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  • Martin Luther King, Jr., Day | holiday | Britannica.com
    the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957 and led the 1963 March on Washington The most influential of African American civil rights leaders during the 1960s he was instrumental in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations facilities and employment and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 King was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964 He was assassinated on April 4 1968 Almost immediately after King s death there were calls for a national holiday in his honour Beginning in 1970 a number of states and cities made his birthday January 15 a holiday Although legislation for a federal holiday was introduced in Congress as early as 1968 there was sufficient opposition on racial and political grounds to block its passage In 1983 legislation making the third Monday in January a federal holiday finally was passed and the first observance nationwide was in 1986 The day is usually celebrated with marches and parades and with speeches by civil rights and political leaders Comments Share Email Print Cite You may also be interested in Independence Day Labor Day Father s Day Thanksgiving Day Flag Day Juneteenth Memorial Day Saint Patrick s Day Columbus Day Veterans Day Arbor Day Women s Equality Day Keep exploring World Religions Traditions Exploring France Fact or Fiction Where the Kookaburras Live Britannica Brush ups First Americans Brain Games 8 Philosophical Puzzles and Paradoxes What made you want to look up Martin Luther King Jr Day To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Martin Luther King Jr Day Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Martin Luther King Jr Day APA style Martin Luther King Jr Day 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Martin Luther King Jr Day Harvard style Martin Luther King Jr Day 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Martin Luther King Jr Day Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Martin Luther King Jr Day accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Martin Luther King Jr Day While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any

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  • Haiti earthquake of 2010 | Britannica.com
    months before had initially retreated to the countryside only to find little opportunity for employment Two years later though roughly half of the rubble littering Port au Prince had been cleared and some damaged residences had been made habitable more than half a million people remained in tents many of which had deteriorated significantly That number dropped to about 360 000 by the third anniversary The decrease was partly due to a Canadian sponsored program that provided grants to some of the nearly 30 000 residents of the most conspicuous camp located near the collapsed presidential palace on the Champs de Mars which allowed them to find rental housing or repair existing structures Although that area was cleared by July 2012 countrywide some 500 camps still remained at the end of the year By mid 2014 the number of camps had been more than halved though some 100 000 people remained without permanent housing Many who left the camps merely relocated to outgrowths of the existing slums surrounding Port au Prince Others crowded into undamaged homes owned by extended family members or friends or returned to damaged structures more than 200 000 of which were either marked for demolition or required major repairs Efforts to level the worst such buildings some of which precariously gripped the rims of ravines were hampered by irate residents who refused to leave The capital remained without power for significant stretches during a given day because of stalled work on the electricity grid In addition less than one third of the population was steadily employed Conditions were further exacerbated by damage to crops and settlements by tropical weather events notably Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 Haiti earthquake of 2010 cholera Ramon Espinosa AP In October 2010 cases of cholera began to surface around the Artibonite River The river the longest on the island and a major source of drinking water there had been contaminated with fecal matter carrying a South Asian strain of cholera bacteria Suspicion that Nepalese UN peacekeeping forces stationed near the river were the likely source of the outbreak was validated by the leak of a report by a French epidemiologist in December The report cited the absence of cholera in Haiti during the previous decade and the emergence of a parallel outbreak of cholera in Kathmandu the city from which the troops had departed Nepal The epidemic reached the tent cities of Port au Prince in November 2010 and by 2015 it had sickened some 730 000 people and proved fatal to more than 8 900 The country became home to about half the world s cases of the disease In November 2011 several organizations filed claims against the United Nations asking that it take responsibility for the outbreak install new water and waste management systems and compensate those who fell ill or lost relatives to cholera In December 2012 the UN while not acknowledging that its troops had been vectors of the disease announced that it would fund a program proposed by the governments of Haiti and the Dominican Republic to rid Hispaniola of cholera by instituting new sanitation and vaccination measures Critics noted however that the proposed financial scheme for the project hinged largely on previously promised monies not yet in hand The UN asserted in February 2013 that it would not receive compensation claims related to the outbreak citing its convention on privileges and immunities In October 2013 a U S based group the Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti filed a lawsuit in New York City against the UN seeking compensation on behalf of Haitians affected by the epidemic In 2014 the U S Department of Justice asserted that the UN was immune from prosecution The election to choose Préval s successor as president took place in November 2010 after a 10 month delay Voter turnout was low and allegations of electoral fraud were widespread A runoff election was held on March 20 2011 between the top two candidates popular musician Michel Martelly and Mirlande Manigat a legal scholar and the wife of a former president of Haiti Election observers noted fewer instances of fraud in the runoff and voter turnout was higher On April 21 it was announced that Martelly had won the election with some two thirds of the vote The political instability created by the quake resulted in the postponement of municipal and senatorial elections scheduled for 2011 and 2012 respectively Haiti s parliament was dissolved in January 2015 having lost its mandate to govern Humanitarian aid Haiti earthquake of 2010 Los Angeles County Fire Department Search and Rescue Team U S Navy photograph Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Justin Stumberg Humanitarian aid was promised by numerous organizations spearheaded by the United Nations and the International Red Cross and many countries in the region and around the world sent doctors relief workers and supplies in the wake of the disaster Former U S president Bill Clinton who had in May 2009 been named the UN special envoy to Haiti was assigned the task of coordinating the efforts of the disparate aid initiatives In the ensuing months Haitian Prime Minister Jean Max Bellerive expressed concern that foreign nongovernmental organizations NGOs which were numerous in Haiti even prior to the quake and which bore responsibility for diverse aspects of the recovery were not sufficiently accounting for the use of their resources making it challenging for the Haitian government to assess where its own resources could best be deployed The NGOs in turn were hindered by their own unwieldy bureaucratic structures and found interorganizational communication difficult The U S military though providing considerable initial support in the form of equipment logistics coordination and personnel had withdrawn all but a fraction of its forces by the second week of March leaving UN peacekeepers and Haitian police to maintain order Using a model that had proved successful in Europe after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 programs were initiated abroad whereby mobile phone users could make donations via

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  • Web sites: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    Office Vacant Previous How did the 2010 earthquake and subsequent health and economic crises affect Haiti s political situation Spotlight Martin Luther King Jr Day Next How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Martin Luther King Jr Article Web sites Bibliography Year in Review Additional Information Contributors American religious leader and civil rights activist Read View All Media 19 View History Feedback External Web sites African American Registry Biography of Martin Luther King Jr BlackPast org Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Encyclopedia of Alabama Biography of Martin Luther King Jr ExplorePahistory com Biography of Martin Luther King Jr History Learning Site Biography of Martin Luther King HistoryNet com Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Martin Luther King Jr and the Global Freedom Struggle Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr 4 April 1968 New Georgia Encyclopedia History and Archaeology Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Nobelprize org Biography of Martin Luther King Pennsylvania Center for the Book Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Public Broadcasting Service Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Social Studies for Kids Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Spartacus Educational Biography of Martin Luther King United States History Biography of Martin Luther King Jr University of Kentucky Martin Luther King Jr Center for Diversity Education Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Westminster Abbey Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Britannica Web sites Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students Martin Luther King Jr Children s Encyclopedia Ages 8 11 Martin Luther King Jr led the civil rights movement in the United States He used nonviolent or peaceful protest to try to get equal rights for African Americans He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 Martin Luther King Jr Student Encyclopedia Ages 11 and up 1929 68 Inspired

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  • Bibliography: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    s own writings remain useful starting points for scholars interested in his life and thought In addition to articles he published four major books Stride Toward Freedom The Montgomery Story 1958 Strength to Love 1963 Why We Can t Wait 1964 and Where Do We Go from Here Chaos or Community 1967 Clayborne Carson ed The Papers of Martin Luther King Jr 1992 is a multivolume collection that produced important new findings regarding King s family roots academic studies and religious development and his The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr 1998 is a compilation of King s autobiographical writings David J Garrow Bearing the Cross 1986 reissued 2004 is meticulously researched and Taylor Branch Parting the Waters 1988 Pillar of Fire 1998 and At Canaan s Edge 2006 a trilogy remains the most comprehensive of the scholarly works on King covering the years 1954 to 1968 Nonetheless subsequent writings have shed new light on various aspects of the sources and evolution of King s social and religious thought These include Lewis V Baldwin There Is a Balm in Gilead The Cultural Roots of Martin Luther King Jr 1991 Thomas F Jackson From Civil Rights to Human Rights Martin Luther King Jr and the Struggle for Economic Justice 2007 Mary King Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr 1999 Richard H King Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom 1992 Richard Lischer The Preacher King Martin Luther King Jr and the Word That Moved America 1995 Keith D Miller Voice of Deliverance The Language of Martin Luther King Jr and Its Sources 1992 Eric J Sundquist King s Dream 2009 and Richard Wayne Wills Sr Martin Luther King Jr and the Image of God 2009 Other works that focus on periods of King s life or particular protest movements in

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  • Year In Review: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    Halts Obama s Clean Power Plan SPOTLIGHT Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday BEHIND THE NEWS Haiti s President Martelly Steps Down Leaving Office Vacant Find out more about the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Which other individuals have made significant contributions to the American civil rights movement Next story Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Haiti s President Martelly Steps Down Leaving Office Vacant Previous How did the 2010 earthquake and subsequent health and economic crises affect Haiti s political situation Spotlight Martin Luther King Jr Day Next How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Martin Luther King Jr Article Web sites Bibliography Year in Review Additional Information Contributors American religious leader and civil rights activist Read View All Media 19 View History Feedback Year In Review Links notable anniversaries of 2014 in Notable Anniversaries of 2014 Year In Review 2014 notable anniversaries of 2013 in Notable Anniversaries of 2013 Year In Review 2013 theatre in Performing Arts Year In Review 2013 libraries in Libraries and Museums Year In Review 2006 Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing

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  • Additional Information: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    another name for cyanobacteria Spotlight Martin Luther King Jr Day Next How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Martin Luther King Jr Article Web sites Bibliography Year in Review Additional Information Contributors American religious leader and civil rights activist Read View All Media 19 View History Feedback Additional Information Quotes Brotherhood I want to be the white man s brother not his brother in law Martin Luther King Jr quoted in New York Journal American Brotherhood We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools Martin Luther King Jr speech 1964 Charity Philanthropy is commendable but it must not cause the philanthropist to overlook the circumstances of economic injustice which make philanthropy necessary Martin Luther King Jr Strength to Love Equality I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character I have a dream today Martin Luther King Jr speech at the March on Washington 1963 Equality I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal Martin Luther King Jr speech at the March on Washington 1963 Ideals and Idealism If a man hasn t discovered something he will die for he isn t fit to live Martin Luther King Jr speech 1963 Ignorance and Stupidity Nothing in all the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity Martin Luther King Jr Strength to Love Justice Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere Martin Luther King Jr Letter from Birmingham Jail This open letter was widely reprinted

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  • Contributors: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    Tiniest Eyeballs Previous What is another name for cyanobacteria Spotlight Martin Luther King Jr Day Next How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Martin Luther King Jr Article Web sites Bibliography Year in Review Additional Information Contributors American religious leader and civil rights activist Read View All Media 19 View History Feedback Contributors Primary Contributors Clayborne Carson Selected in 1985 by the late Mrs Coretta Scott King to edit and publish the papers of her late husband Stanford University historian Clayborne Carson has devoted most his professional life to the study of Martin Luther King Jr and the movements King inspired Under his direction the King Papers Project has produced six volumes of King s speeches sermons correspondence publications and unpublished writings Dr Carson has also edited numerous other books based on King s papers In 2005 the King Papers Project became part of the Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute at Stanford University with Dr Carson serving as the institute s founding director Contributions American civil rights movement Martin Luther King Jr David L Lewis David L Lewis is the Julius Silver University Professor and a professor of history at New York University

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  • David L. Lewis | Britannica.com
    leadership was fundamental to that movement s success in ending the legal segregation of African Americans in the South and other parts of the United States King rose to national prominence as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference which promoted nonviolent tactics such as the massive March on Washington 1963 to achieve civil rights He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 Early years King came from a comfortable middle class family steeped in the tradition of the Southern black ministry both his father and maternal grandfather were Baptist preachers His parents were college educated and King s father had succeeded his father in law as pastor of the prestigious Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta The family lived on Auburn Avenue otherwise known as Sweet Auburn the bustling black Wall Street Publications 3 W E B Du Bois A Biography 1868 1963 2009 By David Levering Lewis The two time Pulitzer Prize winning biography of W E B Du Bois from renowned scholar David Levering Lewis now in one condensed and updated volume William Edward Burghardt Du Bois the premier architect of the civil rights movement in America was a towering and controversial personality a fiercely proud individual blessed with the language of the poet and the impatience of the agitator Now David Levering Lewis has carved one volume out of his superlative two volume biography Read more King A Biography 2012 By David Levering Lewis Acclaimed by leading historians and critics when it appeared shortly after the death of Dr Martin Luther King Jr this foundational biography wends through the corridors in which King held court posing the right questions and providing a keen measure of the man whose career and mission enthrall scholars and general readers to this day Updated with a new preface and more

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/contributor/David-L-Lewis/1750 (2016-02-13)
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