archive-com.com » COM » B » BRITANNICA.COM

Total: 1375

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu | shogun of Japan | Britannica.com
    Sumpu the founder of the last shogunate in Japan the Tokugawa or Edo shogunate 1603 1867 Early life Ieyasu was born into the family of a local warrior situated several miles east of modern Nagoya one of many such families struggling to survive in a brutal age of endemic civil strife His childhood was scarcely auspicious His father Matsudaira Hirotada was involved in a network of shifting alliances that repeatedly

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Tokugawa-Ieyasu (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Russian Civil War | Russian history | Britannica.com
    armies Seeds of conflict The Treaty of Brest Litovsk whereby Russia yielded large portions of its territory to Germany caused a breach between the Bolsheviks Communists and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries who thereupon left the coalition In the next months there was a marked drawing together of two main groups of Russian opponents of Vladimir I Lenin 1 the non Bolshevik left who had been finally alienated from Lenin by

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Russian-Civil-War (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Douglas MacArthur | United States general | Britannica.com
    until the Leyte operation did he have overwhelming logistical support his earlier plans had been executed despite inadequacies of personnel and matériel and with little assistance from the Pacific Fleet MacArthur seriously questioned his superiors decision to give priority to the European war over the Pacific conflict and to the Central Pacific Theater over his Southwest Pacific area Wainwright Jonathan M MacArthur signing the agreement by which Japan surrendered to Allied forces 1945 Lt C F Wheeler Navy U S Department of Defense His largest costliest operations occurred during the seven month Luzon campaign in 1945 That spring he also undertook the reconquest of the southern Philippines and Borneo Meanwhile he left the difficult mopping up operations in New Guinea and the Solomons to the Australian Army He was promoted to general of the army in December 1944 and was appointed commander of all U S army forces in the Pacific four months later He was in charge of the surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on September 2 1945 As Allied commander of the Japanese occupation in 1945 51 MacArthur effectively if autocratically directed the demobilization of Japanese military forces the expurgation of militarists the restoration of the economy and the drafting of a liberal constitution Significant reforms were inaugurated in land redistribution education labour public health and women s rights While he was in Japan MacArthur also headed the army s Far East command UN command in Korean War Inch ŏn landing MacArthur Almond and Whiting observing American troops landing at Inch ŏn South Korea September 1950 NARA When the Korean War began in 1950 MacArthur was soon selected to command United Nations forces there After stemming the North Korean advance near Pusan he carried out a daring landing at Inch ŏn in September and advanced into North Korea in October as the North Korean Army rapidly disintegrated In November however massive Chinese forces attacked MacArthur s divided army above the 38th parallel and forced it to retreat to below Seoul Two months later MacArthur s troops returned to the offensive driving into North Korea again MacArthur Douglas retirement speech Stock footage courtesy The WPA Film Library On April 11 1951 Pres Harry S Truman relieved MacArthur of his commands because of the general s insubordination and unwillingness to conduct a limited war Returning to the United States for the first time since before World War II MacArthur at first received widespread popular support the excitement waned after a publicized Senate investigation of his dismissal In 1944 1948 and 1952 conservative Republican groups tried in vain to obtain MacArthur s nomination for the presidency MacArthur accepted the board chairmanship of the Remington Rand Corporation in 1952 thereafter except for these duties and rare public appearances he lived in seclusion in New York City He died in Washington D C in 1964 and was buried at Norfolk Virginia In personality MacArthur was enigmatic and contradictory To many he seemed imperious aloof egotistical and pretentious To others especially his headquarters staff

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Douglas-MacArthur (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Abe Shinzo | prime minister of Japan | Britannica.com
    further controversy over his views on the sovereignty of islands in the Pacific that were disputed between China and Japan as well as for his stance favouring revision of the pacifism clause in the Japanese constitution Nonetheless the LDP won a landslide victory in lower house elections on December 16 2012 On December 26 the new LDP majority in the chamber bolstered by the members of the party s coalition partner New Kōmeitō overwhelmingly approved Abe as prime minister He replaced the DPJ s Noda Yoshihiko who resigned from office that day Abe quickly launched an ambitious economic program intended to stimulate the long moribund Japanese economy and help speed the recovery of the northeastern Honshu Tōhoku region devastated by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami The program quickly dubbed Abenomics included measures such as raising the inflation rate allowing the value of the yen to fall against the U S dollar and other foreign currencies and increasing the money supply and government spending on major public works projects The Abe government received a big political boost in the July 2013 elections to the upper house of the Diet when candidates from the LDP and its New Kōmeitō allies won enough seats to guarantee them a majority in that chamber Abe s economic program seemed to be working initially with strong growth in 2013 and the first half of 2014 and a drop in the unemployment rate However the second of a three step increase in the national consumption sales tax enacted in 2012 by the DPJ led government in April 2014 contributed to a dramatic drop in Japan s economy during the rest of the year By autumn the country had fallen into recession and Abe s approval rating was plummeting He decided to dissolve the lower house and call for snap parliamentary elections which were held on December 14 2014 Abe and the LDP won by a large margin ensuring that he would retain the prime minister s office Voters however expressed little enthusiasm for the polling and turned out in record low numbers Following the LDP s strong electoral win the Abe administration actively pursued revision of the Japanese constitution In 2014 the cabinet had approved a reinterpretation of the so called peace clause of the constitution which paved the way for it to endorse bills in May 2015 that would make it easier for Japan to use military force if the country were attacked or threatened Those bills subsequently were passed by the lower house in July and the upper house in September Popular opposition to the measures was strong however with former prime minister Murayama Tomiichi joining the protestors Abe s government also faced controversy over the proposed new stadium in Tokyo for the 2020 Olympic Games The venue s design by architect Dame Zaha Hadid initially had been accepted but in 2015 was rejected amid concerns over ballooning construction costs Abe s position in the LDP remained strong however and in September 2015 he was

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Abe-Shinzo (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Mountains and the Sea: Fact or Fiction Quiz | Britannica.com
    your score When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results Mountains and the Sea Fact or Fiction vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score Science Aitch Two Oh Literature Language Getting Into Fictional Character Music A Study of Music Fact or Fiction Technology Electronics Gadgets Quiz History American Personalities Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/mountains-and-the-sea-fact-or-fiction (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • History Buff Quiz | Britannica.com
    When you re done try again to beat your best score vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score History Buff Quiz vm state secondsLeft fixedLength 2 QUESTION vm state currentQuestion 1 of vm questions length Timer Score vm state score History Buff Quiz 0 vm state nextLabel Quiz Results History Buff Quiz vm state numberCorrect vm questions length correct vm state score vm maxPoints points Replay Share your score Log in to save your score History Human Exploration From Earth to Space Food Vegetable Medley Fact or Fiction Arts Culture Artists Painters Architects Science April Showers to March s Lions and Lambs Health Medicine Blood Fact or Fiction Are you a Quizmaster Log in to save your score and compete against the community Compare your score Max Score vm maxPoints New Best Score vm state score vm communityAverage number 0 Your Score Community Average High scores Your results vm state responsesVisible Hide Show Answers Questions Correct vm state numberCorrect vm questions length Total Score vm state score vm maxPoints Question Question index 1 Your Answer No response vm state responses index isCorrect Your Correct Answer Back to Top

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/quiz/history-buff-quiz (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Web sites: Open Door policy | United States-China [1899, 1900] | Britannica.com
    Door Policy Student Encyclopedia Ages 11 and up Following its defeat by Japan in 1895 China found itself too weakened to resist the demands of a number of powerful countries for political and economic concessions see China History Eventually the United States and major European countries became alarmed Submit a Web site Name URL Description I agree to the Terms and Conditions Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Open-Door-policy/article-websites (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Open Door policy -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
    Wangxia Wanghia 1844 Great Britain had greater interests in China than any other power and successfully maintained the policy of the open door until the late 19th century After the first Sino Japanese War 1894 95 however a scramble for spheres of influence in various parts of coastal China primarily by Russia France Germany and Great Britain began Within each of those spheres the controlling major power claimed exclusive privileges of investment and it was feared that each would likewise seek to monopolize the trade Moreover it was generally feared that the breakup of China into economic segments dominated by various great powers would lead to complete subjection and the division of the country into colonies The crisis in China coincided with several major developments in the United States A new interest in foreign markets had emerged there following the economic depression of the 1890s The United States also had just gained the Philippines Guam and Hawaii as a result of the Spanish American War 1898 and was becoming increasingly interested in China where American textile manufacturers had found markets for cheap cotton goods The 1899 Open Door notes provided that 1 each great power should maintain free access to a treaty port or to any other vested interest within its sphere 2 only the Chinese government should collect taxes on trade and 3 no great power having a sphere should be granted exemptions from paying harbour dues or railroad charges The replies from the various countries were evasive but Hay interpreted them as acceptances In reaction to the presence of European armies in northern China to suppress the Boxer Rebellion 1900 Hay s second circular of 1900 stressed the importance of preserving China s territorial and administrative integrity Hay did not ask for replies but all the powers except

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/print/article/429642 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive



  •