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  • Voting Rights Act | United States [1965] | Britannica.com
    was passed and the Twenty fourth Amendment abolishing poll taxes for voting for federal offices was ratified and the following year President Lyndon B Johnson called for the implementation of comprehensive federal legislation to protect voting rights The resulting act the Voting Rights Act suspended literacy tests provided for federal approval of proposed changes to voting laws or procedures preclearance in jurisdictions that had previously used tests to determine voter eligibility these areas were covered under Sections 4 and 5 of the legislation and directed the attorney general of the United States to challenge the use of poll taxes for state and local elections An expansion of the law in the 1970s also protected voting rights for non English speaking U S citizens Sections 4 and 5 were extended for 5 years in 1970 7 years in 1975 and 25 years in both 1982 and 2006 Shelby County v Holder Jim Lo Scalzo EPA Alamy The Voting Rights Act resulted in a marked decrease in the voter registration disparity between whites and blacks In the mid 1960s for example the overall proportion of white to black registration in the South ranged from about 2 to 1 to 3 to 1 and about 10 to 1 in Mississippi by the late 1980s racial variations in voter registration had largely disappeared As the number of African American voters increased so did the number of African American elected officials In the mid 1960s there were about 70 African American elected officials in the South but by the turn of the 21st century there were some 5 000 and the number of African American members of the U S Congress had increased from 6 to about 40 In what was widely perceived as a test case Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District Number One v Holder et al 2009 the Supreme Court declined to rule on the constitutionality of the Voting Rights Act In Shelby County v Holder 2013 however the court struck down Section 4 which had established a formula for identifying jurisdictions that were required to obtain preclearance declaring it to be unjustified in light of changed historical circumstances Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 11 2015 You may also be interested in Civil Rights Act Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Vietnam War Compromise of 1850 United States presidential election of 1964 Sherman Antitrust Act Missouri Compromise United States presidential election of 1960 Navigation Acts Jim Crow law Quebec Act Nürnberg Laws Keep exploring USA Facts All American History Quiz American History and Politics 7 Alphabet Soup Agencies that Stuck Around International Literary Tour 10 Places Every Lit Lover Should See What made you want to look up Voting Rights Act To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More

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  • Compromise of 1850 | United States history | Britannica.com
    slavery mentioned ostensibly leaving these territories to decide the slavery question on their own by the principle of popular sovereignty the slave trade but not slavery itself was abolished in the District of Columbia and finally Congress passed a new and stronger Fugitive Slave Act taking the matter of returning runaway slaves out of the control of states and making it a federal responsibility With the influential support of Sen Daniel Webster and the concerted unifying efforts of Sen Stephen A Douglas the five compromise measures were enacted in September These measures were accepted by moderates in all sections of the country and the secession of the South was postponed for a decade Indeed the political system had seemed to work and many Americans greeted the Compromise of 1850 with relief President Fillmore called it a final settlement and the South certainly had nothing to complain about It had secured the type of fugitive slave law it had long demanded and although California came in as a free state it elected proslavery representatives Moreover New Mexico and Utah enacted slave codes technically opening the territories to slavery The compromise however contained the seeds of future discord The precedent of popular sovereignty led to a demand for a similar provision for the Kansas Territory in 1854 causing bitterness and violence there see Bleeding Kansas Furthermore the application of the new Fugitive Slave Act triggered such a strong reaction throughout the North that many moderate antislavery elements became determined opponents of any further extension of slavery into the territories While the Compromise of 1850 succeeded as a temporary expedient it also proved the failure of compromise as a permanent political solution when vital sectional interests were at stake Melvin I Urofsky EB Editors Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 6 7 2015 You may also be interested in Missouri Compromise Bank War Voting Rights Act Sherman Antitrust Act Navigation Acts Civil Rights Act Lincoln Douglas debates Jim Crow law Townshend Acts United States presidential election of 1824 Quebec Act Nürnberg Laws Keep exploring USA Facts All American History Quiz American History and Politics Riding Freedom 10 Milestones in U S Civil Rights History Editor Picks The Worst U S Supreme Court Decisions Part Two What made you want to look up Compromise of 1850 To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Compromise of 1850 Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Compromise of 1850 APA style Compromise of 1850 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Compromise of 1850 Harvard style Compromise of

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  • Sherman Antitrust Act | United States [1890] | Britannica.com
    an expert on the regulation of commerce One of the act s main provisions outlaws all combinations that restrain trade between states or with foreign nations This prohibition applies not only to formal cartels but also to any agreement to fix prices limit industrial output share markets or exclude competition A second key provision makes illegal all attempts to monopolize any part of trade or commerce in 100 of 538

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  • Missouri Compromise | United States [1820] | Britannica.com
    Maine to enter the Union as a free state and Missouri to be admitted without restrictions on slavery Sen Jesse B Thomas of Illinois then added an amendment that allowed Missouri to become a slave state but banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36 30 Henry Clay then skillfully led the forces of compromise engineering separate votes on the controversial measures On March 3 1820 the decisive votes in the House admitted Maine as a free state Missouri as a slave state and made free soil all western territories north of Missouri s southern border When the Missouri constitutional convention empowered the state legislature to exclude free blacks and mulattoes however a new crisis was brought on Enough northern congressmen objected to the racial provision that Clay was called upon to formulate the Second Missouri Compromise On March 2 1821 Congress stipulated that Missouri could not gain admission to the Union until it agreed that the exclusionary clause would never be interpreted in such a way as to abridge the privileges and immunities of U S citizens Missouri so agreed and became the 24th state on August 10 1821 Maine had been admitted the previous March 15 Although slavery had been a divisive issue in the United States for decades never before had sectional antagonism been so overt and threatening as it was in the Missouri crisis Thomas Jefferson described the fear it evoked as like a firebell in the night Although the compromise measures appeared to settle the slavery extension issue John Quincy Adams noted in his diary Take it for granted that the present is a mere preamble a title page to a great tragic volume Sectional conflict would grow to the point of civil war after the Missouri Compromise was repealed by the Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 and was declared unconstitutional in the Dred Scott decision of 1857 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 6 1 2015 You may also be interested in Compromise of 1850 American Revolution The United States Army Monroe Doctrine Voting Rights Act Louisiana Purchase Sherman Antitrust Act Navigation Acts Civil Rights Act Jim Crow law Townshend Acts Nürnberg Laws Keep exploring USA Facts All American History Quiz American History and Politics 7 Women Warriors 7 Bizarre Spa Treatments What made you want to look up Missouri Compromise To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Missouri Compromise Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Missouri Compromise APA style Missouri Compromise 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Missouri

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  • Navigation Acts | United Kingdom | Britannica.com
    molasses were added during the 18th century Nonenumerated goods could go in English ships from English colonies directly to foreign ports From 1664 English colonies could receive European goods only via England Scotland was treated as a foreign country until the Act of Union 1707 gave it equal privileges with England Ireland was excluded from the benefits of the laws between 1670 and 1779 Although English tonnage and trade increased steadily from the late 17th century critics of the navigation system argue that this would have occurred in any case and that the policy forced up freight prices thus ultimately making English manufactured goods less competitive Indeed from the 1720s to the 1760s under the leadership of Robert Walpole and then Thomas Pelham Holles 1st duke of Newcastle Parliament practiced an unwritten policy of salutary neglect under which trade regulations for the colonies were laxly enforced as long as the colonies remained loyal to Britain and contributed to the profitability of the British economy The tightening of the laws in 1764 contributed to the unrest leading to the rebellion of England s American colonies their achievement of independence made the first serious breach in the navigation system and from then on exceptions were increasingly made Enumeration was abandoned in 1822 and the navigation laws were finally repealed in 1849 and 1854 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 4 23 2015 You may also be interested in Corn Law Voting Rights Act Compromise of 1850 Sherman Antitrust Act Missouri Compromise Civil Rights Act Nürnberg Laws Jim Crow law Quebec Act Townshend Acts Intolerable Acts Wagner Act Keep exploring Journey Around the World A Study of History Who What Where and When History Buff Quiz 11 Handsome Historical Figures 7 Nobel Prize Scandals What made you want to look up Navigation Acts To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Navigation Acts Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Navigation Acts APA style Navigation Acts 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Navigation Acts Harvard style Navigation Acts 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Navigation Acts Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Navigation Acts accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Navigation Acts While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters

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  • Civil Rights Act | United States [1964] | Britannica.com
    the test case Heart of Atlanta Motel v U S 1964 The act gave federal law enforcement agencies the power to prevent racial discrimination in employment voting and the use of public facilities Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 2 10 2015 You may also be interested in Voting Rights Act Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Vietnam War American civil rights movement Compromise of 1850 United States presidential election of 1964 Sherman Antitrust Act Missouri Compromise United States presidential election of 1960 Navigation Acts Jim Crow law Townshend Acts Keep exploring USA Facts All American History Quiz American History and Politics 9 Precursors to Science Fiction Spies Like Us 10 Famous Names in the Espionage Game What made you want to look up Civil Rights Act To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Civil Rights Act Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Civil Rights Act United States 1964 APA style Civil Rights Act 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Civil Rights Act United States 1964 Harvard style Civil Rights Act 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Civil Rights Act United States 1964 Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Civil Rights Act accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Civil Rights Act United States 1964 While every effort

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  • Nurnberg Laws | German history | Britannica.com
    Jews completely from the practice of medicine This racial definition meant that Jews were persecuted not for their religious beliefs and practices but for a so called racial identity transmitted irrevocably through the blood of their ancestors These laws resolved the question of definition and set a legal precedent The Nazis later imposed the Nürnberg Laws on territories they occupied The laws also provided a model for the treatment and eventual genocide of the Roma Gypsies Although the Nürnberg Laws divided the German nation into Germans and Jews neither the term Jew nor the phrase German or kindred blood was defined Because the laws contained criminal provisions for noncompliance the bureaucrats had the urgent task of spelling out what the words meant Two basic Jewish categories were established A full Jew was anyone with three Jewish grandparents That definition was fairly simple Defining part Jews Mischlinge mongrels was more difficult but they were eventually divided into two classes First degree Mischlinge were people who had two Jewish grandparents but did not practice Judaism and did not have a Jewish spouse Second degree Mischlinge were those who had only one Jewish grandparent The efforts to prove one s non Jewish ancestry generated a new cottage industry employing hordes of licensed family researchers offering their services to anxious Germans afraid of a skeleton in the family closet These efforts also involved the Health Ministry and church offices which had to provide birth and baptismal certificates Michael Berenbaum Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Buchenwald Dachau Bergen Belsen Sachsenhausen Neuengamme Ring Ravensbrück Black Hundreds Auschwitz Teutonic Order Bauhaus Free French Ultra Keep exploring Exploring French History European History History Buff Quiz 7 Bizarre Spa Treatments 10 Chicago Writers What made you want to look up N ü rnberg Laws To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Nurnberg Laws Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Nurnberg Laws APA style Nurnberg Laws 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Nurnberg Laws Harvard style Nurnberg Laws 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Nurnberg Laws Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Nurnberg Laws accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Nurnberg Laws While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters

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  • Townshend Acts | Great Britain [1767] | Britannica.com
    overt acts of hostility toward British enforcement agents especially in Boston Such colonial tumult coupled with the instability of frequently changing British ministries resulted in repeal on March 5 1770 the same day as the Boston Massacre of all revenue duties except that on tea lifting of the Quartering Act requirements and removal of troops from Boston which thus temporarily averted hostilities Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 5 1 2015 You may also be interested in Intolerable Acts Statute of Westminster Sugar Act Tea Act Declaratory Act Molasses Act Australian Colonies Government Act Iron Act Hat Act Charles de Gaulle Armand Jean du Plessis cardinal et duc de Richelieu DADT Keep exploring Early America Journey Around the World History Buff Quiz Britannica Brush ups 12 Greek Gods and Goddesses 10 Failed Doomsday Predictions What made you want to look up Townshend Acts To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Townshend Acts Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com event Townshend Acts APA style Townshend Acts 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com event Townshend Acts Harvard style Townshend Acts 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com event Townshend Acts Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Townshend Acts accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com event Townshend Acts While every effort has been

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