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  • Albany | Georgia, United States | Britannica.com
    Tift it was named for Albany New York and was early established as a leading cotton market In 1857 a railroad connected it with Macon Later six other rail lines converged on the point to make it a transportation hub The city served as a Confederate food and cotton supplier during the American Civil War Cotton growing declined in the Albany area after a serious boll 100 of 274 words

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Albany-Georgia (2016-02-13)
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  • Letter from Birmingham Jail | work by King | Britannica.com
    Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Letter from Birmingham Jail APA style Letter from Birmingham Jail 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Letter from Birmingham Jail Harvard style Letter from Birmingham Jail 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Letter from Birmingham Jail Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Letter from Birmingham Jail accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Letter from Birmingham Jail While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not allow links to external resources in editor Please click the Web sites link for this article to add citations for external Web sites Editing Tools Tips for Editing Leave Edit Mode Submit We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles You can make it easier for us to review and hopefully publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind Encyclopaedia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/Letter-from-Birmingham-Jail (2016-02-13)
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  • Birmingham | Alabama, United States | Britannica.com
    1915 and Southeastern Bible College 1935 as well as several community colleges The city s medical centre includes the medical and dental colleges of the University of Alabama and a number of specialized hospitals and clinics The Southern Research Institute founded in Birmingham in 1941 now has facilities in several other southern states Vulcan Statue of Vulcan Alabama Bureau of Tourism Travel The Birmingham Museum of Art houses the Samuel H Kress Collection Renaissance art Other attractions include the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum the Southern Museum of Flight and the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame The city has an opera company a symphony orchestra and theatre and ballet groups Annual events include the Festival of Arts in the spring and the Alabama State Fair in the fall Arlington Antebellum Home and Gardens c 1845 50 is a restored antebellum home that was used as the headquarters of the Union general James H Wilson toward the end of the American Civil War A cast iron statue of Vulcan the Roman god of fire stands 55 feet 17 metres tall atop a 124 foot 38 metre pedestal on Red Mountain overlooking the city Two state parks Oak Mountain and Rickwood Caverns are nearby civil rights movement Bill Hudson AP During the 1960s Birmingham was the scene of violence over racial segregation as well as civil rights demonstrations and voter registration drives led by the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr and others A change in the form of city government replacement of the commission form of government by a mayor council form in 1963 helped improve race relations in the civil rights struggle In 1979 Richard Arrington Jr became the city s first African American mayor In 1971 Birmingham became the first American city in which industrial plants were closed under federal law during an air pollution crisis In April 2011 Birmingham was struck by a powerful tornado part of the Super Outbreak of 2011 that caused widespread damage in parts of the city and in the surrounding area Inc 1871 Pop 2000 city 242 820 Birmingham Hoover MSA 1 052 238 2010 city 229 800 Birmingham Hoover MSA 1 128 047 Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 7 18 2014 You may also be interested in Alabama Huntsville Tuscaloosa United States New York Florida Virginia Missouri Georgia Ohio North Carolina Indiana Keep exploring USA Facts Capitals Cities Fact or Fiction Important Locations in U S History Editor Picks 8 Fruits on My Bucket List Nutritional Powerhouses 8 Foods That Pack a Nutritional Punch What made you want to look up Birmingham To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/place/Birmingham-Alabama (2016-02-13)
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  • police | law enforcement | Britannica.com
    their lives often become more difficult because they are shamed shunned or ostracized by the rest of the community and are less likely to receive assistance in times of trouble In all societies this system of informal rewards and punishments is the most potent aid to law enforcement but it is strongest in small communities The forces that order life in a small community thus make the task of the police much easier Police action is needed only when such informal controls have proved insufficient This is why rural and sparsely populated areas are often policed by a single centralized and often militarized police force even in countries that have a decentralized police system A single police organization operating under a unified command is more cost effective and more operationally efficient than a bevy of independent small town police forces Since the territory to cover may be very large and characterized by difficult terrain police in such regions must have the long range mobility and adaptability that are characteristic of military forces In addition the countryside has historically been policed by military organizations as police forces were initially created in urban settings The great exceptions to this model are the United Kingdom and the United States which have long resisted police centralization Policing large societies In larger and more complex societies informal institutions of social control are generally weaker and as a result formal institutions are generally stronger The relative weakness of informal controls is attributable to a number of factors In large societies people often deal with strangers whom they will never meet again and in such circumstances there may be fewer informal rewards for honesty or fewer informal penalties for dishonesty Such communities tend also to be more technologically advanced which leads to the adoption of new laws such as those regulating the licensing and operation of automobiles and those concerned with commerce conducted on the Internet see e commerce Because some of these new laws may not have the same moral significance as older laws criminalizing violence theft or fraud people may feel less of an obligation to obey them Moreover when new laws are created crime increases almost necessarily There is thus a danger that people who are convicted of having violated a new law may feel aggrieved and in the future be less willing to cooperate with the police or to obey the law when they are not being observed Finally as societies grow it becomes more difficult for people to place the public interest ahead of their private interests in circumstances where the two may conflict An employer who catches an employee committing an offense within the workplace for example may choose not to notify the police because he fears that the firm s production profit or prestige would suffer if the offense was publicly exposed Police and the state A country s political culture helps to determine whether its police forces are organized nationally or locally The desire for efficiency lends itself to

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/police (2016-02-13)
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  • “I Have A Dream”: King delivering his “I Have a Dream” speech in Washington, 1963 | Encyclopedia Britannica
    1963 Martin Luther King Jr delivering his I Have a Dream speech during the March on Washington Aug 28 1963 Francis Miller Time Life Pictures Getty Images MEDIA FOR Martin Luther King Jr Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/images-videos/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/110480 (2016-02-13)
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  • Lincoln Memorial | monument, Washington, District of Columbia, United States | Britannica.com
    the front steps The interior features a 19 foot 5 8 metre seated statue of Lincoln made of Georgia white marble It was assembled on the premises from 28 pieces and rests on a pedestal of Tennessee marble The statue was designed by Daniel Chester French and carved by the Piccirilli brothers of New York Inscribed on the south wall of the monument is Lincoln s Gettysburg Address on the north wall his Second Inaugural Address On the ceiling are two paintings by Jules Guerin Reunion and Progress and Emancipation of a Race On a direct east west axis with the Washington Monument and the United States Capitol the Lincoln Memorial serves as the terminus to the western end of the Mall It is situated on the Reflecting Pool near the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Korean War Veterans Memorial The Lincoln Memorial was an important symbol of the American civil rights movement Marian Anderson the famed African American contralto with the support of first lady Eleanor Roosevelt was granted permission by the Department of the Interior to perform at the Lincoln Memorial in 1939 after being denied the right to sing at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution In 1963 on the 100th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr delivered his famous I Have a Dream speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in front of more than 200 000 people B Philip Bigler Comments Share Email Print Cite Last Updated 4 29 2014 You may also be interested in Washington Monument Jefferson Memorial Vietnam Veterans Memorial White House Mount Rushmore National Memorial Martin Luther King Jr National Memorial Korean War Veterans Memorial National World War II Memorial Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Stonehenge Library of Congress United States Capitol Keep exploring Iconic Monuments Quiz World Tour Hit the Road Quiz 6 Exotic Diseases That Could Come to a Town Near You 12 Peculiar Phobias What made you want to look up Lincoln Memorial To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel Britannica Stories Behind The News Philosophy Religion Healing the Schism Pope Meets Patriarch Behind The News Science Gravitational Waves Observed Spotlight History Thomas Malthus s 250th Birthday See More Stories FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style Lincoln Memorial Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic Lincoln Memorial monument Washington DC APA style Lincoln Memorial 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic Lincoln Memorial monument Washington DC Harvard style Lincoln Memorial 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic Lincoln Memorial monument Washington DC Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v Lincoln Memorial accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic Lincoln Memorial monument Washington DC While every effort

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  • justice | social concept | Britannica.com
    Outlaws History of Warfare 9 Infamous Assassins and the World Leaders They Dispatched The Axial Age 5 Fast Facts What made you want to look up justice To From Subject Comments Please limit to 900 characters Cancel FEATURED QUIZZES Vocabulary Quiz True or False Spell It See More Quizzes MORE QUIZZES Titanic Quiz Writers of the Harlem Renaissance Shakespearean Plays Fact or Fiction See More Quizzes About Us About Our Ads Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Inc MLA style justice Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 2016 Web 12 Feb 2016 http www britannica com topic justice social concept APA style justice 2016 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved from http www britannica com topic justice social concept Harvard style justice 2016 Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved 12 February 2016 from http www britannica com topic justice social concept Chicago Manual of Style Encyclopædia Britannica Online s v justice accessed February 12 2016 http www britannica com topic justice social concept While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules there may be some discrepancies Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Update Link Click anywhere inside the article to add text or insert superscripts subscripts and special characters You can also highlight a section and use the tools in this bar to modify existing content Add links to related Britannica articles You can double click any word or highlight a word or phrase in the text below and then select an article from the search box Or simply highlight a word or phrase in the article then enter the article name or term you d like to link to in the search box below and select from the list of results Note we do not

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/topic/justice-social-concept (2016-02-13)
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  • Johnson, Lyndon B.: signing the Civil Rights Act | Encyclopedia Britannica
    Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr and others look on Washington D C July 2 1964 Lyndon B Johnson Library and Museum photograph Cecil Stoughton MEDIA FOR Martin Luther King Jr Citation MLA APA Harvard Chicago Email To

    Original URL path: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Martin-Luther-King-Jr/images-videos/Pres/139229 (2016-02-13)
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