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  • Martin Luther King, Jr. -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
    include all the black clergy of Birmingham and he was strongly opposed by some of the white clergy who had issued a statement urging African Americans not to support the demonstrations From the Birmingham jail King wrote a letter of great eloquence in which he spelled out his philosophy of nonviolence You may well ask Why direct action Why sit ins marches and so forth Isn t negotiation a better path You are quite right in calling for negotiation Indeed this is the very purpose of direct action Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue Martin Luther King Jr delivering his I Have a Dream speech during the March on Francis Miller Time Life Pictures Getty Images Martin Luther King Jr at the March on Washington 1963 AP Near the end of the Birmingham campaign in an effort to draw together the multiple forces for peaceful change and to dramatize to the country and to the world the importance of solving the U S racial problem King joined other civil rights leaders in organizing the historic March on Washington On August 28 1963 an interracial assembly of more than 200 000 gathered peaceably in the shadow of the Lincoln Memorial to demand equal justice for all citizens under the law Here the crowds were uplifted by the emotional strength and prophetic quality of King s famous I Have a Dream speech in which he emphasized his faith that all men someday would be brothers Pres Lyndon B Johnson signing the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr and others Lyndon B Johnson Library and Museum photograph Cecil Stoughton Martin Luther King Jr speaking at a press conference 1964 Library of Congress Washington D C Marion S Trikosko digital file ppmsc 01269 The rising tide of civil rights agitation produced as King had hoped a strong effect on national opinion and resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities as well as in employment That eventful year was climaxed by the award to King of the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in December I accept this award today with an abiding faith in America and an audacious faith in the future of mankind said King in his acceptance speech I refuse to accept the idea that the isness of man s present nature makes him morally incapable of reaching up for the eternal oughtness that forever confronts him Challenges of the final years Martin Luther King Jr delivering his How Long Not Long speech in Montgomery Bettmann Corbis Arm in arm Martin Luther King Jr and his wife Coretta Scott King in light coloured suit William Lovelace Express Hulton Archive Getty Images Selma March Encyclopædia Britannica Inc The first signs of opposition to King s tactics from within the civil rights movement surfaced during the March 1965 demonstrations in Selma Alabama which were aimed at dramatizing the need for a federal voting rights law that would provide legal support for the enfranchisement of African Americans in the South King organized an initial march from Selma to the state capitol building in Montgomery but did not lead it himself The marchers were turned back by state troopers with nightsticks and tear gas He was determined to lead a second march despite an injunction by a federal court and efforts from Washington to persuade him to cancel it Heading a procession of 1 500 marchers black and white he set out across Pettus Bridge outside Selma until the group came to a barricade of state troopers But instead of going on and forcing a confrontation he led his followers to kneel in prayer and then unexpectedly turned back This decision cost King the support of many young radicals who were already faulting him for being too cautious The suspicion of an arrangement with federal and local authorities vigorously but not entirely convincingly denied clung to the Selma affair The country was nevertheless aroused resulting in the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Throughout the nation impatience with the lack of greater substantive progress encouraged the growth of black militancy Especially in the slums of the large Northern cities King s religious philosophy of nonviolence was increasingly questioned The rioting in the Watts district of Los Angeles in August 1965 demonstrated the depth of unrest among urban African Americans In an effort to meet the challenge of the ghetto King and his forces initiated a drive against racial discrimination in Chicago at the beginning of the following year The chief target was to be segregation in housing After a spring and summer of rallies marches and demonstrations an agreement was signed between the city and a coalition of African Americans liberals and labour organizations calling for various measures to enforce the existing laws and regulations with respect to housing But this agreement was to have little effect the impression remained that King s Chicago campaign was nullified partly because of the opposition of that city s powerful mayor Richard J Daley and partly because of the unexpected complexities of Northern racism Martin Luther King Jr centre and Malcolm X right 1964 Library of Congress Washington D C digital file no 3d01847u In Illinois and Mississippi alike King was now being challenged and even publicly derided by young black power enthusiasts Whereas King stood for patience middle class respectability and a measured approach to social change the sharp tongued blue jean clad young urban radicals stood for confrontation and immediate change In the latter s eyes the suit wearing calm spoken civil rights leader was irresponsibly passive and old beyond his years King was in his 30s more a member of the other side of the generation gap than their revolutionary leader Malcolm X went so far as to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/print/article/318311 (2016-02-13)
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  • Martin Luther King, Jr. | Britannica.com
    the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King King Martin Luther Jr Martin Luther King Jr speaking at a press conference 1964 Martin Luther King Jr Martin Luther King Jr delivering his How Long Not Long speech in Montgomery Selma March Arm in arm Martin Luther King Jr and his wife Coretta Scott King in light coloured Selma March Selma March Malcolm X Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr Martin Luther King Jr centre and Malcolm X right 1964 Riot building in Washington D C destroyed Building in Washington D C destroyed during the riots that followed the assassination Lyndon Johnson Martin Luther King Jr Civil U S Pres Lyndon B Johnson turns to shake the hand of civil rights leader Martin Prinz Joachim civil rights leaders and government American civil rights leaders meeting with government officials at the White House Compton Dr Martin Luther King Jr Memorial Compton Calif Lorraine Motel Lorraine Motel Memphis Tennessee site of the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther March on Washington Martin Luther King Jr centre with other civil rights supporters at the March Martin Luther King Jr National Memorial Martin Luther King Jr National Memorial Washington D C Socrates King Martin

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/images-videos (2016-02-13)
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  • View History: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    Gloria Lotha May 15 2015 Media added Jeff Wallenfeldt Mar 02 2015 Add new Web site ExplorePahistory com Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Surabhi Sinha Oct 27 2014 Add new Web site HistoryNet com Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Surabhi Sinha Oct 27 2014 Add new Web site United States History Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Surabhi Sinha Oct 27 2014 Add new Web site Social Studies for Kids Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Grace Young Jun 05 2014 Add new Web site BlackPast org Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site African American Registry Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site Pennsylvania Center for the Book Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site Buzzle com Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site US history org Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site Westminster Abbey Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Yamini Chauhan Mar 21 2014 Add new Web site Stanford University Biography of King Jr Martin Luther Yamini Chauhan Mar 06 2013 Add new Web site Public Broadcasting Service Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Gloria Lotha Jan 18 2013 Add new Web site University of Kentucky Martin Luther King Jr Center for Diversity Education Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Gloria Lotha Jan 18 2013 Add new Web site Spartacus Educational Biography of Martin Luther King Gloria Lotha Jan 18 2013 Add new Web site America s Story from America s Library Biography of Martin Luther King Jr Gloria Lotha Jan 18 2013 Add new Web site History Learning Site Biography of Martin Luther

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/article-history (2016-02-13)
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  • Feedback: Martin Luther King, Jr. | Biography & Facts | Britannica.com
    Power Plan SPOTLIGHT Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday BEHIND THE NEWS Haiti s President Martelly Steps Down Leaving Office Vacant Find out more about the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Which other individuals have made significant contributions to the American civil rights movement Next story Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Haiti s President Martelly Steps Down Leaving Office Vacant Previous How did the 2010 earthquake and subsequent health and economic crises affect Haiti s political situation Spotlight Martin Luther King Jr Day Next How did Martin Luther King Jr Day become a national holiday Martin Luther King Jr Article Web sites Bibliography Year in Review Additional Information Contributors American religious leader and civil rights activist Read View All Media 19 View History Feedback Feedback Want to make a correction Do you have other ideas for improving this article Let us know We d also like to know what sources you ve found that support the changes you d like to see Your feedback has been submitted successfully There was a problem submitting your feedback Please try again later Britannica Stories Behind The

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  • King, Martin Luther, Jr. | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Martin Luther King Jr Julian Wasser MEDIA FOR Martin Luther King Jr Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To From Comment You have successfully emailed this Error when sending the

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  • Atlanta | Georgia, United States | Britannica.com
    the Blue Ridge Mountains just southeast of the Chattahoochee River Atlanta is Georgia s largest city and the principal trade and transportation centre of the southeastern United States It is the centre of an extensive metropolitan area that includes 20 counties and cities such as Decatur East Point and Marietta Pop 2000 416 474 Atlanta Sandy Springs Marietta Metro Area 4 247 981 2010 420 003 Atlanta Sandy Springs Marietta

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Atlanta-Georgia (2016-02-13)
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  • Georgia | history - geography - state, United States | Britannica.com
    1900 Georgia constituent state of the United States of America Ranking fourth among the U S states east of the Mississippi River in terms of total area though first in terms of land area and by many years the youngest of the 13 former English colonies Georgia was founded in 1732 at which time its boundaries were even larger including much of the present day states of Alabama and Mississippi Its landscape presents numerous contrasts with more soil types than any other state as it sweeps from the Appalachian Mountains in the north on the borders of Tennessee and North Carolina to the 100 of 7 206 words Quick Facts Images 1 Excluding military abroad 2 Original state date shown is that of ratification of Constitution 3 The azalea is the state wildflower no species was designated Capital Atlanta Population 1 2010 9 687 653 2014 est 10 097 343 Total area sq mi 59 425 Total area sq km 153 911 Governor Nathan Deal Republican State nickname Empire State of the South Peach State Date of admission Jan 2 1788 2 State motto Wisdom Justice and Moderation State bird brown thrasher State flower 3 Cherokee rose azalea State song

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Georgia-state (2016-02-13)
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  • Memphis | Tennessee, United States | Britannica.com
    Memphis is Tennessee s most populous city and is at the centre of the state s second largest metropolitan area Aside from West Memphis Arkansas Memphis s main suburbs include Arlington Bartlett Collierville Germantown Lakeland and Millington in Tennessee and Horn Lake Olive Branch and Southaven in Mississippi Area 295 square miles 764 square km Pop 2000 city 690 743 Memphis MSA 1 205 204 2010 city 646 889 Memphis

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Memphis-Tennessee (2016-02-13)
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