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  • foreign policy | political science | Britannica.com
    you want to look up foreign policy To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Confucianism Famous Authors History Buff Quiz See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style foreign policy Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic foreign policy APA style foreign policy 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic foreign policy Harvard style foreign policy 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic foreign policy Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v foreign policy accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic foreign policy While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/foreign-policy (2016-02-13)
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  • Hay, John | Encyclopedia Britannica
    the Open Door Policy Courtesy of the U S Signal Corps MEDIA FOR Open Door policy Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this

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  • Treaty of Nanjing | China-United Kingdom [1842] | Britannica.com
    indemnity ceded the territory of Hong Kong and agreed to establish a fair and reasonable tariff British merchants who had previously been allowed to trade only at Guangzhou Canton were now permitted to trade at five treaty ports and with whomever they pleased see Canton system The treaty was supplemented in 1843 by the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue which allowed British citizens to be tried in British courts

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Nanjing (2016-02-13)
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  • Sino-Japanese War | 1894-1895 | Britannica.com
    countries for supremacy in Korea Korea had long been China s most important client state but its strategic location opposite the Japanese islands and its natural resources of coal and iron attracted Japan s interest In 1875 Japan which had begun to adopt Western technology forced Korea to open itself to foreign especially Japanese trade and to declare itself independent from China in its foreign relations Japan soon 100 of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Sino-Japanese-War-1894-1895 (2016-02-13)
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  • Philippines | history - geography | Britannica.com
    of the Moro Gulf A range also runs northwest southeast along the southwestern coast Near Mindanao s south central coast is Mount Apo which at 9 692 feet 2 954 metres is the highest peak in the Philippines A number of volcanic peaks surround Lake Sultan Alonto Lake Lanao and a low cordillera extends through the Zamboanga Peninsula in the far west Pinatubo Mount David H Harlow U S Geological Survey Although volcanoes are a conspicuous feature of the landscape there is relatively little volcanic activity There are altogether about 50 volcanoes of which more than 10 are known to be active Mount Pinatubo on Luzon once regarded as extinct was in 1991 the site of one of the world s largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th century All gradations of volcanoes can be seen from the almost perfect cone of Mayon which has been compared to Mount Fuji in Japan to old worn down volcanic stocks the present forms of which give little indication of their origin The several distinct volcanic areas are in south central and southern Luzon and on the islands of Negros Mindanao Jolo and elsewhere Tremors and earthquakes are common Drainage The most important rivers of the Philippines are the Cagayan Agno Pampanga Pasig and Bicol on Luzon and the Mindanao Río Grande de Mindanao and Agusan on Mindanao The northern plain between the Sierra Madre and the Cordillera Central is drained by the Cagayan while the central plain is drained in the north by the Agno and in the south by the Pampanga The Pasig which flows through the city of Manila was once commercially important as a nexus for interisland trade but is no longer navigable except by small craft heavy pollution has required significant cleanup efforts Most of the Bicol Peninsula lies in the Bicol basin On Mindanao the Agusan drains the fertile lands of the island s northeastern quadrant while the Mindanao River drains the Cotabato Valley in the southwest One of the Philippines most unique waterways lies underground emerging directly into the ocean at Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park on the island of Palawan the park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999 Volcano Island Peter Mouginis Mark Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii The largest lake in the archipelago with an area of 356 square miles 922 square km is Laguna de Bay on the island of Luzon Also on Luzon and just to the southwest of Laguna de Bay is Taal Lake which occupies 94 square miles 244 square km inside a volcanic crater a volcanic cone emerges from the lake s centre Lake Sultan Alonto on Mindanao is the country s second largest lake covering an area of 131 square miles 340 square km Soils The alluvial plains and terraces of Luzon and Mindoro have dark black cracking clays as well as younger soils that are especially suitable for rice cultivation Much of the land of the hilly and mountainous regions

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Philippines (2016-02-13)
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  • Guam | history - geography - island, Pacific Ocean | Britannica.com
    by majority public vote every four years Appeals may be made to the U S Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and to the U S Supreme Court Each of the island s villages is headed by a popularly elected mayor The mayors and vice mayors form the Mayors Council of Guam which makes recommendations regarding administrative and fiscal policies and acts as a liaison between the three branches of government the military communities and U S federal agencies Education is free and compulsory between ages 6 and 16 The University of Guam which opened in 1952 is a four year institution that also provides graduate programs at the master s degree level Health conditions are relatively advanced Facilities include public private and military hospitals and local clinics Life expectancies for men and women are roughly comparable to those of the United States The main causes of death include heart diseases cancers cerebrovascular diseases and accidents Cultural life Guam is culturally diverse with Chinese Japanese Filipino Korean and other Asian communities of significant size in addition to its indigenous population and people from the mainland United States As a centre of transportation and communication for the region it also attracts many islanders from various parts of Micronesia A large American style shopping mall in Dededo the Micronesia Mall is the largest shopping centre on the island and also serves as a cultural and recreational venue with movie theatres and an indoor amusement park Before World War II the villages were the main social and economic units preserving customs and traditions similar to those of 19th century Spain Fiestas held in commemoration of patron saints were great social and religious events of the year for each village and brought together people from many parts of the island Fiesta customs are still observed in Guam However changes in the social life and institutions of Guamanians have come about with economic development and increasing international contacts The extended family is the main social unit for most groups on Guam although many of the younger members travel and live in the United States The folk arts and handicrafts of Guam have enjoyed a revival since the late 20th century Various public and private groups have been created to promote music dance and other traditional cultural arts for the benefit of both the local community and tourists The University of Guam also promotes regional arts and culture U S national holidays are celebrated on the island as are several significant local dates such as Discovery Day March 6 which commemorates the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 There are daily and semiweekly newspapers and quarterly and monthly magazines published on Guam and several radio and television stations broadcast local and international news and features daily History Guam like the other Mariana Islands was settled by the second quarter of the 2nd millennium bce by an Indonesian Filipino people Archaeological research shows that by 800 ce they had developed a complex society that erected elaborate

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Guam (2016-02-13)
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  • Spanish-American War | Spain-United States | Britannica.com
    anchored Spanish fleet in a leisurely morning engagement in which only seven American seamen were wounded Manila itself was occupied by U S troops by August The elusive Spanish Caribbean fleet under Adm Pascual Cervera was located in Santiago harbour in Cuba by U S reconnaissance An army of regular troops and volunteers under Gen William Shafter and including Theodore Roosevelt and his 1st Volunteer Cavalry the Rough Riders landed on the coast east of Santiago and slowly advanced on the city in an effort to force Cervera s fleet out of the harbour Cervera led his squadron out of Santiago on July 3 and tried to escape westward along the coast In the ensuing battle all of his ships came under heavy fire from U S guns and were beached in a burning or sinking condition Santiago surrendered to Shafter on July 17 thus effectively ending the war By the Treaty of Paris signed Dec 10 1898 Spain renounced all claim to Cuba ceded Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States and transferred sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States for 20 million The Spanish American War was an important turning point in the history of both antagonists Spain s defeat decisively turned the nation s attention away from its overseas colonial adventures and inward upon its domestic needs a process that led to both a cultural and a literary renaissance and two decades of much needed economic development in Spain The victorious United States on the other hand emerged from the war a world power with far flung overseas possessions and a new stake in international politics that would soon lead it to play a determining role in the affairs of Europe Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 14 2015 You may also be interested in Battle of Santiago American Revolution The United States Army World War II World War I North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Helsinki Accords Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OECD Treaty of Paris James Wilkinson Peace of Paris Pinckney s Treaty Keep exploring USA Facts Weapons and Warfare History Buff Quiz 5 Fascinating Battles of the African Colonial Era 9 Precursors to Science Fiction What made you want to look up Spanish American War To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Spanish American War Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Spanish American War APA style Spanish American War 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Spanish American War Harvard style Spanish American War 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12

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  • treaty port | Asian history | Britannica.com
    institutions came Western ways of life and many Asians were first acquainted with Western thought and techniques in the treaty ports Beginning in the late 19th century treaty port cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou Canton constituted the major areas from which industrialization developed in China The treaty ports were abolished in Japan in 1899 as a result of that country s rapid industrialization and burgeoning military power Most of the imperialist powers however refused to relinquish their treaty port rights in China and other Asian countries until the end of World War II Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in territorial waters mutiny space law salvage charter party air law average affreightment bottomry high seas carriage of goods bill of lading Keep exploring Travel and Navigation Structures of Government Fact or Fiction Technological Ingenuity 10 Devastating Dystopias Editor Picks Our Favorite Childhood Books What made you want to look up treaty port To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style treaty port Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic treaty port APA style treaty port 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic treaty port Harvard style treaty port 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic treaty port Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v treaty port accessed February 12

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