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  • statute | law | Britannica.com
    Retreats A Study of Religion Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style statute Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic statute APA style statute 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic statute Harvard style statute 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic statute Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v statute accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic statute While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind Encyclopaedia

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/statute (2016-02-13)
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  • segregated water cooler | Encyclopedia Britannica
    for colored people at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City in 1939 Russell Lee Library of Congress Washington D C image no LC DIG fsa 8a26761 MEDIA FOR Jim Crow law Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law/images-videos/An-African-American-man-drinking-at-a-water-cooler-for/191510 (2016-02-13)
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  • Alabama | history - geography - state, United States | Britannica.com
    its aftermath Since 1900 Alabama constituent state of the United States of America admitted in 1819 as the 22nd state Alabama forms a roughly rectangular shape on the map elongated in a north south direction It is bordered by Tennessee to the north Georgia to the east and Mississippi to the west The Florida panhandle blocks Alabama s access to the Gulf of Mexico except in Alabama s southwestern corner where Mobile Bay is located Montgomery is the state capital Oakleigh Historic House Dan Brothers Alabama Bureau of Tourism Travel The state offers much topographical diversity The rich agricultural valley of the Tennessee River occupies the extreme northern part of the state In northeastern Alabama the broken 100 of 6 156 words Quick Facts Images 1 Excluding military abroad 2 The wild turkey is the state gamebird 3 The oak leaf hydrangea is the state wildflower Capital Montgomery Population 1 2010 4 779 736 2014 est 4 849 377 Total area sq mi 52 420 Total area sq km 135 767 Governor Robert Bentley Republican State nickname Cotton State Yellowhammer State Date of admission Dec 14 1819 State motto We Dare Defend Our Rights State bird 2 yellowhammer wild turkey

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Alabama-state (2016-02-13)
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  • interstate commerce | United States law | Britannica.com
    be impeded has been used to effect a wide range of regulations both federal and state A further extension of the established notion regarding the free flow of trade was introduced when Title II of the 1964 Civil Rights Act dealing with discriminatory practices in public accommodations was upheld by the Supreme Court The court decided that a business although operating within a single state could affect interstate 100 of

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/interstate-commerce-United-States-law (2016-02-13)
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  • Congress of the United States | Britannica.com
    of the president s potential power may extend to the procedures of Congress The possibility that a bill may be vetoed gives the president some influence in determining what legislation Congress will consider initially and what amendments will be acceptable In addition to these legal and constitutional powers the president has influence as the leader of a political party party policy both in Congress and among the electorate may be molded by the president Although the U S Supreme Court has no direct relations with Congress the Supreme Court s implied power to invalidate legislation that violates the Constitution is an even stronger restriction on the powers of Congress than the presidential veto Supreme Court and federal court decisions on the constitutionality of legislation outline the constitutional framework within which Congress can act Congress is also affected by representative interest groups though they are not part of the formal structure of Congress Lobbyists play a significant role in testifying before congressional hearings and in mobilizing opinion on select issues Many of the activities of Congress are not directly concerned with enacting laws but the ability of Congress to enact law is often the sanction that makes its other actions effective The general legal theory under which Congress operates is that legal authority is delegated to the president or executive departments and agencies and that the latter in turn are legally responsible for their actions Congress may review any actions performed by a delegated authority and in some areas of delegated legislation such as in proposals for governmental reorganization Congress must indicate approval of specific plans before they go into effect Congress may also retain the right to terminate legislation by joint action of both houses Congress exercises general legal control over the employment of government personnel Political control may also be exercised particularly through the Senate s power to advise and consent to nominations Neither the Senate nor the House of Representatives has any direct constitutional power to nominate or otherwise select executive or judicial personnel although in the unusual event that the electoral college fails to select a president and vice president the two houses respectively are expected to do so Furthermore Congress does not customarily remove officials Congress however does have the power of impeachment In such proceedings the impeachment is made by the House of Representatives and the case is tried before the Senate a vote of two thirds of the senators present is required for conviction The power to levy and collect taxes and to appropriate funds allows Congress considerable authority in fiscal matters Although the president has the initial responsibility for determining the proposed level of appropriations once estimates for the next fiscal year are submitted to Congress a single budget bill is not enacted but rather a number of appropriation bills for various departments and agencies are passed during the first six or seven months of a session In its nonlegislative capacity Congress also has the power to initiate amendments to the Constitution and

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Congress-of-the-United-States (2016-02-13)
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  • Homer Plessy arrest marker | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Plessy was arrested on June 7 1892 in New Orleans Louisiana Bluemarie0428 MEDIA FOR Jim Crow law Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law/images-videos/Memorial-marker-where-Homer-Plessy-was-arrested-on-June-7/197663 (2016-02-13)
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  • Homer Plessy | American shoemaker | Britannica.com
    a first class ticket and that he intended to ride in the first class car The conductor stopped the train and Detective Christopher Cain boarded the car arrested Plessy and forcibly dragged him off the train with the help of a few other passengers After a night in jail Plessy appeared in criminal court before Judge John Howard Ferguson to answer charges of violating the Separate Car Act The Citizens Committee to Test the Constitutionality of the Separate Car Act of which Plessy was a member posted a 500 bond for his release Plessy was not arraigned until October 1892 four months after his arrest and his attorneys entered a plea claiming that the act was unconstitutional because it imposed a badge of servitude in violation of the Thirteenth Amendment which prohibited slavery and because it denied to Plessy the equal protection of the laws provided for in the Fourteenth Amendment They also claimed that the matter of race both as to fact and to law was too complicated to permit the legislature to assign that determination to a railway conductor Plessy failed in court and his subsequent appeal to the state supreme court in Ex parte Plessy 1893 was similarly unsuccessful An appeal to the U S Supreme Court followed but time was hardly on Plessy s side Between the filing of the appeal in 1893 and oral argument before the U S Supreme Court in Washington D C in April 1896 both the general climate and the attitude of the court had hardened Throughout the country but especially in the South conditions for blacks were quickly deteriorating The Supreme Court ruling that followed on May 18 1896 and that bore the names of Plessy and Ferguson Plessy v Ferguson upheld the Separate Car Act holding that the law violated neither the Thirteenth Amendment because it did not reimpose slavery nor the Fourteenth Amendment because the accommodations provided to each race were equal The decision solidified the establishment of the Jim Crow era thus inaugurating a period of legalized apartheid in the United States Final years Shortly after the Supreme Court decided the case Plessy reported to Ferguson s court to answer the charge of violating the Separate Car Act He changed his plea to guilty and paid the 25 fine For the rest of his life Plessy lived quietly in New Orleans working as a labourer warehouseman and clerk In 1910 he became a collector for a black owned insurance company and continued to be active in the African American community s benevolent and social organizations such as the Société des Francs Amis and the Cosmopolitan Mutual Aid Association Melvin I Urofsky EB Editors Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 12 30 2015 You may also be interested in Barack Obama Abraham Lincoln George Washington Albert Einstein John F Kennedy George W Bush Ronald Reagan Franklin D Roosevelt Richard Nixon Martin Luther King Jr Bill Clinton Thomas Jefferson Keep exploring NYC Concrete Jungle Quiz Blowing in the

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Homer-Plessy (2016-02-13)
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  • Plessy v. Ferguson judgment | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Supreme Court on May 18 1896 advancing the controversial separate but equal doctrine for assessing the constitutionality of racial segregation laws National Archives Washington D C MEDIA FOR Jim Crow law Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law/images-videos/Plessy-v-Ferguson-judgment-issued-by-the-US-Supreme-Court/197665 (2016-02-13)
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