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  • racial segregation | Britannica.com
    segregation provides a means of maintaining the economic advantages and superior social status of the politically dominant group and in recent times it has been employed primarily by white populations to maintain their ascendancy over other groups by means of legal and social colour bars Historically however various conquerors among them Asian Mongols African Bantu and American Aztecs have practiced discrimination involving the segregation of subject races racial segregation protest

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/racial-segregation (2016-02-13)
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  • the South | region, United States | Britannica.com
    S federal government it includes Alabama Arkansas Delaware the District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia and West Virginia The South was historically set apart from other sections of the country by a complex of factors a long growing season its staple crop patterns the plantation system and black agricultural labour whether slave or free White domination of blacks characterized

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/the-South-region (2016-02-13)
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  • Reconstruction | United States history | Britannica.com
    of the racial caste system and the economic uplifting of the former slaves Sixteen African Americans served in Congress during Reconstruction including Hiram Revels and Blanche K Bruce in the U S Senate more than 600 in state legislatures and hundreds more in local offices from sheriff to justice of the peace scattered across the South So called black supremacy never existed but the advent of African Americans in positions of political power marked a dramatic break with the country s traditions and aroused bitter hostility from Reconstruction s opponents Serving an expanded citizenry Reconstruction governments established the South s first state funded public school systems sought to strengthen the bargaining power of plantation labourers made taxation more equitable and outlawed racial discrimination in public transportation and accommodations They also offered lavish aid to railroads and other enterprises in the hope of creating a New South whose economic expansion would benefit blacks and whites alike But the economic program spawned corruption and rising taxes alienating increasing numbers of white voters Thomas Nast s Patience on a Monument Rare Book and Special Collections Division Library of Congress Washington D C Meanwhile the social and economic transformation of the South proceeded apace To blacks freedom meant independence from white control Reconstruction provided the opportunity for African Americans to solidify their family ties and to create independent religious institutions which became centres of community life that survived long after Reconstruction ended The former slaves also demanded economic independence Blacks hopes that the federal government would provide them with land had been raised by Gen William T Sherman s Field Order No 15 of January 1865 which set aside a large swath of land along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia for the exclusive settlement of black families and by the Freedmen s Bureau Act of March which authorized the bureau to rent or sell land in its possession to former slaves But President Johnson in the summer of 1865 ordered land in federal hands to be returned to its former owners The dream of 40 acres and a mule was stillborn Lacking land most former slaves had little economic alternative other than resuming work on plantations owned by whites Some worked for wages others as sharecroppers who divided the crop with the owner at the end of the year Neither status offered much hope for economic mobility For decades most Southern blacks remained propertyless and poor Reconstruction depiction of the secret societies that terrorized African Americans during Reconstruction Library of Congress Washington D C Nonetheless the political revolution of Reconstruction spawned increasingly violent opposition from white Southerners White supremacist organizations that committed terrorist acts such as the Ku Klux Klan targeted local Republican leaders for beatings or assassination African Americans who asserted their rights in dealings with white employers teachers ministers and others seeking to assist the former slaves also became targets At Colfax Louisiana in 1873 scores of black militiamen were killed after surrendering to armed whites intent on seizing control

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Reconstruction-United-States-history (2016-02-13)
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  • Thomas Dartmouth Rice | American entertainer | Britannica.com
    Albert Einstein John F Kennedy George W Bush Ronald Reagan Franklin D Roosevelt Keep exploring Famous American Faces Fact or Fiction The United States Fact or Fiction Role Call Editor Picks 8 Quirky Composers Worth a Listen 7 Celebrities You Didn t Know Were Inventors What made you want to look up Thomas Dartmouth Rice To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Musical Medley Fact or Fiction Word Nerd Fact or Fiction Nuts Seeds and Legumes Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Thomas Dartmouth Rice Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Dartmouth Rice APA style Thomas Dartmouth Rice 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Thomas Dartmouth Rice Harvard style Thomas Dartmouth Rice 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Thomas Dartmouth Rice Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Thomas Dartmouth Rice accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Thomas Dartmouth Rice While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Dartmouth-Rice (2016-02-13)
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  • Joseph Jefferson | American actor | Britannica.com
    Players club succeeding Edwin Booth and preceding John Drew His first wife was the actress Margaret Clements Lockyer and his second was Sarah Warren niece of the actor William Warren Jefferson s Autobiography 1890 is written with spirit and humour and its judgments with regard to the art of the actor and the playwright place it beside Colley Cibber s Apology Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Woody Allen Orson Welles Marlon Brando Judy Garland Meryl Streep Katharine Hepburn Sidney Poitier Robert Redford Dustin Hoffman Audrey Hepburn Fred Astaire Mel Brooks Keep exploring Around the Caribbean Fact or Fiction The United States Fact or Fiction Famous American Faces Fact or Fiction Editor Picks Our Favorite Harry Potter Characters 7 Tongue Twisting Painting Techniques What made you want to look up Joseph Jefferson To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Joseph Jefferson Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com biography Joseph Jefferson APA style Joseph Jefferson 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com biography Joseph Jefferson Harvard style Joseph Jefferson 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com biography Joseph Jefferson Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Joseph Jefferson accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com biography Joseph Jefferson While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-Jefferson (2016-02-13)
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  • carpetbagger | United States history | Britannica.com
    epithet originally referred to an unwelcome stranger coming with no more property than he could carry in a satchel carpetbag to exploit or dominate a region against the wishes of some or all of its inhabitants Although carpetbaggers often supported the corrupt financial schemes that helped to bring the Reconstruction governments into ill repute many of them were genuinely concerned with the freedom and 100 of 131 words Images About

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/carpetbagger (2016-02-13)
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  • freedman | labour | Britannica.com
    and restrictions for former slaves To the Greeks citizenship was a hereditary privilege and thus barred to freedmen but under Roman law a manumitted slave might become a citizen if the proper legal form was followed although he did not enjoy full civic rights In Carolingian times the descendants of a freedman could claim the rights of the freeborn only after three generations had 100 of 161 words Images About

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/freedman (2016-02-13)
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  • American Civil War | United States history | Britannica.com
    Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana and Texas carried out their threat and seceded organizing as the Confederate States of America Fort Sumter In the early morning hours of April 12 1861 rebels opened fire on Fort Sumter at the entrance to the harbour of Charleston South Carolina Curiously this first encounter of what would be the bloodiest war in the history of the United States claimed no victims After a 34 hour bombardment Maj Robert Anderson surrendered his command of about 85 soldiers to some 5 500 besieging Confederate troops under P G T Beauregard Within weeks four more Southern states Virginia Arkansas Tennessee and North Carolina left the Union to join the Confederacy American Civil War Library of Congress Washington D C With war upon the land President Lincoln called for 75 000 militiamen to serve for three months He proclaimed a naval blockade of the Confederate states although he insisted that they did not legally constitute a sovereign country but were instead states in rebellion He also directed the secretary of the treasury to advance 2 million to assist in the raising of troops and he suspended the writ of habeas corpus first along the East Coast and ultimately throughout the country The Confederate government had previously authorized a call for 100 000 soldiers for at least six months service and this figure was soon increased to 400 000 Jennifer L Weber The military background of the war Comparison of North and South American Civil War division of the United States during the Civil War Encyclopædia Britannica Inc At first glance it seemed that the 23 states that remained in the Union after secession were more than a match for the 11 Southern states Approximately 21 million people lived in the North compared with some nine million in the South of whom about four million were slaves In addition the North was the site of more than 100 000 manufacturing plants against 18 000 south of the Potomac River and more than 70 percent of the railroads were in the Union Furthermore the Federals had at their command a 30 to 1 superiority in arms production a 2 to 1 edge in available manpower and a great preponderance of commercial and financial resources The Union also had a functioning government and a small but efficient regular army and navy The Confederacy was not predestined to defeat however The Southern armies had the advantage of fighting on interior lines and their military tradition had bulked large in the history of the United States before 1860 Moreover the long Confederate coastline of 3 500 miles 5 600 km seemed to defy blockade and the Confederate president Jefferson Davis hoped to receive decisive foreign aid and intervention Confederate soldiers were fighting to achieve a separate and independent country based on what they called Southern institutions the chief of which was the institution of slavery So the Southern cause was not a lost one indeed other countries most notably the United States

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/American-Civil-War (2016-02-13)
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