Tohoku Harvard style Tohoku 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Tohoku Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Tohoku accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Tohoku While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Tohoku (2016-02-13)
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  • Fukushima accident | Japan [2011] | Britannica.com
    a fire touched off by rising temperatures in spent fuel rods stored in reactor 4 led to the release of higher levels of radiation from the plant Fukushima accident Wally Santana AP In the days that followed some 47 000 residents left their homes and workers at the plant made several attempts to cool the reactors using truck mounted water cannons and water dropped from helicopters Those efforts met with some success which temporarily slowed the release of radiation however they were suspended several times after rising steam or smoke signaled an increased risk of radiation exposure As workers continued their attempts to cool the reactors the appearance of increased levels of radiation in some local food and water supplies prompted Japanese and international officials to issue warnings about their consumption At the end of March the evacuation zone was expanded to 30 km around the plant and ocean water near the plant was discovered to have been contaminated with high levels of iodine 131 which resulted from leakage of radioactive water through cracks in trenches and tunnels between the plant and the ocean On April 6 plant officials announced that those cracks had been sealed and later that month workers began to pump the irradiated water to an on site storage building until it could be properly treated On April 12 nuclear regulators elevated the severity level of the nuclear emergency from 5 to 7 the highest level on the scale created by the International Atomic Energy Agency placing it in the same category as the Chernobyl accident which had occurred in the Soviet Union in 1986 Several months after the Fukushima disaster radiation levels remained high in the evacuation zone and government officials remarked that the area may be uninhabitable for decades However they also announced that radiation levels had declined enough in some towns located just beyond the original 20 km evacuation zone that residents could return to their homes there In the middle of December Japanese Prime Minister Noda Yoshihiko declared the facility stable after the cold shutdown of the reactors was completed In August 2013 approximately 300 tonnes 330 tons of irradiated water used in ongoing cooling operations in reactors 1 2 and 3 was discharged into the landscape surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi facility TEPCO officials reported that the leak was the result of an open valve in the short barrier wall that surrounded several of the tanks used in radioactive water storage The leak was severe enough to prompt Japan s Nuclear Regulation Authority to classify it as a level 3 nuclear incident Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Toya Maru ferry disaster World War II World War I Treaty of Versailles Tokugawa Ieyasu Russian Civil War Pearl Harbor attack Douglas MacArthur Russo Japanese War Abe Shinzo Millard Fillmore Tokugawa period Keep exploring Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction Disasters of Historic Proportion Journey Around the World Editor Picks Top 10 Must Visit Fictional Lands 7 Quintessential National

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Fukushima-accident (2016-02-13)
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  • Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011: depiction of the intensity of shaking on main island, Honshu, caused by the earthquake of March 11, 2011 | Encyclopedia Britannica
    March 11 2011 Map of the northern part of Japan s main island of Honshu depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of March 11 2011 Encyclop dia Britannica Inc MEDIA FOR Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011/images-videos/Map-of-the-northern-part-of-Japans-main-island-of/154525 (2016-02-13)
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  • epicentre | seismology | Britannica.com
    Suck Blood What made you want to look up epicentre To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Science Quiz The Human Body Weather and Seasons Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style epicentre Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com science epicentre APA style epicentre 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com science epicentre Harvard style epicentre 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com science epicentre Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v epicentre accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com science epicentre While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/science/epicentre (2016-02-13)
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  • Sendai | Miyagi prefecture, Japan | Britannica.com
    shrine of Osaki Hachiman is valued for its architectural beauty Tourists from throughout Japan are attracted to the city by the annual Tanabata Matsuri Star Festival August 6 8 and to nearby Matsushima Bay portions of which are renowned for their scenery Sendai aerial view of destruction in Sendai after March 11 2011 earthquake and tsunami Airman 1st Class Katrina R Menchaca U S Air Force photo On March 11 2011 northern Japan was struck by a massive underwater earthquake magnitude 9 0 centred in the Pacific about 80 miles 130 km east of Sendai The temblor and numerous aftershocks did significant damage to the city and region especially in prefectures south of the city However the worst destruction came from large tsunami waves generated by the quake that swept through low lying areas of the city and penetrated several miles inland in some places The areas inundated were largely destroyed and because the city s residents had so little warning before the tsunami struck thousands of people were killed or were missing and presumed dead Rescue efforts quickly turned largely to relief and recovery operations as the city struggled to assist the thousands of people displaced by the disaster repair damaged infrastructure and restore municipal services Pop 2010 prelim city 1 045 903 2009 est metro area 2 362 000 Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Fukushima accident Tōhoku Fukushima Honshu Miyagi Ishinomaki Kesennuma Shiogama Asia Kyōto Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 Mount Fuji Keep exploring Capitals Cities Fact or Fiction Hit the Road Quiz World Cities Editor Picks The 10 Greatest Basketball Players of All Time 10 Incredible Uses for Eggs What made you want to look up Sendai To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Sendai Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com place Sendai Miyagi prefecture Japan APA style Sendai 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com place Sendai Miyagi prefecture Japan Harvard style Sendai 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com place Sendai Miyagi prefecture Japan Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Sendai accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com place Sendai Miyagi prefecture Japan While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Sendai-Miyagi-prefecture-Japan (2016-02-13)
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