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  • Boxer Rebellion | Chinese history | Britannica.com
    column was turned back Meanwhile in Beijing the Boxers burned churches and foreign residences and killed suspected Chinese Christians on sight On June 17 the foreign powers seized the Dagu forts on the coast in order to restore access from Beijing to Tianjin The next day the empress dowager ordered that all foreigners be killed The German minister was murdered and the other foreign ministers and their families and staff together with hundreds of Chinese Christians were besieged in their legation quarters and in the Roman Catholic cathedral in Beijing Imperial viceroys in the central Yangtze River Chang Jiang valley and in South China ignored government orders and suppressed antiforeign outbreaks in their jurisdiction They thus helped establish the myth that the war was not the policy of the Chinese government but was a result of a native uprising in the northeast the area to which the disorders were mainly confined Boxer Rebellion battle Library of Congress Washington D C Digital file no LC DIG jpd 02541 An international force of some 19 000 troops was assembled most of the soldiers coming from Japan and Russia but many also from Britain the United States France Austria Hungary and Italy On August 14 1900 that force finally captured Beijing relieving the foreigners and Christians besieged there since June 20 While foreign troops looted the capital the empress dowager and her court fled westward to Xi an in Shaanxi province leaving behind a few imperial princes to conduct the negotiations After extensive discussions a protocol was finally signed in September 1901 ending the hostilities and providing for reparations to be made to the foreign powers Perhaps a total of up to 100 000 or more people died in the conflict although estimates on casualties have varied widely The great majority of those killed were civilians including thousands of Chinese Christians and approximately 200 to 250 foreign nationals mostly Christian missionaries Some estimates cite about 3 000 military personnel killed in combat the great bulk of them being Boxers and other Chinese fighters Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 10 27 2015 You may also be interested in Taiping Rebellion Russo Japanese War Sino Japanese War White Lotus Rebellion World War II World War I Korean War Genghis Khan Kublai Khan Otto I Qianlong Yongle Keep exploring Exploring Korea and China Fact or Fiction History of Warfare Weapons and Warfare Writing Tips from 7 Acclaimed Authors 9 Mysterious Disappearances of People Other Than Amelia Earhart What made you want to look up Boxer Rebellion To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Boxer Rebellion Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia

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  • Twenty-one Demands | East Asian history | Britannica.com
    Exploring Korea and China Fact or Fiction Journey Around the World A Study of History Who What Where and When The Six Deadliest Earthquakes since 1950 5 Poets of Exile What made you want to look up Twenty one Demands To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES USA Facts From What Language Infamous Nazis See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Twenty one Demands Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Twenty one Demands APA style Twenty one Demands 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Twenty one Demands Harvard style Twenty one Demands 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Twenty one Demands Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Twenty one Demands accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Twenty one Demands While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to

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  • Washington Conference | 1921-1922 | Britannica.com
    than 10 000 tons displacement or carrying guns with a calibre exceeding 8 inches basically denoted battleships and aircraft carriers The respective ratios of capital ships to be held by each of the signatories was fixed at 5 each for the United States and Great Britain 3 for Japan and 1 67 each for France and Italy The Five Power Naval Limitation Treaty halted the post World War I race in building warships and even reversed the trend it necessitated the scrapping of 26 American 24 British and 16 Japanese warships that were either already built or under construction The contracting nations also agreed to abandon their existing capital ship building programs for a period of 10 years subject to certain specified exceptions Under another article in the treaty the United States Great Britain and Japan agreed to maintain the status quo with regard to their fortifications and naval bases in the eastern Pacific The Naval Limitation Treaty remained in force until the mid 1930s At that time Japan demanded equality with the United States and Great Britain in regard to the size and number of its capital ships When this demand was rejected by the other contracting nations Japan gave advance notice of its intention to terminate the treaty which thus expired at the end of 1936 The same five powers signed another treaty regulating the use of submarines and outlawing the use of poison gas in warfare A Nine Power Pact signed by the above five powers plus the Netherlands Portugal Belgium and China affirmed China s sovereignty independence and territorial integrity and gave all nations the right to do business with it on equal terms In a related treaty the nine powers established an international commission to study Chinese tariff policies Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 8 5 2014 You may also be interested in World War II Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OECD World War I London Naval Conference North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Conference Group of Eight G8 Marshall Plan Russian Civil War Helsinki Accords Conference of San Remo Keep exploring Exploring Korea and China Fact or Fiction British Culture and Politics USA Facts 5 Poets of Exile 8 Creepy Critters in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe What made you want to look up Washington Conference To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Washington Conference Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Washington Conference 1921 1922 APA style Washington Conference 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event

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  • Manchuria | historical region, China | Britannica.com
    1688 the Qing government encouraged Chinese immigration to Liaodong in order to revive its economy After 1688 Chinese immigration was restricted But the Manchu soon had to modify their exclusion policy when they were forced to strengthen the thinly spread Manchu garrisons in the Amur River valley with Chinese recruits to counter the eastward march of Russian power in the area Manchuria s natural resources attracted an unending stream of land hungry peasants and other voluntary Chinese immigrants to Manchuria despite the official ban The flow of immigration became a flood tide in the 19th and 20th centuries as the Qing government actively sponsored planned colonization of virgin lands in Jilin and Heilongjiang The growing Chinese presence helped the Manchurian economy develop from primitive self sufficiency to an important centre of international trade The great Manchuria frontier was thus inexorably Sinicized by Chinese colonists the non Manchu Tungus tribesmen of the Ussuri and Amur valleys declined in number year after year and the Manchu soon merged imperceptibly into the Chinese population Manchuria since c 1900 Russo Japanese War Japanese warship in action Library of Congress Washington D C In the closing decades of the 19th century foreign powers particularly Russia and Japan began to eye Manchuria as a fruitful field for imperialist expansion The conflict between Russia and Japan for the control of Manchuria first raged over the possession of the Liaodong Peninsula As the prize of its victory in the Sino Japanese War of 1894 95 Japan demanded from China the cession of the Liaodong Peninsula But Russia backed by France and Germany compelled Japan to abandon this claim By means of intrigue and intimidation Russia then in 1898 acquired from China a 25 year lease of the Liaodong Peninsula and the right to build a connecting railway from the ports of Dairen Dalian and Port Arthur Lüshun to the Chinese Eastern Railway The clash of Russian and Japanese interests in Manchuria and Korea led to the outbreak of the Russo Japanese War of 1904 05 After its defeat Russia ceded to Japan all its interests in southern Manchuria After the Chinese Revolution of 1911 Manchuria came under the nominal control of the local warlord Zhang Zuolin who was forced to grant the Japanese vast concessions in the region in return for their tacit military support The notorious Twenty one Demands that Japan presented to China in 1915 compelled the Chinese to extend Japan s lease on the territory of Kwantung Pinyin Guandong at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula for 99 years and to grant the Japanese far reaching civil and commercial privileges in Manchuria During the Chinese civil war Japan exercised a controlling influence in south Manchuria with the support of its Kwantung Army The overambitious Zhang Zuolin ran afoul of the Japanese and was assassinated in 1928 His more patriotic son and successor Zhang Xueliang ignored Japanese warnings and decided to cast his lot with the Nationalist government in Nanjing On Sept 18 1931 Japanese military

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  • Mukden Incident | Chinese history | Britannica.com
    China and the establishment of the Japanese dominated state of Manchukuo Manzhouguo in the area Throughout the early 20th century the Japanese had maintained special rights in Manchuria and they had felt that the neutrality of the area was necessary for the defense of their colony in Korea They were thus alarmed when their position in Manchuria was threatened by the increasingly successful unification of China in 100 of 339

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  • George W. Bush | president of United States | Britannica.com
    Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 When the program was revealed in news reports in December 2005 the administration insisted that it was justified by a September 2001 joint Congressional resolution that authorized the president to use all necessary and appropriate force against those responsible for the September 11 attacks Subsequent efforts in Congress to provide a legal basis for the spying became mired in debate over whether telecommunications companies that cooperated with the NSA should be granted retroactive immunity against numerous civil lawsuits Legislation granting immunity and expanding the NSA s surveillance powers was finally passed by Congress and signed by Bush in July 2008 Treatment of detainees In January 2002 as the pacification of Afghanistan continued the United States began transferring captured Taliban fighters and suspected al Qaeda members from Afghanistan to a special prison at the country s permanent naval base at Guantánamo Bay Cuba Eventually hundreds of prisoners were held at the facility without charge and without the legal means to challenge their detentions see habeas corpus The administration argued that it was not obliged to grant basic constitutional protections to the prisoners because the base was outside U S territory nor was it required to observe the Geneva Conventions regarding the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians during wartime because the conventions did not apply to unlawful enemy combatants It further maintained that the president had the authority to place any individual including an American citizen in indefinite military custody without charge by declaring him an enemy combatant Guantánamo Bay detention camp Kathleen T Rhem U S Department of Defense The prison at Guantánamo became the focus of international controversy in June 2004 after a confidential report by the International Committee of the Red Cross found that significant numbers of prisoners had been interrogated by means of techniques that were tantamount to torture The Bush administration had frequently and vigorously denied that the United States practiced torture The leak of the report came just two months after the publication of photographs of abusive treatment of prisoners by American soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq see below Iraq War In response to the Abu Ghraib revelations Congress eventually passed the Detainee Treatment Act which banned the cruel inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners in U S military custody Although the measure became law with Bush s signature in December 2005 he added a signing statement in which he reserved the right to set aside the law s restrictions if he deemed them inconsistent with his constitutional powers as commander in chief In June 2006 the U S Supreme Court in Hamdan v Rumsfeld declared that the system of military commissions that the administration had intended to use to try selected prisoners at Guantánamo on charges of war crimes was in violation of the Geneva Conventions and the Uniform Code of Military Justice which governs American rules of courts martial Later that year Congress passed the Military Commissions Act which gave the commissions the express statutory basis that the court had found lacking the law also prevented enemy combatants who were not American citizens from challenging their detention in the federal courts In separate programs run by the Central Intelligence Agency CIA dozens of individuals suspected of involvement in terrorism were abducted outside the United States and held in secret prisons in eastern Europe and elsewhere or transferred for interrogation to countries that routinely practiced torture Although such extrajudicial transfers or extraordinary renditions had taken place during the Clinton administration the Bush administration greatly expanded the practice after the September 11 attacks Press reports of the renditions in 2005 sparked controversy in Europe and led to official investigations into whether some European governments had knowingly permitted rendition flights through their countries territories an apparent violation of the human rights law of the European Union see also European law In February 2005 the CIA confirmed that some individuals in its custody had been subjected to enhanced interrogation techniques including waterboarding interrupted or controlled drowning often called simulated drowning which was generally regarded as a form of torture under international law The CIA s position that waterboarding did not constitute torture had been based on the legal opinions of the Justice Department and specifically on a secret memo issued in 2002 that adopted an unconventionally narrow and legally questionable definition of torture After the memo was leaked to the press in June 2004 the Justice Department rescinded its opinion In 2005 however the department issued new secret memos declaring the legality of enhanced interrogation techniques including waterboarding The new memos were revealed in news reports in 2007 prompting outrage from critics of the administration In July 2007 Bush issued an executive order that prohibited the CIA from using torture or acts of cruel inhuman or degrading treatment though the specific interrogation techniques it was allowed to use remained classified In March 2008 Bush vetoed a bill directed specifically at the CIA that would have prevented the agency from using any interrogation technique such as waterboarding that was not included in the U S Army s field manual on interrogation The Iraq War Road to war In September 2002 the administration announced a new National Security Strategy of the United States of America It was notable for its declaration that the United States would act preemptively using military force if necessary to forestall or prevent threats to its security by terrorists or rogue states possessing biological chemical or nuclear weapons so called weapons of mass destruction At the same time Bush and other high administration officials began to draw worldwide attention to Iraqi Pres Ṣaddām Ḥussein and to suspicions that Iraq possessed or was attempting to develop weapons of mass destruction in violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions In November 2002 the Bush administration successfully lobbied for a new Security Council resolution providing for the return of weapons inspectors to Iraq Soon afterward Bush declared that Iraq had failed to comply fully with the new resolution and that the country continued to possess weapons of mass destruction For several weeks the United States and Britain tried to secure support from other Security Council members for a second resolution explicitly authorizing the use of force against Iraq though administration officials insisted that earlier resolutions provided sufficient legal justification for military action In response France and Russia while agreeing that Iraq had failed to cooperate fully with weapons inspectors argued that the inspections regime should be continued and strengthened As part of the administration s diplomatic campaign Bush and other officials frequently warned that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction that it was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and that it had long standing ties to al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations In his State of the Union address in January 2003 Bush announced that Iraq had attempted to purchase enriched uranium from Niger for use in nuclear weapons The subsequent determination that some intelligence reports of the purchase had relied on forged documents complicated the administration s diplomatic efforts in the United Nations Meanwhile massive peace demonstrations took place in several major cities around the world Operation Iraqi Freedom Finally Bush announced the end of U S diplomacy On March 17 he issued an ultimatum to Ṣaddām giving him and his immediate family 48 hours to leave Iraq or face removal by force Bush also indicated that even if Ṣaddām relinquished power U S military forces would enter the country to search for weapons of mass destruction and to stabilize the new government After Ṣaddām s public refusal to leave and as the 48 hour deadline approached Bush ordered the invasion of Iraq called Operation Iraqi Freedom to begin on March 20 local time In the ground phase of the Iraq War U S and British forces quickly overwhelmed the Iraqi army and irregular Iraqi fighters and by mid April they had entered Baghdad and all other major Iraqi cities and forced Ṣaddām s regime from power Bush George W greeting troops June 2003 AP In the wake of the invasion hundreds of sites suspected of producing or housing weapons of mass destruction within Iraq were investigated As the search continued without success into the following year Bush s critics accused the administration of having misled the country into war by exaggerating the threat posed by Iraq In 2004 the Iraq Survey Group a fact finding mission comprising American and British experts concluded that Iraq did not possess weapons of mass destruction or the capacity to produce them at the time of the invasion though it found evidence that Ṣaddām had planned to reconstitute programs for producing such weapons once UN sanctions were lifted In the same year the bipartisan 9 11 Commission the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States reported that there was no evidence of a collaborative operational relationship between Iraq and al Qaeda Ṣaddām who went into hiding during the invasion was captured by U S forces in December 2003 and was executed by the new Iraqi government three years later Occupation and insurgency Bush George W with sailors aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln 2003 Tyler J Clements U S Navy Although the Bush administration had planned for a short war stabilizing the country after the invasion proved difficult From May 1 when Bush declared an end to major combat in Iraq to the end of December 2003 more than 200 U S soldiers were killed as a result of attacks by Iraqis During the next four years the number of U S casualties increased dramatically reaching more than 900 in 2007 alone The number of Iraqis who died during the invasion and insurgency is uncertain Widespread sectarian violence accompanied by regular and increasingly deadly attacks on military police and civilian targets by militias and terrorist organizations made large parts of the country virtually ungovernable The increasing numbers of U S dead and wounded the failure to uncover weapons of mass destruction and the enormous cost to U S taxpayers approximately 10 billion per month through 2007 gradually eroded public support for the war by 2005 a clear majority of Americans believed that it had been a mistake By the fifth anniversary of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2008 some 4 000 U S soldiers had been killed As the death toll mounted Bush s public approval ratings dropped falling below 30 percent in many polls Bush George W Ali Jasim Reuters Corbis While acknowledging that it had underestimated the tenacity of the Iraqi resistance the Bush administration maintained that part of the blame for the continuing violence lay with Iran which it accused of supplying weapons and money to Iraqi based terrorist groups In his State of the Union address in 2002 Bush had warned that Iran along with Iraq and North Korea was part of an axis of evil that threatened the world with its support of terrorism and its ambition to acquire nuclear weapons In 2006 07 the United States joined other members of the Security Council in condemning Iran s nuclear research program The administration s repeated warnings concerning a possible Iranian nuclear weapon led to speculation that Bush was contemplating military action against the country In December 2007 however the administration s suspicions were contradicted by the National Intelligence Estimate a consensus report of U S intelligence agencies which declared with high confidence that in 2003 Iran had abandoned attempts to develop a nuclear weapon Foreign aid In his State of the Union address in January 2003 Bush proposed an ambitious program to address the humanitarian crisis created by the HIV AIDS pandemic in 15 countries in Africa and the Caribbean With a budget of 15 billion over a five year period the President s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PEPFAR aimed to supply life extending medications to 2 million victims of HIV AIDS to prevent 7 million new cases of the disease and to provide care for 10 million AIDS sufferers and the orphaned children of AIDS victims The program was widely praised in the United States even by Bush s critics and generated enormous goodwill toward the Bush administration in Africa Medical professionals and public health officials welcomed the greater availability of retroviral drugs but generally objected to the program s requirement that one third of prevention funds be spent on teaching sexual abstinence and marital fidelity In January 2004 the Bush administration established the Millennium Challenge Corporation to distribute development aid to poor countries that demonstrated a commitment to democracy free enterprise and transparent governance The agency s innovative approach allowed recipient countries to design and manage their own multiyear programs to reduce poverty and promote economic growth By 2008 the corporation had approved some 5 billion in grant requests though relatively little of the money had been dispersed The Bush administration s foreign aid programs were designed to serve its declared foreign policy goal of promoting democracy abroad especially in parts of the world plagued by poverty and war In eastern Europe Bush supported expanding the membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO as a means of securing democracy and stability in war ravaged or formerly communist countries During his presidency NATO gained seven new members Bulgaria Estonia Latvia Lithuania Romania Slovakia and Slovenia Domestic affairs Bush George W Cleaver Emanuel Collins Francis National Prayer Breakfast Eric Draper The White House In December 2001 Bush successfully negotiated with the Democratic controlled Senate legislation that provided federal funding to religious or faith based charities and social services The measure he argued would end long standing discrimination in federal funding against churches and other religious groups that provided needed social services in poor communities The bill was passed by the Senate despite objections from many Democratic senators that it violated the constitutional separation of church and state A White House Office of Faith Based and Community Initiatives was created in January 2001 In 2002 the U S economy continued to perform poorly despite having recovered from a recession the previous November Widespread corporate accounting scandals some of the largest corporate bankruptcies in U S history and fears over war and terrorism all contributed to consumer uncertainty and a prolonged downturn in the financial markets Despite the economic turmoil Bush s personal popularity enabled the Republicans to regain a majority in the Senate in midterm elections in November 2002 though the party also lost three state governorships With both houses of Congress under Republican control Bush secured passage of a second tax cut of 350 billion in May 2003 Education In January 2002 Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act which introduced significant changes in the curriculum of the country s public elementary middle and high schools and dramatically increased federal regulation of state school systems Under the law states were required to administer yearly tests of the reading and mathematics skills of public school students and to demonstrate adequate progress toward raising the scores of all students to a level defined as proficient or higher Teachers were also required to meet higher standards for certification Schools that failed to meet their goals would be subject to gradually increasing sanctions eventually including replacement of staff or closure In the first years of the program supporters pointed to its success in increasing the test scores of minority students who historically had performed at lower levels than white students Indeed in the 2000 presidential campaign Bush had touted the proposed law as a remedy for what he called the soft bigotry of low expectations faced by the children of minorities Critics however complained that the federal government was not providing enough funding to implement the program s requirements and that the law had usurped the states s traditional control of education as provided for in the Constitution Others objected that the law was actually eroding the quality of education by forcing schools to teach to the test while neglecting other parts of the curriculum such as history social science and art Medicare In December 2003 Bush won Congressional approval of the Medicare Modernization Act MMA a reform of the federally sponsored health insurance program for elderly Americans Widely recognized as the most far reaching overhaul of Medicare to date the MMA enabled Medicare enrollees to obtain prescription drug coverage from Medicare through private insurance companies which then received a government subsidy it also vastly increased the number of private insurance plans through which enrollees could receive medical benefits Although many members of Congress from both parties criticized the MMA as needlessly complex and expensive its cost was estimated in January 2004 at 534 billion over 10 years a bipartisan majority accepted the measure as an imperfect but necessary compromise that would bring a much needed insurance benefit to senior citizens Some conservative Republicans however rejected the MMA on both fiscal and philosophical grounds and many Democrats objected to a provision in the plan that prevented Medicare administrators from negotiating with pharmaceutical companies for lower drug prices Reelection American presidential election 2004 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc In 2004 Bush focused his energies on his campaign for reelection against his Democratic challenger U S Sen John Kerry According to opinion polls the candidates entered the fall elections in a virtual dead heat Bush s key campaign platform was his conduct of the war on terrorism which he linked with the war in Iraq Kerry countered that the Iraq War had been poorly planned and executed and that Bush had neglected domestic priorities The election was notable for the prominent role played by independent political action groups in organizing and fund raising and for the influence of highly partisan blogs as alternative sources of political news Bush defeated Kerry with a slim majority of the electoral and popular vote and the Republicans increased their majorities in both the House and the Senate Social Security and immigration The major domestic initiative of Bush s second term was his proposal to replace Social Security the country s system of

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  • Franklin D. Roosevelt | president of United States | Britannica.com
    D Roosevelt in full Franklin Delano Roosevelt byname FDR born January 30 1882 Hyde Park New York U S died April 12 1945 Warm Springs Georgia 32nd president of the United States 1933 45 The only president elected to the office four times Roosevelt led the United States through two of the greatest crises of the 20th century the Great Depression and World War II In so doing he greatly

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  • Sir Winston Churchill | prime minister of United Kingdom | Britannica.com
    As Liberal minister During World War I In and out of office 1922 29 Exclusion from office 1929 39 Leadership during World War II As prime minister Formation of the grand alliance Military successes and political problems Electoral defeat Postwar political career As opposition leader and world statesman As prime minister again Retirement and death Assessment Major Works History Biography and autobiography Speeches Other works Churchill Winston Karsh Woodfin Camp and Associates Sir Winston Churchill in full Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill born November 30 1874 Blenheim Palace Oxfordshire England died January 24 1965 London British statesman orator and author who as prime minister 1940 45 1951 55 rallied the British people during World War II and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory After a sensational rise to prominence in national politics before World War I Churchill acquired a reputation for erratic judgment in the war itself and in the decade that followed Politically suspect in consequence he was a lonely figure until his response to Adolf Hitler s challenge brought him 100 of 7 673 words Images Videos About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc To

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