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  • Open Door policy | Britannica.com
    Door Policy You may also be interested in Media for Barack Obama Media for Napoleon I Media for George W Bush Media for Adolf Hitler Keep Exploring European History A Study of History Fact or Fiction 9 Nineties Babies with Britannica Bios 10 Articles of Clothing That Deserve a Comeback New 7 Wonders of the World Southeast Asian Arts About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of

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  • View History: Open Door policy | United States-China [1899, 1900] | Britannica.com
    Add new Web site Buzzle com Open Door Policy Surabhi Sinha Jul 01 2013 Add new Web site The Open University Open Door Policy Surabhi Sinha Jul 01 2013 Article updated and transliteration changed to Pinyin Zhihou Xia Aug 22 2008 Added new Web site Turner Classic Movies Biography of Christian Bale Gaurav Shukla Jan 22 2008 Added new Web site United States History The Open Door Policy Gaurav Shukla

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  • Feedback: Open Door policy | United States-China [1899, 1900] | Britannica.com
    have other ideas for improving this article Let us know We d also like to know what sources you ve found that support the changes you d like to see Your feedback has been submitted successfully There was a problem submitting your feedback Please try again later Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas

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  • Open Door Policy | Encyclopedia Britannica
    United States Great Britain and Japan pitted against those opposed to it Russia Germany and France 1898 Library of Congress Washington D C LC DIG ppmsca 28630 MEDIA FOR Open Door policy Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From

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  • John Hay | United States statesman | Britannica.com
    policy which was designed to counter the trend toward divisive spheres of influence in the Orient In 1899 he sent diplomatic notes to six interested nations proposing equal trading rights in China for all nations This move was followed by a second Hay Open Door circular in the midst of the Boxer Rebellion in China 1900 proposing that all nations cooperate in preserving that country s territorial and administrative integrity In 1901 Hay negotiated with Great Britain the second Hay Pauncefote Treaty giving the United States exclusive rights to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama Two years later he assisted President Theodore Roosevelt in the diplomatic maneuvers leading to Panama s independence and the beginning of canal construction Throughout his life Hay found time to exercise his considerable literary talent and his Pike County Ballads and Other Pieces 1871 and his novel The Bread Winners 1883 were well received In collaboration with John G Nicolay he was also responsible for two historical works that remained standard for many years Abraham Lincoln A History 1890 and Lincoln s Complete Works 1894 The wealthy businessman John Hay Whitney was his grandson Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 3 19 2014 You may also be interested in Theodore Roosevelt George H W Bush Elihu Root Jeane Kirkpatrick George W Bush Ronald Reagan Richard Nixon Dwight D Eisenhower John Adams Gerald Ford Calvin Coolidge William McKinley Keep exploring USA Facts Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Literary Favorites Fact or Fiction All the World s a Stage 6 Places in Shakespeare Then and Now Our Days Are Numbered 7 Crazy Facts About Calendars What made you want to look up John Hay To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style John Hay Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography John Hay APA style John Hay 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography John Hay Harvard style John Hay 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography John Hay Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v John Hay accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography John Hay While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to

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  • United Kingdom | history - geography | Britannica.com
    England Scotland Wales and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom contains most of the area and population of the British Isles the geographic term for the group of islands that includes Great Britain Ireland and many smaller islands Together England Wales and Scotland constitute Great Britain the larger of the two principal islands while Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland constitute the second largest island Ireland England occupying most of southern Great Britain includes the Isles of Scilly off the southwest coast and the Isle of Wight off the southern coast Scotland occupying northern Great Britain includes the Orkney and Shetland islands off the northern coast and the Hebrides off the northwestern coast Wales lies west of England and includes the island of Anglesey to the northwest Apart from the land border with the Irish republic the United Kingdom is surrounded by sea To the south of England and between the United Kingdom and France is the English Channel The North Sea lies to the east To the west of Wales and northern England and to the southeast of Northern Ireland the Irish Sea separates Great Britain from Ireland while southwestern England the northwestern coast of Northern Ireland and western Scotland face the Atlantic Ocean At its widest the United Kingdom is 300 miles 500 km across From the northern tip of Scotland to the southern coast of England it is about 600 miles 1 000 km No part is more than 75 miles 120 km from the sea The capital London is situated on the tidal River Thames in southeastern England North Channel Michael Jennet Robert Harding Picture Library The archipelago formed by Great Britain and the numerous smaller islands is as irregular in shape as it is diverse in geology and landscape This diversity stems largely from the nature and disposition of the underlying rocks which are westward extensions of European structures with the shallow waters of the Strait of Dover and the North Sea concealing former land links Northern Ireland contains a westward extension of the rock structures of Scotland These common rock structures are breached by the narrow North Channel On a global scale this natural endowment covers a small area approximating that of the U S state of Oregon or the African country of Guinea and its internal diversity accompanied by rapid changes of often beautiful scenery may convey to visitors from larger countries a striking sense of compactness and consolidation The peoples who over the centuries have hewed an existence from this Atlantic extremity of Eurasia have put their own imprint on the environment and the ancient and distinctive palimpsest of their field patterns and settlements complements the natural diversity Relief Great Britain is traditionally divided into a highland and a lowland zone A line running from the mouth of the River Exe in the southwest to that of the Tees in the northeast is a crude expression of this division The course of the 700 foot 213 metre contour or of the boundary

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/United-Kingdom (2016-02-13)
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  • Italy | history - geography | Britannica.com
    Italian party system underwent a radical transformation and the political centre collapsed leaving a right left polarization of the party spectrum that threw the north south divide into sharper contrast and gave rise to such political leaders as media magnate Silvio Berlusconi The whole country is relatively prosperous certainly as compared with the early years of the 20th century when the economy was predominantly agricultural Much of that prosperity has to do with tourism for in good years nearly as many visitors as citizens can be found in the country Italy is part of the European Union and the Council of Europe and with its strategic geographic position on the southern flank of Europe it has played a fairly important role in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Roman Forum Pixland Thinkstock The capital is Rome one of the oldest of the world s great cities and a favourite of visitors who go there to see its great monuments and works of art as well as to enjoy the city s famed dolce vita or sweet life Other major cities include the industrial and fashion centre of Milan Genoa a handsome port on the Ligurian Gulf the sprawling southern metropolis of Naples and Venice one of the world s oldest tourist destinations Surrounded by Rome is an independent state Vatican City which is the seat of the Roman Catholic Church and the spiritual home of Italy s overwhelmingly Catholic population Each of those cities and countless smaller cities and towns has retained its differences against the leveling effect of the mass media and standardized education Thus many Italians particularly older ones are inclined to think of themselves as belonging to families then neighbourhoods then towns or cities then regions and then last as members of a nation The intellectual and moral faculties of humankind have found a welcome home in Italy one of the world s most important centres of religion visual arts literature music philosophy culinary arts and sciences Michelangelo Buonarroti the painter and sculptor believed that his work was to free an already existing image Giuseppe Verdi heard the voices of the ancients and of angels in music that came to him in his dreams Dante Alighieri forged a new language with his incomparable poems of heaven hell and the world between Those and many other Italian artists writers designers musicians chefs actors and filmmakers have brought extraordinary gifts to the world This article treats the physical and human geography and history of Italy For discussion of Classical history see the articles ancient Italic people and ancient Rome Land To the north the Alps separate Italy from France Switzerland Austria and Slovenia Elsewhere Italy is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea in particular by the Adriatic Sea to the northeast the Ionian Sea to the southeast the Tyrrhenian Sea to the southwest and the Ligurian Sea to the northwest Areas of plain which are practically limited to the great northern triangle of the Po valley cover only about one

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Italy (2016-02-13)
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  • Russia | history - geography | Britannica.com
    Poland and Lithuania To the south Russia borders North Korea China Mongolia and Kazakhstan Azerbaijan and Georgia To the southwest and west it borders Ukraine Belarus Latvia and Estonia as well as Finland and Norway Extending nearly halfway around the Northern Hemisphere and covering much of eastern and northeastern Europe and all of northern Asia Russia has a maximum east west extent of some 5 600 miles 9 000 km and a north south width of 1 500 to 2 500 miles 2 500 to 4 000 km There is an enormous variety of landforms and landscapes which occur mainly in a series of broad latitudinal belts Arctic deserts lie in the extreme north giving way southward to the tundra and then to the forest zones which cover about half of the country and give it much of its character South of the forest zone lie the wooded steppe and the steppe beyond which are small sections of semidesert along the northern shore of the Caspian Sea Much of Russia lies at latitudes where the winter cold is intense and where evaporation can barely keep pace with the accumulation of moisture engendering abundant rivers lakes and swamps Permafrost covers some 4 million square miles 10 million square km an area seven times larger than the drainage basin of the Volga River Europe s longest river making settlement and road building difficult in vast areas In the European areas of Russia the permafrost occurs in the tundra and the forest tundra zone In western Siberia permafrost occurs along the Yenisey River and it covers almost all areas east of the river except for south Kamchatka province Sakhalin Island and Primorsky Kray the Maritime Region Relief On the basis of geologic structure and relief Russia can be divided into two main parts western and eastern roughly along the line of the Yenisey River In the western section which occupies some two fifths of Russia s total area lowland plains predominate over vast areas broken only by low hills and plateaus In the eastern section the bulk of the terrain is mountainous although there are some extensive lowlands Given these topological factors Russia may be subdivided into six main relief regions the Kola Karelian region the Russian Plain the Ural Mountains the West Siberian Plain the Central Siberian Plateau and the mountains of the south and east The Kola Karelian region Kola Peninsula Novosti Press Agency Kola Karelia the smallest of Russia s relief regions lies in the northwestern part of European Russia between the Finnish border and the White Sea Karelia is a low ice scraped plateau with a maximum elevation of 1 896 feet 578 metres but for the most part it is below 650 feet 200 metres low ridges and knolls alternate with lake and marsh filled hollows The Kola Peninsula is similar but the small Khibiny mountain range rises to nearly 4 000 feet 1 200 metres Mineral rich ancient rocks lie at or near the surface in many

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Russia (2016-02-13)
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