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  • Many Morphologies: Introduction
    and pragmatic restrictions on derivational processes The papers by Susan Steele and Jacqueline Lecarme both address the problem of plural formation but from very different formal perspectives Again the syntax morphology dichotomy is at the heart of the difference in the two approaches Steele positions her study of number inflection in Luiseño in the tradition of Aronoff 1994 and Anderson 1992 who argue for a processual view of morphology Such a theory in Steele s words focuses on and attempts to account for the kinds of relationships that can exist between and among stems and words p 82 In this perspective stems and words involve a phonological part a semantic part and a syntactic part Each of the three parts involves a set of features and associated values Steele shows that an information based approach to morphological processes can adequately represent the relationship between the Luiseño plural morph um and various morphological operations By demonstrating the complexity of these relationships notably the fact that there is no simple map between the morph um and the feature pl she shows that a morpheme based approach is inadequate and cannot deal with complexity of this sort Steele solves the particular problem posed by Luiseño plural morphs quite neatly and provides support for the fundamental insight of processual approaches to morphology that morphology is a set of relationships rather than a set of morphemes Lecarme on the other hand claims that the properties of Somali plurals are consistent with a purely syntactic approach to word formation She examines the concept of gender polarity in Somali in the framework of Halle and Marantz s 1993 1994 Distributed Morphology The central thesis of this approach is that there is no separate component for lexical operations no need for a distinction between derivational and syntactic morphology instead all morphology is syntactic Syntax does not operate on words but on fully specified bundles of formal features Only at a later stage of the syntactic derivation of a linguistic expression are the bundles of formal features linked with the underspecified pieces of phonology stems affixes and words In order to sort out the puzzling problems posed by Somali gender polarity Lecarme first proposes a revised classification of Somali plurals She redefines the organizing principle behind the classification grouping the plural forms according to whether they correspond to a zero suffix a change in tonal pattern rather than in form to a suffix containing a consonant copied from the stem to a vocalic suffix or to what she terms complex suffixes This leads her to propose a new generalization which calls into question the notion of polarity the idea that if under certain conditions A become B B will become A under the same conditions Meinhof 1912 18 Secondly Lecarme proposes a solution to the problem that has far reaching consequences for the very concept of number in nouns namely that gender is a feature of the plural suffix itself rather than something inherited from the noun stem This obviously challenges traditional views on the boundary between derivational and inflectional morphology but is not without precedence in the generative framework For instance Ritter 1991 in her analysis of Hebrew plural morphology has claimed that gender is specified both on the noun stem and on the plural affix Carstens 1991 1993 has taken a similar approach in her analysis of Bantu nominal class morphology The Distributed Morphology framework allows Lecarme to come up with a tenable answer to some of the problems raised by these and other studies Luigi Burzio s paper addresses a series of questions that differ quite sharply from those discussed in the other papers in this volume He treats morphology in terms of its relations with phonology and the lexicon rather than with syntax Following earlier studies by Bybee 1985 1988 1995 Burzio proposes to reduce morphology to a set of surface to surface relations in the overall context of a system of violable parallel constraints within the Optimality Theory framework Burzio argues that word to word relations can be defined in terms of a theory of Gradient Attraction which states that the overall structure of a word is influenced by that of other similar words in the lexicon The fact that attraction does indeed operate between surface forms is especially clear when a particular derived form carries traces of the influence of other surface forms as in the case of remédiable which is derived from the base rémedy but whose stress pattern conforms to that of the derived word remédial Burzio s analysis of this type of problem suggests that the word formation rules WFRs which have been thought to provide the phonology with inputs since Aronoff 1976 are somewhat redundant WFRs build relations between words via their underlying representations but in this analysis the information supposedly provided by these WFRs can be recovered in the surface forms Along with eliminating WFRs Burzio forces us to rethink morphology to consider it as something other than a distinct module alongside phonology Concepts such as morpheme and allomorph emerge quite naturally from the new formal framework proposed by Burzio wherein weak differences tend to be neutralized Two representations that do not differ in meaning have no reason to differ in form unless there are some unusual circumstances Paradigmatic uniformity is therefore the rule On the other hand since representational entailments like all constraints can be violated allomorphs are always possible when required by the circumstances Burzio s paper stands apart from the other papers in the volume in that he argues that morphological rules emerge from a lexicon which even though it is constrained by universal constraints is full of idiosyncrasies whereas most morphologists try to derive the lexicon from a set of rules or principles This traditional opposition between rules and lists cuts across the article by Nabil Hathout Fiammetta Namer and Georgette Dal In this article the authors present the initial results of their research into the semi automatic generation of a constructional i e

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  • Many Morphologies: Cover
    from Floater Series 1 by Jill Pope see more of her work Copyright 1999 Jill Pope Return to Many Morphologies Home FAQ Shopping cart Order form 2010 Cascadilla Press P O Box 440355 Somerville MA 02144 USA 1 617 776

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  • Old Irish Verbs and Vocabulary: Preface
    knew it I was writing a book The list of conjugated verbs in this book is not to be taken as a concordance of the attested verb forms of Old Irish Many of the forms listed in the paradigms are not actually attested but in each complete paradigm given enough forms are attested that the others are easily deducible In cases where a complete paradigm cannot be reconstructed I have listed only the attested or reconstructable forms Normalized spellings of attested forms are given in roman type while reconstructed forms are given in italics The sample weak verbs are marbaid A I labraithir A I deponent leicid A II and foilsigidir A II deponent In the sample weak verbs the distinction between attested and reconstructed forms is not made The forms of the verbs are listed in the following order Present Indicative followed by the conjugation class according to Thurneysen s classification Imperfect Indicative Imperative in the case of transitive compound verbs the imperative with the neuter singular infixed pronoun is given in the left column Present Subjunctive followed by the name of the class a or s Past Subjunctive Future followed by the name of the class f reduplicated e or s Conditional Preterite active followed by the name of the class s t reduplicated a i or suffixless and Preterite passive In the case of verbs whose perfect tense is not formed by simply prefixing ro to the preterite the perfect is listed after the preterite In some verbs the present and past subjunctive are identical or nearly identical to either the present and imperfect indicative e g marbaid or the future and conditional e g do eirig In these cases the subjunctive has not been listed separately from the tenses it nearly coincides with Each verb is

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  • Old Irish Verbs and Vocabulary: Reviews
    eager to consult OI patterns and lists without getting bogged down in linguistic minutiae at the early stage As a medievalist and one familiar with Modern Irish I may add that readers coming to OI after recent Irish will find these contents also intriguing Review from the Journal of Indo European Studies 24 3 4 Fall Winter 1996 p 451 The tools for studying Old Irish are few therefore beside the traditional Old Irish Paradigms of Strachan and the recent textbook of W R Lehmann this repertory of all the conjugated verbal forms is bound to render outstanding services to the students Moreover since not everyone can afford to acquire the comprehensive Old Irish Dictionary published by the Irish Academy the compact lexicon pp 101 145 will be a major help in translating selected Old Irish texts The informative lists are lucid and extremely well presented the vocabulary though limited presents an adequate coverage for beginners Altogether this is a welcome supplement to the current handbooks of Old Irish Reprinted in its entirety with permission Concluding paragraph from the review by Fco Javier Martinez Garcia in Tempus 13 May 1996 pp 134 136 El libro de Green es una herramienta

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  • Old Irish Verbs and Vocabulary: Cover
    Green Return to Old Irish Verbs and Vocabulary Home FAQ Shopping cart Order form 2009 Cascadilla Press P O Box 440355 Somerville MA 02144 USA 1 617 776 2370 fax

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  • Research on Spanish in the United States: Cover
    States Linguistic Issues and Challenges edited by Ana Roca Return to Research on Spanish in the United States Home FAQ Shopping cart Order form 2009 Cascadilla Press P O Box 440355 Somerville MA 02144 USA 1 617 776 2370 fax

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  • The Sounds of Spanish: Contents
    Web resources Order form Contents The table of contents is in PDF Acrobat format If you need a free copy of Acrobat Reader go to adobe com Download the table of contents Home FAQ Shopping cart Order form 2009 Cascadilla

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  • The Sounds of Spanish: Preface to the Student
    studying other languages Among these useful resources are many native Spanish speakers Spanish language television channels and radio stations and the availability of Spanish language movies If you are a typical non native speaker of Spanish enrolled in a Spanish phonetics and phonology course you have already studied Spanish for two or more years In studying Spanish you have most likely noticed that there are some apparent similarities between the sound systems of English and Spanish and hopefully you have noticed that there are also many differences The purpose of this book is to present to you in a systematic and formal manner the information about the Spanish and English sound systems that you will need in order to improve your Spanish pronunciation to a near native level However this important information is only a first step to improving your Spanish pronunciation What is additionally required on your part is a strong desire and effort to achieve such a pronunciation improvement That is knowledge of the rules will not automatically improve your pronunciation You must work hard at applying your knowledge about how Spanish is correctly pronounced until these rules become an automatic part of your spoken Spanish Seek out native speakers and use Spanish with them as a communication tool Most importantly continuously compare your pronunci ation of Spanish to that of native Spanish speakers It is by means of this type of practice and comparison that you will be able to improve your Spanish pronunciation If you are a native speaker of Spanish you may be interested in improving your pronunciation of spoken American English While this is not the primary focus of this book there is ample information provided about the pronunciation of American English to help you achieve that goal However you will also have to

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